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Price $15.00 

Volume V of The Papers of William Alexander 
Graham is of particular significance because it con- 
tains the correspondence and speeches of the crucial 
years, 1857-1863. By 1857 Graham had already earned 
a reputation as a public leader of exceptional ability; 
and because he was a man not given to impulsive 
or prejudiced judgments, Graham's opinions and 
advice were sought by both North Carolina and 
national political leaders. Having served effectively 
as governor of North Carolina from 1845 to 1849 and 
as secretary of the navy under President Millard Fill- 
more, Graham was well known; his correspondents 
included many distinguished public figures. Written 
during the critical period before the Civil War and 
during the first two years of the conflict, the papers 
in this volume reveal much about the reluctance of 
Graham and many of his peers to accept the war as 

In addition to correspondence of great political 
import, Volume V contains many personal letters of 
the Graham family. Family ties were close, and the 
mutual respect and affection between the Graham 
sons and their parents is evident. With five sons 
serving in the Confederate army, Graham's informa- 
tion about the military operations of the Confederacy 
was both direct and extensive. William A. Graham 
had the unusual opportunity to be the confidant of 
both political and military leaders. 

The correspondence of these seven years sheds new 
light on the activities of political parties in North 
Carolina. Of particular interest to historians are the 
materials concerned with the Constitutional Union 
party, the North Carolina Secession Convention, 
problems of liberty within the Confederacy, and the 
peace movement in North Carolina. 

As a bonus to the politically important correspon- 
dence, this volume contains noteworthy letters con- 
cerning the building program at the University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill and fascinating letters 
dealing with the operation of the various Graham 

In editing the fifth volume of The Papers of 
William Alexander Graham, Dr. Max Ray Williams 
has admirably continued a project begun and outlined 
by the late J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, who edited 
the first four volumes of this series. After Dr. Hamil- 
ton's death in 1961, a uniquely qualified successor as 
editor of the Graham Papers was found in the person 
of Dr. Williams, whose particular interests are in 
nineteenth century political history, Jacksonian 
Democracy, the Civil War, and Reconstruction. Begin- 
ning with his doctoral thesis on "William A. Graham, 
North Carolina Whig Leader, 1804-1849," the current 
editor of the Graham series has continued to do 

Continued on back flap 

North Carolina State Lion 

N. C. 



General Joseph Graham (1759-1836), father of William A. Graham, became a hero 
of the American Revolution after joining the ranks of the <*«^"%££ 
enlisted man. Graham commanded the reserve troops assigned £**»* <*^ 
in 1780- these forces were credited with delaying the advance of Cornwall*. Graham 
Achieved his rank of major genera, in the War of 1812, thus being a veteran of two 
So miHury comlictsAn Lilian Ufe Genera, Graham made nouab.e -"<— 
as an astute entrepreneur in iron manufacturing ,n L.ncoln County as a public 
leader, and as" the author of va.uabie articles on the Revolution for Arch.b ad 
D. Murpheys history of North Carolina. Photograph from the files of the State 
Department of Archives and History. 

The Papers of 
William Alexander Graham 

Volume V 


Edited by 

Max R. Williams 


J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton 



Copyright, 1973, by the North Carolina Office of Archives and History 

Mrs. Grace J. Rohrer 



H. G. Jones 

State Historian and Administrator 





Chairman Emeritus 

Miss Gertrude Sprague Carraway Fletcher m. Green 


Edward W. phifer, jr. 



List of illustrations vii 

Foreword ix 

Chronological listing of the William Alexander Graham Papers, 

Letters written by William Alexander Graham xi 

Letters written to William Alexander Graham xi 

Speeches and other writings of 

William Alexander Graham xviii 

Miscellaneous documents and items . . xviii 

Miscellaneous letters and telegrams xx 

Symbols used in this volume to designate repositories of 

Graham Papers xxiii 

The Papers of William Alexander Graham 1 

Index 547 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 


General Joseph Graham Frontispiece 

Nathanael Greene Monument in Silhouette 63 

Portrait of William A. Graham 171 

A Map of the Battle of Bethel 264 

Brig. Gen. Richard Caswell Gatlin 280 

Five Graham Sons 283 

Robert D. Graham 283 

James A. Graham 283 

Joseph Graham 283 

William A. Graham, Jr 283 

John W. Graham 283 

Augustus Washington Graham 304 

Title Page of a Graham Speech 312 

A Map of the Operations near New Berne 365 

Scene from the Battle of New Berne 372 

Portrait of Susannah Sarah Washington Graham 408 

A Map Showing Operations in Southeastern Virginia 427 

Montrose 432 

Deserters in the North Carolina Mountains 442 


The first volume of The Papers of William Alexander Graham 
was published by the State Department of Archives and History in 
1957. Since that time three additional volumes have been issued, 
the fourth in 1961. These four were edited by the late J. G. de 
Roulhac Hamilton, who for many years was director of the 
Southern Historical Collection at the University of North Caro- 
lina. Dr. Hamilton had selected material and done preliminary 
editing for another three or four volumes. 

After Dr. Hamilton's death in November, 1961, consideration 
was given to the project and the way in which it could best be 
continued. Learning of the interest of Dr. Max R. Williams, the 
department approached him and suggested that he assume respon- 
sibility for the Graham Papers. Dr. Williams, who has his Ph.D. 
from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, wrote his 
dissertation on the subject "William A. Graham, North Carolina 
Whig Leader, 1804-1849." 

Because of his knowledge of the period and his familiarity with 
William A. Graham and his contemporaries, Dr. Williams agreed 
to accept the project and finish the editorial work. He has reviewed 
all material selected by Dr. Hamilton, has checked typed copies 
against original manuscripts, and has supplied needed documenta- 
tion. Professor Williams is chairman, Division of Social Sciences, 
Western Carolina University. 

Preliminary editing of the typescript was done by Mrs. Brenda 
S. Stott; Mrs. Mary Reynolds Peacock completed the job of seeing 
the volume through the press. Mrs. Peacock is an editorial assistant 
in the Division of Historical Publications, and Mrs. Stott worked 
with the division in a similar capacity prior to her move away 
from North Carolina. 

Memory F. Mitchell, Director 
February 1, 1973 Division of Historical Publications 




Letters Written By William Alexander Graham 



Written to 

















Earhart Plantation 


















January 23, 1858 
March 8, 1858 
August 17, 1858 
November 17, 1858 
January 27, 1858 
February 21, 1859 
March 3, 1859 
May 23, 1859 
February 27, 1860 
January 17, 1861 
February 5, 1861 
February 8, 1861 
March, 1861 
June 12, 1861 
June 20, 1861 
July 13, 1861 
September 24, 1861 
October 19, 1861 
October 28, 1861 
February 10 [1862] 
April 17, 1862 
April 24, 1862 
May 9, 1862 
November 16, 1862 
November 27, 1862 
December 22, 1862 
March 7, 1863 
March 16, 1863 
April 6, 1863 
August 21, 1863 
August 27, 1863 
September 21, 1863 
September 30, 1863 
October 11, 1863 
November 21, 1863 

David L. Swain 

James W. Bryan 

David L. Swain 

Nathan Sargent 

John Maclean 

New York Whig Committee 

William A. Graham, Jr. 

John H. Bryan 

John J. Crittenden 

Sandy Harris 

Alfred M. Waddell 

Isaac Newton 

David L. Swain 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Kemp P. Battle [with enclosure] 

Henry Toole Clark 

Susan Washington Graham 

Augustus W. Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Rufus Lenoir Patterson 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Zebulon B. Vance 

Zebulon B. Vance 

William L. Hogan 

Edward J. Hale 

Zebulon B. Vance 

Edward J. Hale 

Edward J. Hale 

Edward J. Hale 

Edward J. Hale 

General Alexander R. Lawton 

Letters Written to William Alexander Graham 

Place Date Written by 

York District, S.C. 
York District, S.C. 

February 9, 1857 
March 2, 1857 

John C. Burton 
John C. Burton 


Aheart Place [Earhart Place] 
York District, S.C. 
[York District, S.C.] 

York District, S.C. 

York District, S.C. 

York District, S.C. 


New Port, R.I. 

York District, S.C. 

Maysville, Kentucky 


Maysville, Kentucky 

New Brunswick [New Jersey] 

Gaston County 

University No. Ca. 

[Chapel Hill] 
Washington, D.C. 
Maysville, Kentucky 
York District, S.C. 
Chapel Hill 

Gaston City 
Chapel Hill 
[York District, S.C] 
Earhart Plantation 
Chapel Hill 
Washington City, D.C. 
Maysville, Kentucky 
York District, S.C. 
Davidson College 
Washington, D.C. 
Morgan ton 
Morgan ton 
Chapel Hill 
Savannah, Georgia 
Frankfurt, Kentucky 
Louisville, Kentucky 
Henderson Plantation 

Chapel Hill 
New York, N.Y. 

March 2, 1857 
April 2, 1857 
April 18, 1857 
April 21, 1857 

April 23, 1857 
June 2, 1857 
July 6, 1857 
July 9, 1857 
August 22, 1857 
September 9, 1857 
October 1, 1857 
October 6, 1857 
October 26, 1857 
November 17, 1857 
November 22, 1857 
November 24, 1857 

November 30, 1857 
December 10, 1857 
December 17, 1857 
January 2, 1858 
January 15, 1858 

January 18, 1858 
January 27, 1858 
January 27, 1858 
February 1, 1858 
February 2, 1858 
February 23, 1858 
February 28, 1858 
March 4, 1858 
April 5, 1858 
May 19, 1858 
June 3, 1858 
June 15, 1858 
August 13, 1858 
August 21, 1858 
October 18, 1858 
November 1, 1858 
November 5, 1858 
November 18, 1858 
January 1, 1859 
January 14, 1859 
January 21, 1859 

January 26, 1859 
February 2, 1859 
February 7, 1859 

William H. Womack 

John C. Burton 

John C. Burton 

The Charlotte Committee on the 

Mecklenburg Declaration of 


John C. Burton 

John C. Burton 

John C. Burton 

John D. Maclean 

Paul C. Cameron 

John C. Burton 

Robert H. Stanton 

William A. Wright 

R. H. Stanton 

James Alexander Hamilton 

John D. Maclean 

Hildreth H. Smith 

Ralph Randolph Gurley 

R. H. Stanton 

Joseph Graham 

A. M. Wallace 

David L. Swain 

[with enclosure] 

John D. Maclean 

David L. Swain 

A. M. Wallace 

Spaight M. Reel 

John W. Graham 

John A. Gilmer 

R. H.Stanton 

A. M. Wallace 

Drury Lacy 

William W. Morrison 

Tod R. Caldwell 

Tod R. Caldwell 

David L. Swain 

William W. Kirkland 

Will L. Scott 

C. S. Morehead 

S. S. Nicholas 

John W. Norwood 

Joseph Graham 

James Hastings 

James T. Morehead and 

Will L. Scott 

George Little 

David L. Swain 

David Webb and the New 

York Whig Committee 


Henderson Plantation 

Camden, Arkansas 



Princeton [New Jersey] 


Chapel Hill 




Maysville, Kentucky 

Henderson Plantation 

Chapel Hill 


Maysville, Kentucky 

Chapel Hill 

Chapel Hill 

Maysville, Kentucky 

Henderson Plantation 



Chapel Hill 

University of North Carolina 

[Chapel Hill] 
Maysville, Kentucky 
Washington [D.C.] 
Chapel Hill 
St. Louis [Missouri] 
Henderson Plantation 
House of Representatives 

[Washington, D.C.] 
Washington, D.C. 

Louisville [Kentucky] 
[Washington, D.C] 

Princeton [New Jersey] 
House of Representatives 

[Washington, D.C] 
Maysville, Kentucky 
Chapel Hill 
Camden [Arkansas] 
Chapel Hill 
Princeton [New Jersey] 

Washington [D.C] 


February 14, 1859 
March 1,1859 
April 10, 1859 
April 14, 1859 
April 18, [1859] 
April 19, 1859 
April 23, 1859 
May 8, 1859 
June 2, 1859 
June 9, 1859 
June 18, 1859 
June 20, 1859 
June 27, 1859 
June 30, 1859 
July 2, 1859 
July 13, 1859 
August 8, 1859 
August 15, 1859 
August 16, 1859 
September 7, 1859 
September 14, 1859 
September 15, 1859 
October 24, 1859 

November 9, 1859 
November 25, 1859 
December 2, 1859 
December 13, 1859 
December 20, 1859 
January 3, 1860 
January 4, 1860 

January 16, 1860 

January 26, 1860 
February 7, 1860 

February 18, 1860 
February 18, 1860 

February 20, 1860 
February 20, 1860 
February 21, I860 
February 28, 1860 
March 2, 1860 
March 9, 1860 
March 10, 1860 

March 16, 1860 

April 6, 1860 

James Hastings 

Joseph M. Graham 

Edward Everett 

Edward Everett 

William A. Graham, Jr. 

J. Smith Harris 

William Joseph Headen 

Leonidas Com p ton Edwards 

John A. Gilmer 

Joseph Graham 

R. H. Stanton 
James Hastings 
David L. Swain 
Joseph Graham 

R. H. Stanton 
David L. Swain 
David L. Swain 

R. H. Stanton 
James Hastings 

George Little 

George Little 

David L. Swain 

Charles Phillips 

A Philadelphia Committee 

R. H. Stanton 

Ralph Randolph Gurley 

David L. Swain 

J. G. McPheeters 

An Overseer [James Hastings] 

John A. Gilmer 

F. William Walker 
[with enclosure] 

Samuel Smith Nicholas 

George E. Badger 

[with enclosure] 

William A. Graham, Jr. 
John A. Gilmer 

R. H. Stanton 

Samuel Park Weir 

Alexander H. H. Stuart 

Joseph M. Graham 

Manuel Fetter 

Burgess S. Gaither 

William A. Graham, Jr. 

[with enclosure] 

Matthew F. Maury 

[with enclosure] 

Leonidas C Edwards 



Washington [D.C.] 


Cottage Home [Lincoln 

Maysville, Kentucky 
Chapel Hill 
Newbern [New Bern] 
Washington [D.C.] 
Chapel Hill 

Washington City [D.C.] 
Maysville, Kentucky 
Pensacola, Florida 
Chapel Hill 


Hills boro' 

Nashville [Tennessee] 


Chapel Hill 

York District, S.C. 


Springfield [Pennsylvania] 

Chapel Hill 

Smyrna, Delaware 

New York 




House of Representatives 

[Washington, D.C.] 
Washington City 

[Washington, D.C.] 
House of Commons [Raleigh] 




Senate Chamber [Raleigh] 

Senate Chamber [Raleigh] 

April 10, 1860 
April 12, 1860 

April 13, 1860 

April 16, 1860 
April 17, 1860 

April 27, 1860 
April 30, 1860 
May 2, I860 
May 2, I860 
May 2, I860 
May 5, 1860 
May 14, 1860 
May 16, 1860 
May 26, 1860 
June 27, 1860 
July 9, 1860 
July 12, I860 
July 25, 1860 
July 26, 1860 
August 6, 1860 

August 12, I860 
August 25 [1860] 
September 6, 1860 
September 25, 1860 
November 6, 1860 
November 10, 1860 
November 14, 1860 
November 15, 1860 
November 15, 1860 
November 17, 1860 
November 20, 1860 
November 20, 1860 
November 23, 1860 
November 23, 1860 
November 25, 1860 
December 5, 1860 

December 29, 1860 
January 2, 1861 
January 2, 1861 

January 7, 8, 9, 1861 

January 10, 1860 [1861] 
January 11 [1861] 
January 20, 1860 [1861] 
January 21, 1861 
January 24, 1861 

Joseph Graham 

Sion H. Rogers and 

Kemp P. Battle 

F. William Walker 

[with enclosure] 

Kemp P. Battle 

Robert Hall Morrison 

Alfred Moore Waddell 

R. H. Stanton 

Samuel F. Phillips 

William H. Oliver 

John J. Crittenden 

John M. Morehead 

Jones Watson 

Daniel H. Hill 

John A. Gilmer 

R. H. Stanton 

Joseph Graham 

Alexander C. Blount 

Joseph Graham 

Bartholomew F. Moore 

The Editors of the 

University Magazine 

Bartholomew F. Moore 

Charles Courteney Tew 

John Bell 

Hugh Waddell 

Edwin G. Reade 

Samuel F. Phillips 

A. M. Wallace 

Sandy Harris 

Isaac Newton 

Jones Watson 

H. C. Douglass 

John Church Hamilton 

Hugh B. Guthrie 

David W. Siler 

Thomas K. Thomas 

John A. Gilmer 

Henry W. Miller 

John D. Barry 

John A. Gilmer 

Edward Cantwell 

[with enclosure] 

Sandy Harris 

Joseph Graham 

Sandy Harris 

Alfred Dockery 

Alfred Dockery 



York District, S.C. 

Earhart Plantation 



Chapel Hill 



Springfield [Pennsylvania] 


Morgan ton 

Morgan ton 

Chapel Hill 

Chapel Hill 



Navy Department 

[Washington, D.C.] 
Snow Hill 
Danville, Illinois 
New Orleans, Louisiana 
Chapel Hill 


Troy, N.C. 




Fort Macon [Morehead City] 

Fort Macon 


Fairmount Foundry 

[Snow Camp] , N.C. 
Chapel Hill 

Fort Macon [Morehead City] 
Newbern [New Bern] 

January 24, 1861 
January 31, 1861 
February 1, 1861 
February 4, 1861 
February 6, 1861 
February 7, 1861 

February 8, 1861 
February 8, 1861 
February 8, 1861 
[February 10, 1861] 
February 11, 1861 
February 12, 1861 
February 16, 1861 
February 19, 1861 
February 20, 1860 [1 
February 21, 1861 
April 1,1861 

April 21, 1861 
April 22, 1861 
May 6, 1861 
May 7, 1861 
May 15, 1861 
May 16, 1861 
May 18, 1861 
May 18, 1861 
May 20, 1861 
May 21, 1861 
May 27, 1861 
June 4, 1861 
June 9 [1861] 
[June 13, 1861] 
June 14, 1861 
June 25 [1861] 
July 1,1861 
July 2, 1861 
July 8, 1861 
July 11,1861 
July 11,1861 

July 11,1861 
July 18, 1861 

July 25, 1861 
August 14, 1861 
August 30, 1861 
September 5, 1861 
September 17, 1861 
September 21, 1861 
September 22, 1861 

James Gordon and Company 

A. M. Wallace 

R. F. Christenbury 

James Gordon and Company 

Paul C. Cameron 

Sidney Smith, John W. Carr. 

and Jones Watson 

[with enclosure] 

Paul C. Cameron 

Pride Jones 

Isaac Newton 

Paul C. Cameron 

Tod R. Caldwell 

Burgess S. Gaither 

Sidney Smith 

Sidney Smith 

861] Richard C. Badger 

James Gordon and Company 

William W. Morrison 

William A. Graham, Jr. 

George Little 

William P- Grimsley 

D. Clapp 

J.J. McElrath 

Robert B. Gilliam 

David L. Swain 

Josiah Turner, Jr. 

Calvin H. Wiley 

Calvin H. Wiley 

W. E. Boudinot 

H. Parker 

Josiah Turner, Jr. 

Samuel F. Phillips 

J. H. Montgomery 

Kenneth Rayner 

John W. Graham 

Edwin G. Reade 

James A. Graham 

James A. Graham 

Kemp P. Battle 

[with enclosure] 

Kemp P. Batde 

Dixon, Albright, & Company 

Kemp P. Battle 

Jonathan Worth 

James A. Graham 

John W. Graham 

John L. Peyton 

John L. Peyton 

John W. Graham 

[with enclosure] 




Camp Washington, near 

Eden ton 
Mobile [Alabama] 
Chapel Hill 
South Lowell 


Panther Creek [North 

Newbern [New Bern] 
Chapel Hill 

Richmond, Virginia 

Golds boro 

Newbern [New Bern] 
Dallas, Texas 
Fort Lane, N.C. 

Rutherford ton 

Near Petersburg, Virginia 
Camp Jackson, Virginia 
Camp Jackson [Virginia] 
Richmond, Virginia 
York District, S.C. 

Camp Lee, Virginia 

Drewry's Bluff, Virginia 
Eahart [Earhart] Place 

Henderson Plantation 
Poplar Mount [near 

September 22, 1861 
September 28, 1861 
November 7, 11, 1861 

November 30, 1861 
December 4, 1861 
December 7, 1861 
December 8, 1861 
December 20, 1861 

January 1, 1861 [1862] 
January 18, 1862 

January 20, 1862 
January 20, 1862 
January 31, 1862 
February 4, 1862 

February 5, 1862 

February 10, 1862 
February 15, 1862 
February 16, 1862 
February 20, 1862 
February 24, 1862 
March 1,1862 
March 2, 1862 
March 17, 1862 
March 20, 1862 
March 20, 1862 
March 25, 1862 
March 30, 1862 
April 9, 1862 
April [1862] 
May 13, 1862 
May 21, 1862 
June 5, 1862 
June 21, 1862 
June 23, 1862 
June 26, 1862 
July 3, 1862 
July 16, 1862 
July 30, 1862 
August 2, 1862 
August 17 [1862] 
August 19, 1862 
August 26, 1862 
August 26, 1862 
August 28, 1862 
September 2, 1862 
September 15, 1862 
September 15, 1862 

Archibald H. Arrington 

John L. Peyton 

William A. Graham, Jr. 

Eliza W. Goldthwaite 

David L. Swain 

John W. Norwood 

John A. McMannen 

Augustus S. Merrimon 

[with enclosure] 

William W. Holden 

Nicholas L. Williams 

Thomas M. Crossan 

David L. Swain 

Charles Wilson and L. W. Hall 

Edwin G. Reade 

[with enclosure] 

Richard C. Puryear 

[with two enclosures] 

Richard C. Gatlin 

Richard H. Riddick 

Thomas M. Crossan 

Alexander H. Graham 

William Johnston 

Richard Sterling 

James A. Graham 

John W. Graham 

John W. Graham 

Jonathan Worth 

Rufus Lenoir Patterson 

George Washington Michal 

Daniel G. Fowle 

Josiah Turner, Jr. 

William W. Holden 

Thomas P. Devereux 

John A. Gilmer 

William Johnston 

Stephen D. Ramseur 

James A. Graham 

James A. Graham 

Elijah G. Faucett 

A. M. Wallace 

William T. Shipp 

Zebulon B. Vance 

James A. Graham 

David A. Barnes 

Joseph Graham 

Spaight M. Reel 

Bartholomew F. Moore 

Milton McGahey 

Weldon N. Edwards 



Poplar Mount [near 

Camden [Arkansas] 
Huntsville, Texas 
House of Reps. [Richmond] 
Greens borough 
Richmond [Virginia] 

Franklin Depot, Virginia 
Rutherford ton 
South Quay, Virginia 
Richmond, Virginia 

Oaks [Orange County] 
Richmond Hill 
Chapel Hill 
Oaks, Orange County 
Oaks [Orange County] 

Proctor's Creek [Virginia] 
Oaks, Orange County 
Near Charlotte 
Rockingham County 
Kins ton 

Coosawhatchie, S.C. 
Oaks [Orange County] 
Coosawhatchie, S.C. 

Chuckatuck, Virginia 

Oaks, Orange County 
Kins ton 

Oaks, Orange County 

Richmond, Virginia 
Camp near Richmond, 


September 17, 1862 
September 20, 1862 

September 24, 1862 
October 2, 1862 
October 4, 1862 
October 9, 1862 
October 11, 1862 
October 13, 1862 
November 8, 1862 
November 21, 1862 
December 4, 1862 
December 5, 1862 
December 7, 1862 
December 13, 1862 
December 16, 1862 
December 22, 1862 
December 25, 1862 
December 31, 1862 
January 8, 1863 
January 13, 1863 
January 21, 1863 
January 26, 1863 
January 27, 1863 
[January] 27,1862 [1863] 
January 28, 1863 
January 29, 1863 
February 7, 1863 
February 9, 1863 
February 11, 1863 
February 14, 1863 
March 5, 1863 
March 6, 1863 
March 17, 1863 
April 5, 1863 
April 6, 1863 
April 18, 1863 
April 19, 1863 
April 24, 1863 
April 24, 1863 
May 1,1863 
May 2, 1863 
May 5, 1863 
May 13, 1863 
May 25, 1863 
May 25, 1863 
June 3, 1863 
June 3, 1863 
June 9, 1863 

June 22, 1863 
July 3, 1863 

David A. Barnes 
Weldon N. Edwards 

Joseph Montrose Graham 

John C. Douglas 

A. H. Arrington 

John Alexander Mebane 

Robert B. Gilliam 

Evelyn M. Perkins 

L. H. Mewborn 

Robert D. Graham 

Edmund Bryan 

Edward J. Hale 

John W. Graham 

R. R. Heath 

James W. Osborne 

O. F. Long 

Samuel F. Phillips 

Jonathan Worth 

Richmond M. Pearson 

John W. Graham 

Samuel F. Phillips 

David L. Swain 

R.J. Graves 

William J. Bingham 

Thomas R. Roulhac 

William A. Graham, Jr. 

R. J. Graves 

John H. Gibbon 

William B. Slade 

John W. Graham 

Richard C. Gatlin 

Nathaniel Boyden 

Joseph Graham 

James A. Graham 

R. J. Graves 

John W. Graham 

James A. Graham 

Jonathan Worth 

William A. Graham, Jr. 

Jonathan Worth 

R. J. Graves 

Jonathan Worth 

John W. Graham 

Robert D. Graham 

R. J. Graves 

Alexander Wilson 

John W. Graham 

James A. Graham 

Ralph Gorrell 
Daniel G. Fowle 


Four miles from Richmond, 

Near Charlotte 
Greens bor ou gh 
Culpepper [sic] County 


Camp near Fredericksburg 

Camp near Orange C.H., 

Oaks [Orange County] 
Warren ton 


Charleston, South Carolina 

Tally Ho 

Healing Springs, Davidson 

Richmond, Virginia 
Marion County, Texas 
Columbia, South Carolina 

July 5, 1863 

July 5, 1863 
July 21, 1863 
July 30, 1863 

August 12, 1863 

August 19, 1863 

August 20, 1863 
August 28, 1863 
August 29, 1863 
August 29, 1863 
September 3, 1863 
September 3, 1863 
September 4, 1863 
September 16, 1863 

September 16, 1863 
September 19, 1863 
October 17, 1863 
October 19, 1863 
November 21, 1863 

November 28, 1863 
December 3, 1863 
December 30, 1863 

John W. Graham 

John H. Gibbon 

James T. Morehead 

Joseph Graham 

James A. Graham 

William R. Cox 

Robert D. Graham 

Samuel F. Phillips 

George Little 

John A. Gilmer 

Osmond F. Long 

Henry F. Bond 

John W. Graham 

E. J. Hale and Sons 

[with enclosure] 

E. J. Hale [enclosure] 

William W. Morrison 

George Lawrence Washington 

Dudley Nichols 

John W. Graham 

W. F. Alexander 

Joseph M. Graham 

J. B. E. Sloan 

Speeches and Other Writings of William Alexander Graham 
Item date 

Address to the Greene Monument Association January 20, 1859 

Extract from Graham's Salisbury Speech October 12, I860 

Notes for A Speech as A Candidate for the Secession Convention February, 1861 

Speech upon the Political Situation, Hillsboro' April 27, 1861 

Speech in the Convention of North Carolina, Dec. 7th, 1861, on 

the Ordinance concerning Test Oaths and Sedition December 7, 1861 

Speech in the Convention April 30, 1862 

Speech in the State Senate on the Graves Case January 22, 1863 

Miscellaneous Documents and Items 

items DATE 

Comments on Secession Sentiment in South Carolina August, 1857 


Burke County Court Order for Vote on Western 

North Carolina Railroad Subscription June 15, 1858 [enclosure] 

Appointment to the National Union Executive 

Central Committee January 16, 1860 [enclosure] 

Invitation from the New- York Historical Society to 

Attend a Celebration March 9, 1860 

Communication from the National Union Executive 

Central Committee April 13, 1860 [enclosure] 

Invitation from the Constitutional Union Party 

Committee to Attend Its National Meeting September 7, 1860 

Note of Regrets to the Knoxville Committee of the 

Constitutional Union Party .September 22, I860 

Note of Regrets to a Washington, N.C., Constitutional 

Union Party Committee October 15, 1860 

Winfield Scott's "Views" October 29, 1860 [enclosure] 

James Alexander Hamilton's Letter to the Electors of New 

York and Pennsylvania December 4, 1860 [enclosure] 

Resolutions of a Hillsborough Mass Meeting December 26, 1860 

Edward Cantwell's "A Plan of Adjustment through 

the Treaty-Making Power of the President's 

Senate" December 31, 1860 [enclosure] 

Proceedings of a Public Meeting in Chapel Hill, 

North Carolina February 6, 1861 [enclosure] 

Newspaper Report of a Union Meeting in 

Hillsborough February 20, 1861 

Invitation to a Reunion of Members of the 

Constitutional Union Party of Troy, New York February 22, 1861 

Miss Susan Graham's Quarterly School Report May 30, 1861 

Secession Convention Ordinance June 20, 1861 

Report of Commissioners Graham and Ruffin June 26, 1861 [with enclosure] 

Communication from Secretary of War L. P. Walker June 23, 1861 [enclosure] 

Convention Ordinance on Disposition of State Troops 

and Volunteers June 27, 1861 

David Schenck's Tribute to Graham at the 

Convention of 1861 

General Orders No. 15, Adjutant General's Office July 5, 1861 

Introduction of Kemp Battle to the President or 

Secretary of War of the Confederate States July 13, 1861 [enclosure] 

A Desirable System of Governmental Policy for the 
Confederate States (by Augustus Summerfield 

Merrimon) December 20, 1861 [enclosure] 

Plan to Restore Peace, by Edwin G. Reade February 4, 1862 [enclosure] 

List of North Carolina Regiments from the Adjutant 

General and Inspector General's Office February 4, 1862 [enclosure] 

Proceedings of a Wake County Meeting Promoting 

Graham for Governor May 4, 1862 

Graham's Public Letter Declining to be Considered 

for Governor May 9, 1862 

Open Letter of Thanks to Hillsboro Friends Sent to 
Dennis Heartt for Publication in the Hillsborough 

Recorder December 17, 1862 

Resolution in Relation to the Seizure and 

Transportation from the State of R. J. Graves, 


a Gitizen of Orange County December 20, 1862 

Newspaper Account of Graham's Speech on the Ten 

Regiment Bill January 29, 1863 

Resolution of the Personal Liberty Bill February 11, 1863 

Order Drafting Slaves April 2, 1863 

Form of a Peace Petition ca. August, 1863 

Endorsement on the Back of a Letter from 

W. A. Graham to Alexander R. Lawton November 21, 1863 

Miscellaneous Letters and Telegrams 

Dorothea L. Dix 

John J. Crittenden 
A. C. Evans 

A. Mathieu 

Winfield Scott 

[James] Alexander Hamilton 

L. P. Walker 

Daniel M. Barringer 
James A. Graham 

James A. Graham 

William W. Boyce 

John D. Graham 

Robert D. Graham 
Joseph Graham 

William A. Graham, Jr. 

John W. Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Zebulon B. Vance 


S. Carolina 
Washington, D.C. 
New York 

Paris, France 

Washington, D.C. 

New York 


Fort Macon 

[Morehead City] 
Fort Macon 

[Morehead City] 

Golds boro' 

Kins ton 

Camp near Kinston 

Camp Mangum 


Jan., 1859 

Feb., 1, 1860 
March 10, 1860 

Feb. 24, 1860 

Oct. 30, 1860 

Dec. 4, 1860 

June 25, 1861 

Sept. 16, 1861 
Nov. 20, 1861 

Dec. 17, 1861 

Feb. 4, 1861 

Feb. 26, 1862 

March 14, 1862 
April 15, 1862 

May 2, 1862 

June 16, 1862 

Sept. 9, 1862 
Oct. 11,1862 
Oct. 26, 1862 


Susan Washington 

George E. Badger 
William A. Graham, 

Jr. [enclosure] 
Matthew F. Maury 

John B. Floyd 

[with enclosure] 
John A. Gilmer 

[with enclosure] 
William A. Graham 

or Judge Thomas 

Ruffin [enclosure: 

John W. Graham 
Augustus W. Graham 

Susan Washington 

Richard C. Puryear 

Susan Washington 

Mrs. Joseph Graham 
Susan Washington 

Susan Washington 

Susan Washington 

George W. Graham 
Augustus W. Graham 
W. A. Graham 



Susan Washington Graham 
James A. Graham 

James A. Graham 
James A. Graham 
William A. Graham, Jr. 
Robert D. Graham 
Elizabeth Hill Graham 

Peter G. Hines 
Robert D. Graham 
John W. Graham 
James A. Graham 

Samuel F. Phillips 
W.A. Huske 


Nov. 16, 1862 
Nov. 24, 1862 

Camp near 


Bivouac near Jan. 16, 1863 

Coosa whatchie, S.C. March 8, 1863 

Proctor's Creek 


March 10, 1863 
May 28, 1863 
[June, 1863] 

Petersburg, Virginia June 3, 1863 

Ivor Station, June 6, 1863 

Petersburg, Virginia July 21, 1863 

Camp near Aug. 16, 1863 



[Raleigh] [Sept. 7, 1863] 

Raleigh Dec. 1, 1863 

George and Augustus 

Susan Washington 


Susan Washington 

Susan Washington 

Susan Washington 

Susan Washington 

Susan Washington 

Graham [with 

Mrs. Joseph Graham 

Susan Washington 

Susan Washington 

Susan Washington 


David L. Swain 
Edward J. Hale 




North Carolina State Department of Archives 
and History 











North Carolina State Department of Archives 
and History, John H. Bryan Manuscripts 

North Carolina State Department of Archives 
and History, Crittenden Manuscripts 

North Carolina State Department of Archives 
and History, Hale Manuscripts 

North Carolina State Department of Archives 
and History, Swain Manuscripts 

North Carolina State Department of Archives 
and History, Vance Manuscripts 

Duke Manuscript Department 

Duke Manuscript Department, Henry Clark 

Library of Congress, Lincoln Papers 

Southern Historical Collection of the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel 

Southern Historical Collection of the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, Lindsay Patterson Manuscripts 

Southern Historical Collection of the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, Swain Manuscripts. 



From John C. Burton 1 UNC 

York Destrict, S.C. 
February 9th., 1857 

I take the present as a favorable time to write you we are all in 
tolerable health have been looking for you Some time but have 
Not seen You Yet but hope that it will Not be long befour I see 
You as for the Cotten we are Not quite done it Yet we would 
have finished last week had Not the brush wheel of our Cotten Gin 
broke it will be Mended in a few days and with in four or five 
days from the time we get it Your Cotten will be ready for Markit 
the last account that I had it was worth 12^2 cts per pound we 
have 19 bags that is good and the balance some 12 or 14 that is on 
the Sorry order I think that You would do better to sell it to the 
Factory people than to sell it at Charlotte Gen Neel Says that he 
will always give You More for Your Sorry Cotten than You can get 
in Charlotte Your tax will be to pay some time in this Month 
and if You should Not come write something about it as for our 
New groun [d] we have a bout 13 Acors Cut down or will have in 
4 or 5 days that will be as much as we can get in this Year as for 
ditching we have done nothing at it yet the Weather has been so 
bad that I thought we would loose more than we would gain to try 
it we have a large quantity of Manure to hall out I will com- 
mence hailing this week I think that we will have 200 loads or 
their a bout we have done no plowing Yet and the ground is out 
of order at the present time the bottoms will be two wet a Month 
from the present time unless it is verry dry and windy our Wheat 
looks bad and all the wheat that I see looks bad 

1 John C. Burton was overseer on the old Leeper Plantation which William A. 
Graham inherited from his brother James Graham in 1851. The plantation 
consisted of approximately one thousand acres, eight hundred of which were 
located in South Carolina's York District and two hundred of which were 
located in Gaston County, North Carolina. Bordering on the Catawba River, the 
plantation produced corn, wheat, rye, and cotton. At the time of James Graham's 
death the slave population on this plantation consisted of thirteen adults and 
five children, all of whom William A. Graham inherited. This property is 
frequently called Graham's South Carolina or lower plantation. Will of James 
Graham, October 26, 1848, and an undated inventory of his estate, William A. 
Graham Papers, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina at 
Chapel Hill, hereinafter cited as Graham Papers, UNC. 

2 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Since I commence writing I see that I am mistakin in the 
quantity of ground that we have cut down it is Elevn in stid of 
thirteen and I think thats as Much as we can Manage this Year I 
have but one thing to brag on and thats the quantity of Manure 
that we have on hand I am anxious to see You a bout our Cotten 
Crop the New ground that we have on hand is Not fiten for 
Cotten this Year if it ever is it is Not the rite kind of land for 
Cotten as for the Corn Your price is two high but in places it is 
selling at Your price but Not in this Neighborhood I believe that 
60 or 65 is a bout the price hear and but few biers the wheat has 
Not been taken to General Neel the river has not been pasable in 
some time their is a bout fifty Bushels when the river can be 
forded I will take the wheat to General Neel I Saw him Not long 
since he says that he will take it at any time me and the Negrows 
are not Getting a long verry well and Never will while wh&ky is 
so plenty they have it and I cant tell how they get it You have a 
rough set of hands to deal with the Doctor 2 come down the other 
day and we give Jim a brushing Jack for his part will ruin every 
Young Negro that he has any thing to do with 

Yours with respect 

From John C. Burton UNC 

York Destrict, S.C. 
March Tnd., 1857. 

Yours of the 17 has been received as to my Not writing You 
the first of each Month its not half the time that I do write that it 
goes in a week or ten days after it is writen as for the Stable it is 

2 This reference is to John D. Maclean (1779-1870) of the Point section of south 
Gaston County, across the South Fork of the Catawba River. A physician and 
planter, Maclean, the son of Dr. William and Mary Davidson Maclean of Lincoln 
County, was Graham's first cousin. Although Graham had a resident overseer on 
each of his three western plantations in the 1850s, John D. Maclean apparently 
exercised a general supervisory authority in his absence. William L. Sherrill, 
Annals of Lincoln County, North Carolina; Containing Interesting and Authentic 
Facts of Lincoln County History Through the Years 1749 to 1937 (Charlotte: 
Observer Printing House, 1937), 59, 99-100, hereinafter cited as Sherrill, Annals 
of Lincoln County; Robert F. Cope and Manly Wade Wellman, The County of 
Gaston: Two Centuries of a North Carolina Region (Charlotte: Gaston County 
Historical Society, 1961), 59; Chalmers Gaston Davidson, Major fohn Davidson of 
"Rural Hill," Mecklenburg County, N.C: Pioneer, Industrialist, Planter (Charlotte: 
Lassiter Press, 1943), 72-73, hereinafter cited as Davidson, Major fohn Davidson. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 3 

Not done I cant get plank sawed to finish it Nor the house under 
two weeks I have a stable at the other end of the barn Your 
mules have had good Shelter all the winter and would have finished 
your Stable long ago if I could have go ten plank, the Sellar is 
Nothing done to it Your wagon and gear was all sent to the 
Achurt 3 place as You directed also Susan and Birt I would have 
writen You befour but for got it as for the fencing at the Glen 
place we have from the cros fence to the corner as You come 
home the balance done as for plowing I have the river field 
broke with two horse plows also the creek bottom on the South 
Side and will finish on the other in Two days I will finish Sowing 
oats in a day or two we have had two weeks of the Mildest weather 
that I ever saw for the time of Year but yesterday and last Night 
winter set in again Your Cotten load weight 3705 at 12.35 . . . 
Your corn 48 x /% bushels at 80 . . . 

in the last three weeks Corn has risen 20 cts on the bushel in 
Charlotte I understand that in Staitsville and in the lower part 
of South Carolina that it is worth one dollar as for ditching we 
have but little done I wrote You a bout Shoes You said Nothing 
A bout them I got three pair for those that are ditching and the 
balance will have to do with what they have untill You come or 
write as for Spinning we have filing for 75 or 80 Yards of Cloth 
Martha and Mary have Spun and wove some thirty Yards for their 
children Ann and Martha are Spining Yet I will put Joes Martha 
to weaving in a few days none of the Cotten is flten for warp I 
think it best to get bunch Cotten for it 

Martha has not been well Since She had her Child but is better 
than She has been Since she had her child I will keep her Spining 
untill the weather gets warmer Since I writen You befour our 
wheat Crop hase come out a great deal a bout two thirds of it 
looks well the other part of it has room to come Yet I cant get as 
much Cotten land as I want I will have to take some at the Glen 
place thats quite thin I writen you from Charlotte a bout Your 

the Cotten I have not finished Jining Yet the weather has been 
good and I am plowing all the time and when the ground is two 

3 Earhart Plantation in Lincoln County had been the home of James Graham 
prior to his death. Lying on Williams, Anderson, and Snyder creeks in east 
Lincoln County, the plantation consisted of approximately sixteen hundred acres. 
It was being worked by twelve adult slaves in 1851 when William A. Graham in- 
herited it. Will of James Graham, October 26, 1848, and an undated inventory 
of his estate, Graham Papers, UNC. 

4 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

wet to plow I will finish we are all well as comon except Jack and 

Yours truly 

From William H. Womack 4 UNC 

Aheart Place, N.C. 
March 2nd., 1857. 

Dear Sere 

I sent you 52 bu of Corn I reed 46 bags at the depot they Cost 
25 cts I want you to send othe they same bag to Chollte 5 bout the 
9 day of this Month I expet to take down About 90 bushel of 
Corn 11 of March I also sent you one can of Lard About 120 
pound grece there is About 30 Pound of Lard of the good you 
can send Me A can to put the lard in you Can send the bags in 
the Can you want to know how Much Corn I have slod About I 
haveny slod endey it I have slod About 65 bushel of oate I Doant 
know what I will Charge for theme it they promise to Pay what 
oate ar bringing in the County the Wheat look torubeely well 
the oats ar Coming up I sowd About 25 bushel I haveder ender 
Moore gound to sow you want to know About the corn Sheller 
I did Not find the Crank but Mr Siffbrd Made one that do berer 
well but the Corn sheller do not do verer well you want to know 
how Many Calva there ar 7 lambe we have 3 Calf sint you left 
her I loast one Couw the storck louk torbably will there is 
About 27 Pinge here the Colt look bad they have bind vereriy 
lousir & 2 of them have the Stinper bad I took the Cuter box to 
Chotter When I Went down the frist time I bourt it home Witch 
Me When I was down last it cost $2.50 Mr Sifford coud Not 
Make A tap for your buger beceus there was No vist to hole the 
tap in to Cut it I found one and put hit on I will take bouth 
Wagon witch Mee I will take About 90 bushel of corn I will 
be in Charlotte I will Put 50 bushel in sact at home and I hopt to 
find the 26 bags sent at the depot the 11 of this Month I am 

4 William H. Womack was, at this time, overseer of Graham's Earhart Plantation 
in Lincoln County. 

5 Charlotte. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 5 

beding up gound for Corn I have brok up some for Cotton the 
handes ar all well 

Resperfuley yours 

From John C. Burton UNC 

York District, S.C. 
April 2nd., 1857. 

I take the present as a favourable time to write You we have 
some five or Six Sick Children our Youngest was taken with 
throwing up and purging at the same time and the rest of the 
Children in the Same way Some of them are Better this Morning 
Ann is Confined and we have had Mrs Ratchford with us two 
days but Nothing done yet She is not Considered dangerous the 
balance are all well except Myself I hurt my Back one day this 
week so that I Can hardly go Dr MacLean was with us a Nite or 
so a go he fell off a house whare the hands war at work and got 
pretty badly hurt but he still goes a bout the Measels are verry 
bad in our part of the Country the are with in two Miles of us on 
both Sides Several in Charlotte have died with them I have 
Some ten or twelve Achors of Corn planted and will plant on this 
week out but it is as Cold allmost as winter we had fine weather 
in February but ever since allmost like winter a bout the time I 
writ You befour our wheat was killed by the frost untill it did 
Not look like that their was any on the ground but since that time 
it has come out a gain and looks well we are verry dry at this time 
had a lite shower last evning but None to do any good I am 
forwarder with the Crop this Year than I ever have been befour 
and the land put in better order it will take me a week or ten 
days to put the Cotten land in order for planting I will plant a 
bout half of our Crop of Corn and then gurt a while I have a 
great deal of ditching done and a great deal to do both hilside and 
spade I have hailed a bout 200 loads of Manure on the Cotten 
land and have a bout 50 More to hall I have three plows at the 
Glen place braking land 

I wrote You befour that I would Not get any Shoes untill You 
come or wote but the hands got so bair that I had to get Shoes for 
the Men I wrote You thinking You mite get for them as You 
Come out as for Clothing You had better Come befour You by I 

6 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

am having Stripe Cloth wove and when You Come we can tell 
better what You will have by Cotten in Charlotte I believe [it] 
is worth from 14 to 14 */2 Corn from 80 to 85 we have some 4 or 5 
bags of Cotten to pack yet Nothing More that I no of that You 
wished to no and am looking for You that I didnot no that it was 
nessess ayo to write You at this time 

Yours truly 

From John C. Burton UNC 

[York District, South Carolina] 
April 18th., 1857. 

I Send by Ben thirty Sacks of Corn a bout 60 bushels one Corn 
Sheler and Straw Criter You said Somthing a bout the lard but 
the load that he has is two heavy to take any thing More You will 
please get a bunch off twine to finish packing week after next we 
will be ready to hall off Your Cotten and if You are in a hurry for 
it we Can do it the last of Next week but the week after would Suit 
us best Jinx has come from the ditch Complaining with being 
Sick but I think that it is only foul Stomach 

Since You left one of our neighbors have died Robert Glen is 
the Name 

Yours with respect 

From the Charlotte Committee on the A&H 

Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence 

Charlotte, N.C. 
April 21st, 1857. 

Dear Sir: 

The Undersigned have been appointed a committee to request 
your consent to act as President of the Day at the approaching 
celebration of the 20th of May, 1775, in this town on the 20th 

Permit us to express the hope that it may be both agreeable and 
convenient for you to be present on that day, and to accept the 
position which none could fill more becomingly than yourself. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 

With great respect, 

J. M. Hutchison, 
S. P. Alexander, 
T. W. Dewey, 
L. S. Williams, 
W. A. Owens, 
P.S. We would be glad to hear from you as soon as convenient. 

From John C. Burton UNC 

York District, S.C. 
April 23rd. 1857. 

I hailed your Cotten to Mr. Stows to day 21 bags weighind 7665 
and will send the bill of it by Ben to Morrow and also this letter 
the bill calls for one thousand ninty six dollars and nine teen cents 
but I think that their is a Mistake in the bill I dont think it is that 
much we have winter with us Yet I commence planting Cotten 
to day but it feels cold for planting you Said Nothing a bout our 
Straw Cutter and Corn Sheller when they would be done I havent 
planted any Corn in a bout a week and the ground will be two wet 
for Some two or thre days Yet we have all of the Creek bottom to 
plant yet on both Sides of the Creek 

I am needing a bout one hundred dollars to pay back to Mr. 
Craig Moneye that I had borrowed from him and was to pay it at 
this time as for the hands Crop 

Simon bushels 












To be 






Mary A 




Evaline and Sara ann 


Jack and Ann 




Jim and Mary 


Robert Maclean 6 wagon is going to Charlotte Next week and if 
our Straw Cutter is [done] and Shell [er] is done I will get him 

6 Robert Maclean, a Gaston County planter and neighbor, was also Graham's 
first cousin. Davidson, Major John Davidson, 72-73. 

8 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

to bring them home also the hoes we will need befour long I No 
of Nothing More at present to write we are all well 

From John C. Burton UNC 

York District, S.C. 
June 2nd., 1857. 

I take the present as a favourable time to write You we have 
several Sick I have been Sick Myself for the last 8 or 10 days I am 
fearful that I am taking the fever our children quite sick Simon 
down with something like Newmonia he has been sick about one 
week Evaline quite Sick all last week the doctor did not say 
what was the Matter with her Jack come in Yesterday verry Sick 
and several others that have been in the house Some two or three 
days the Doctor was with us every day last week Evaline better 
Simon I cant see that he Mends Much if Any the Doctor think 
his case bad he has a bad cough and Spits up a great deal of blood 
but Says that he feels better as for the Crop it is the worst appear- 
ance that I ever saw the Cotten back ward and A bad Stand and 
dying every day and So Much rain that we Cant half work it Corn 
small and Yellow taking every thing to Geather I have Never 
seen Such a time befour we are Not Yet done planting Corn I 
have planted part of the [Corn] three times and their is Some 
three or four Achors that is so wet that I dont no when we will get 
it planted Some 5 or 6 Achors that we had in Cotten we will have 
to plant in Corn all of our Neighbors are planting their Cotten 
land in Corn More or less Some three weeks ago they had a hail 
Storm down a bout writes ferry and below their that distroyed 
every thing that was planted Cotten and Wheat and they are plow- 
ing all up and planting in Corn our wheat and oats looks well 
but that is all we have that looks like Making any thing we will 
be out of Bacon by the first of July the Lard was waisting and 
when I went to Charlotte I took it over and sold it at 13V2 Since 
I commence writing the Docter Come down he think Simon case 
doubtful Evaline he said that she had the fever she seems better 
but he think only for a short duration I have Nothing More of 
intrust only Old bill Seems as if he will go blind if our people 
seems to be sickly I will write you in the corse of 8 or 10 days again 

Yours truly 

The Papers of William A. Graham 9 

From John C. Burton UNC 

York Destrict, S.C. 
July 6th., 1857. 

we have Bowel Affection or Flux with us our Child has been 
Bad Jack Said that he had it but From his conduct I dont believe 
that he had Edmon has Somthing like Fever Lewis the Chils and 
Fever and we all or Nearly All have the worst kind of Colds we 
finished Cutting Wheat on the last day of June we have A bout 
1500 Dozen and it is all Fair wheat our Oats will be on the last of 
this week our Corn and Cotten is Going Tolerable well Consider- 
ing the Nites is so Cold we have one Meadowe cut and part of it 
put up the balance Will be haled when it cures I have laid by 
some Corn it is Small but has its due of work we Are Sufering A 
Great deal for the want of rain We have Cold Nites and dry 
winday days their has been A nother hail Storm A bout Masons 
Ferry which beet the Young Corn pretty bad we Had a little Hear 
but done no damage on last week 

Our Smoak house has been robed dug under it and Taken out 
Six peaces of meet and a bout twenty pounds Off lard I serched 
the houses found some Lard but No meet I found the lard in 
Jacks house Jack and I have had a falling out Jack said that he 
would kill me and Maid the attempt Tobe interferd him and 
Ann had a fite and I was going to whip Ann and commenced and 
Jack run up with his hands Full of rock and Swore that he would 
kill me and When I left the field he Started and was going to wai 
lai the road for me I was Not prepaired For him but am Now and 
if I get in reach Off him I will fix him so that any boddy can Take 
him he is run a way but I understand That he is at the Doctors I 
went to see the Dr This Morning but he was Not at home I told 
You Honestly and fair A bout Jack and You thought That 20 lashes 
and that over his close would answer The present Matter will 
have to be attended to At Once or You will be put to cost and Also 
loss I dont intend to be run over by Your Negroes Nor no one 
elses I have taken More from Your Negroes than I ever taken 
befour and More Than I ever will A gain and I told you a bout it 
and You Seem to treat it as a Small Matter And when they run 
away from me they go to the Docter and their they Stay in Sted of 
him Whiping them and sending them back to work They must 
stay and work for him and such as that will Spoil any Negro in the 
world If I dont treat Your hands write Just employ Some One 
else I am perfectly willing if its tomorrowe For they are the Most 

10 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

disagreeable hands that I ever had Any thing to do with and its 
Nothing else but their Being protected I will come to a close for 
I am out Off order to write the Meat is out and we have to kill 
fresh Meat to eat or do without 

Yours truly 

From John D. Maclean UNC 

Gaston, N. Carolina, 
July 9th., 1857. 

I am sorry to say to you there has been a difficulty with your 
negroes Sc John C. Burton. The difficulty was with Jack, Ann Sc 
Burton. I have understood that Burton told Jack he would go up 
to the Glenn place Sc whip Ann Sc return and whip him. Jack 
followed behind Sc I have understood prevented Burton from 
whipping Ann. Burton says Jack threatened his life, which Burton 
wrote to me on Saturday evening which was the day of the difficulty 
Sc also wrote to me that he had prepared himself for Jack, but would 
not say what he would do. Jack came to my House on Saturday 
evening about dark. I made him stay all night, wrote for Burton to 
come Sc see me on next day, he did not come. I have understood had 
men there with Guns to take him. I concluded it would be better 
for Jack not to go home untill Burton's passion would abate. I 
would have went down on next morning, but 7 or 8 of my family 
is down in flux, some of them is very bad. 

Jack was here on last night but not here now but I think I can 
get him at any time. I had him at work on yesterday Sc wrote to 
Burton he could get him by coming up for him, he has not come 
yet. Burton is too great a Coward to be amongst your Negroes he's 
ruining the characture of your Negroes by getting a Volunteer 
Company to come from [blotted and illegible] to assist in taking 
them. He has not come yet to see me. I thought it would be the 
best for Jack not to go Home untill he comes to see me or I could 
go down with him. 

Please write to me immediately Sc Instruct me what to do I have 
understood Burton says he will kill him if he stays there but only 
rumor. There is no doubt Jack has behaved badly. Some sickness 
among your Negroes but not serious. I think your farm is in good 

The Papers of William A. Graham 11 

order. Burton I think is dissatisfied about me keeping Jack but it 
is his own fault. I wrote to him immediately he was here but did 
not come. I have heard he was so badly scared he got Tobe to guard 
him home from the Glenn place, etc. 

Comments on Secession Sentiment in S. C. 7 UNC 

August, 1857 

The Charleston Mercury in an editorial of the 14th complains 
that a respectable gentleman of that vicinity had been rudely 
refused the liberty of landing at Fort Sumter, which he approached 
in a Boat with his children for the purpose of recreation and the 
enjoyment of the cool breeze, as has long been the habit of the 
people of James's Island. And a correspondent of the same paper 
considers the recent order to garrison this fortification an insult 
an outrage upon the people of South Carolina and calls for an 
immediate assemblige [sic] of the Legislature to take measures for 
the exclusion of these troops from the city etc., etc. 

All this we apprehend is designed merely for stage effect to 
induce the people of that state to believe that they are insulted and 
defied and to bolster up the tottering cause of secession. 

Upon inquiring we learn that Fort Sumter has been recently 
turned over by the Engineer department, in preservation of the 
system of Fortifications, as ready for occupation, and two com- 
panies have been ordered from Fort Johnston, N.C. to occupy it. A 
military operation which can excite neither surprise nor indigna- 
tion except among those who are determined, like the Mercury's 
correspondent, to hold "the Government" as "our deadly foe." 

As to the alleged rudeness in preventing the visit of a citizen, we 
apprehend there is some mistake or that all the circumstances are 
not stated. We are quite confident that neither the veteran officer 
in command of that Post nor the authorities under which [he] 
serves design to exlude visitors from the Fort, or to subject them to 
unreasonable restrictions. 

7 A rough draft of this statement, which Graham apparently intended as a letter 
to an unidentified newspaper, demonstrates his desire to allay secessionist sentiment 
at every opportunity. It suggests his state of mind, though it may never have been 

12 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Paul C. Cameron 8 UNC 

New Port, R.I., 

August 22nd., 1857. 

Not until last night did I receive yours of the 14., have called at 
the office and found nothing, will call again and again, and send 
your letters home. We very much regret that we shall not see your- 
self and Mrs. [Graham]. Well, we all feel very much like exiles, 
and, but for the hope of accomplishing something for our child, 
would soon be at home. 

We made a visit of two weeks at Cape May, (very superior to this 
as a bathing place) and I should have been willing to have made it 
a month, but my party would not consent to remain longer than 
Dr. Jackson, 9 and we returned with him to the city. At Philadel- 
phia we halted only one day. . . . 

Mrs. Cameron is not well, has been obliged to resort to old 
medicines, 'quinine & blue mass," has had two chills since we left 
home. Anne continues well, and Master Duncan may be regarded 
as the most improved member of the party, is especially taken with 
"the huge oxen," and the bright balls on the tips of the horns, and 
the "pony teams," driven by the hopeful sprouts of "the nobles here 
congregated, the rival millionaires of Boston" and New York. I 
hear of but one man from the South here, young Hampton of So. 

8 Paul Carrington Cameron (1808-1891), of Orange County, was the son of 
Duncan Cameron and a lifelong resident of Hillsborough. He was prepared by 
several academies, including Captain Partridge's School in Middletown, Connecticut, 
attended the University of North Carolina, and graduated from Washington College 
(now Trinity) in Hartford, Connecticut. Although he was trained in the law, he 
devoted himself to agricultural and business pursuits. In 1861 Cameron was the 
wealthiest man in North Carolina. He was an investor in railroads, banks, and 
textiles. Always interested in promoting education, Cameron was a trustee of the 
University of North Carolina for twenty-six years. Samuel A. Ashe, "Paul Carrington 
Cameron," in Samuel A. Ashe and others (eds.), Biographical History of North 
Carolina: From Colonial Times to the Present (Greensboro: Charles L. Van Noppen, 
8 volumes, 1905-1917), III, 48-56, hereinafter cited as Ashe, Biographical History; 
Daniel Lindsey Grant (ed.), Alumni History of the University of North Carolina 
(Chapel Hill: General Alumni Association, Second Edition, 1924), 939, hereinafter 
cited as Grant, Alumni History of the University. 

9 This is probably Dr. Samuel Jackson (1787-1872), of Philadelphia, who received 
his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, slowly gained recognition, particular- 
ly for his work with yellow fever and cholera epidemics, and taught medicine at his 
alma mater for twenty-eight years. John Rathbone Oliver, "Samuel Jackson," in 

The Papers of William A. Graham 13 

Ca. 10 I see no one that I know, and I can find no Southern papers. 
Mr. Van Buren is here, but no one sees him, and he is a political 
wreck that I have not the slightest curiosity to see, and care not 
how soon he sinks into oblivion. 

Wealth and art have made a bewitching exhibition of rural life 
in this neighborhood, but there is a sameness that tells one, that 
the "Cottage architecture" is the creation very much of one man, 
and the "grounds and gardens" indicate to me that one or two 
gardeners have the controul of all the improvements, and the pro- 
prietors have but little else to do with the improvements, beyond 
footing the bills. 

I am told that the Cottages change hands every season or two, or 
so soon as the marriageable daughters are disposed of, or a failure 
deprives them of the means of meeting the ostentatious engage- 
ments of summer life here. It is said that Mr. E. 11 will repeat here 
on Monday next his Eulogy on Washington, if so, we may hear it. 

From Ala., Miss., and Home I get very satisfactory reports as to 
health and crops, and I do hope that we shall rejoice once more in 
Orange in plenty. 

Allen Johnson, Dumas Malone, and others (eds.), Dictionary of American Biography 
(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 20 volumes, 1928; index and updating supple- 
ments), IX, 553, hereinafter cited as Dictionary of American Biography. 

10 Presumably this is Wade Hampton III (1818-1902), who was a member of the 
up-country South Carolina plantation aristocracy. He was a successful planter, 
a state legislator during the 1850s, a general of Confederate cavalry, a South Carolina 
governor, and a United States senator. After the Civil War he was the symbol in 
his state of the conservative political forces which succeeded in restoring white 
supremacy. J. Harold Easterby, "Wade Hampton," Dictionary of American Bio- 
graphy, VIII, 213-215. 

11 This reference is to Edward Everett (1794-1865), of Massachusetts, who was a 
teacher, statesman, and one of the foremost orators of his day. A graduate of 
Harvard College, Everett received his Ph.D. degree from Gottingen University in 
1817, thus becoming the first American to earn that degree. He taught at Harvard 
for many years and served that institution as president from 1846 to 1849. His 
public service included the following: United States House of Representatives, 
1825-1835; governor of Massachusetts, 1836-1840; United States ambassador to Great 
Britain, 1841-1845; secretary of state, 1852-1853; and United States senator, 1853-1854. 
In 1860 Everett, a moderate Whig in politics, was the unsuccessful vice-presidential 
candidate on the Constitutional Union ticket headed by John Bell of Tennessee. 
Henry G. Pearson, "Edward Everett," Dictionary of American Biography, VI, 223- 

14 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From John C. Burton UNC 

York District, S.C. 
Sept. 9th., 1857. 

I received Your Letter Yesterday and would have writen You 
befour This time but did not no whare to direct the letter. We are 
all on the Mend that have been Sick Ben Tom Frank and Marien 
are in the house Ben has Bad bowels but not the flux but is 
better Tom I think has Nothing but foul Stomache Frank hurt 
his eye verry Bad Cutting down a tree a chip flu and Struck him 
in the eye Marien a hard case any way I cant tell what is the 
Matter with her Cartey went to see his wife and has Not returned 
I expect that he is sick I have sent for him Sickness in the Neigh- 
borhood is a bating Some the Doctor was hear Last Nite he said 
that their was one family a bove hear that all of them died we 
received from Rock hill 1248 pounds of Bacon as for the wheat I 
have cleand 406 Bushels and think that we have a bout 100 to 
Clean I have sold 197 bushels at $1 16 cts per bushel 

I have Maid use of a bout $140 on My own account and Some- 
thing Like $50 on Yours and tomorrow will Spend Some More for 
to get Lime that receipt that You said You would Send respecting 
the preperation of the Lime to White wash the houses we are 
Needing that is if You intend to have the houses done in the way 
You Spoke of I will Start tomorrow with our wagon and the 
Doctor will send his as for the price of wheat I cant tell exactly 
what it is bout I should think a bout one dollar white might bring 
one five which I think is the top of the Market and will not be that 
Long as for the ground that I have broke and cleand up at the 
Glen place is a bout 25 Achors on the South Side adjoining the 
Cotten and Corn which taking the Cotten and Corn Land in all 
will Make a bout 45 Achors and then I want to brake 15 on the 
North side of the place the Corn Land as we have no manure for 
it I will soe as soon as I take the foder off and the Cotten Land also 
I think that I can plow in the Cotten and Not injure it as for the 
Old field I am wating on You to hear from the Guano I dis- 
remember whether You said You would get it or Not we have had 
no rain in a bout 2 weeks and the ground has become so hard that I 
quit plowing Last Monday and we are puling fodder and getting 
house logs I will raise the lumber house Next week when I come 
to examin the house at the Glen place that You spoke of it would 
Not do and I have got logs and will put up a large house it will be 
a great deal larger than our Smoak house as for the Corn we will 

The Papers of William A. Graham 15 

Make a fair Crop the Last drouth injured Corn verry Much with 
us as our Corn was late as for the Cotten I cant tell what we will 
make the wead looks well but is Not well bold if we have a lait 
fall and the rust dont ruin it we will Make somthing More than a 
half Crop I suppose that we will Make some 50 or 60 bags pro- 
vided that we have a lait fall to which I hope we will I am wanting 
to come to that part of the Country verry bad on business 

as for Jack he has been home Some 2 weeks he run a way on 
the 4 of July and returned on the 15 of August he has been 
punished pretty severe said that he Stold the Bacon and also the 
Corn that I told You a bout in the Spring and said that he traided 
it to Negroes but I dont believe he did I tried to come at the 
Negro but could get no proof he says that None of the other 
hands New any thing A bout it but I come what dout that also he 
is doing tolerable well now but it will not last long and he will 
ruin all Your Young hands we have cool dry weather and no 
appearance of rain one think I had forgotten to say I have sold 
Old Nell for $15 

Yours truly 

From Robert H. Stanton 12 UNC 

Maysville, Ky. 
Oct. 1, 1857 

Having just reached home from the South, where I have been 
for some weeks engaged in important professional business, it is 
only today that I have seen and read your letter of the 1st. inst., 
asking of me early information in regard to the readiness of the 
capital city Maysville to make payment of the interest now due 
upon her bonds, and the preparation she has made to meet that 
which falls due in January. 

12 Robert Henry Stanton (1812-1891), a native of Alexandria, Virginia, moved 
to Maysville, Kentucky, in 1835 where he was a journalist, lawyer, and politico. 
He was postmaster of Maysville, 1845-1849, Democratic congressman, 1849-1855, 
commonwealth attorney, 1857-1862, and circuit court judge, 1868-1874. His anti- 
Lincoln administration views and proslavery sympathies were so pronounced that 
he was arrested in October, 1861, and imprisoned for some time. He was a member 
of the National Union Convention which assembled in Philadelphia in 1866. 
Samuel M. Wilson, "Robert Henry Stanton," Dictionary of American Biography, 
VIII, 525-526. 

16 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

I regret to inform you that, except that of the July interest which 
has been sent Treasurer of the city to New York to be paid upon 
the coupons so far as it will go, there is no likelihood that either 
the balance of the July installment or that of January next will be 
paid. When the question of making a levy for the payment of these 
semi-annual installments of interest upon the Rail Road debt 
came up in the city council, it was strenuously opposed by a major- 
ity of the members, and there was serious reason to apprehend that 
the debt would be openly repudiated by the formal vote of the 
Council. To avoid so shameful a proceeding, a proposition to 
submit the question of levying the tax to the tax-paying citizens, 
to be determined by a public vote, was submitted and adopted. 
The Election was subsequently held and a majority of those who 
voted decided in favor of preserving the good faith and honor of 
the City by levying and promptly collecting the tax. The Council 
then passed the necessary ordinances, by a majority of one vote 
only, levying a sufficient tax to meet the two installments of inter- 
est for the present year, and providing some six or seven thousand 
dollars to be applied to the extinguishment of principal of the 
public debt. 

Thus the matter stood when I left home. During my absence, it 
appears, that upon an effort being made to reach some three or four 
hundred thousand dollars of personal Estate subject to taxation, 
(which had been wrongfully withheld from the Assessor), by 
organizing a board of Equalization, a motion was made and carried 
to repeal the ordinance authorizing the tax for the payment of the 
interest on the Rail Road debt. The tax therefore levied and now 
in process of collection, is simply for current Expenses of the 
City — and to pay interest and part of the principal of our local 
debt. No provision is made for Rail Road bonds. 

Of the ability of the City to meet promptly the interest upon the 
public debt of all kinds, and of the willingness of a majority of our 
citizens to do so, I have not the slightest doubt. Her whole debt is 
about $276,000. The interest upon this amount is $16,560. The 
current expenses of the city are $7,000. The value of her real and 
personal Estate assessed the present year for taxation, is $1,132,000. 
It is believed that the amount is far below the true value of the 
real and personal estate liable to taxation in the city, and that a 
fair assessment would swell it to about $1,800,000. a very large 
portion of personal estate being withheld by its owners from 
taxation. A recent act of the Legislature, adopted by the Council, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 17 

gives us the power to organize a Board of Equalization, through 
the agency of which hereafter, thus gross Error in listing personal 
Estate will be corrected. A similar Error in the assessment of the 
personal Estate in Cincinnati, was the present year corrected by a 
board of Equalization in that City, and more than a million and a 
half of dollars added to the aggregate of personal Estate. 

The City of Maysville has revenues derivable from its wharfage, 
rents, fines, turnpike stock etc., of $6,000 per year, or very nearly 
enough to pay it usual or ordinary expenses. One per cent upon 
$1,800,000 of taxable property with the other revenues of the City, 
would fully pay its expenses and the interest upon its whole debt; 
and two per cent upon that amount would enable us to extinguish 
each year $ 1 8,000. of the principal of the public debt. 

In addition however, to the public debt of this City, the 
property of Maysville is burdened with its proper share of the debt 
of the County of Mason. The County debt is now about $225,000. 
about one eighth of which is the proportion of the City of Mays- 
ville, and to pay the interest and principal of which, a tax is levied 
by the County exclusive of the City. The amount of this tax is 
about $1,700. for interest, and $1,130. for sinking fund to discharge 
the principal. 

The honor and good faith of our people are deeply involved in 
the action of our City Council, and I have labored earnestly to 
avoid the mortification and disgrace which it brings upon the City 
and the state. That the legal liability of the City is perfect, there 
cannot be a shadow of doubt, and that the courts of Justice will 
enforce it upon proper application is equally beyond question. I 
can only say to you in conclusion, that there seems at present to be 
no remedy for those who hold the protested coupons, but to seek 
their enforcement by mandamus from the courts. 

With the highest respect, I have the honor to be your friend, and 
obedient Servant. 

President-City Council, 
of Maysville. 

P.S. If you or some of the other bond holders will send me their 
protested coupons, I will bring suit against the City and compel 
the Council by mandamus to levy the tax, or seek to make the 
amount out of the city property. 

18 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From William A. Wright 1 * UNC 


October 6th., 1857. 

I am much disturbed by a matter which came to my knowledge 
an hour or two before I left home for this place, and I will be 
greatly obliged if you can help me. My daughter has spent the 
past Summer at the different Springs in Virginia, and my wife, by 
letter received from an elderly lady travelling with my daughter, 
is advised that a young gentleman, a Mr. Baylor, of or near to, 
Staunton, in the State, has been very marked in his attentions to 
our daughter, and that he will probably accompany her home; that 
the gentleman is a young lawyer of much promise, and much more 
which it is unnecessary I should trouble you with. We learn from 
other quarters confirmatory facts, and further, that our daughter 
seems disposed to favor this suitor. My object is, if possible, to 
learn every thing of Mr. B. which may aid me in deciding as to any 
application which he may make to me in reference to the premises, 
and I learn that Mr. A. H. H. Stuart, 14 who was Secretary of the 
Interior during Mr. Fillmore's administration resides in Staunton. 
I have no acquaintance with Mr. Stuart, and, presuming you have, 
I would be obliged if you will give me such a letter to him as will 
justify me in writing to him for information on a subject of so much 
importance to me. 

I have no acquaintances in the vicinity of Staunton, and no 
reliable means of acquiring the desired information, unless some 
friend can intervene for my relief. I fear, however, Mr. S. might be 
unwilling to talk as plainly to me, a stranger to him, as I would 
desire, and if you would write directly to him, and request him to 
communicate fully with you as to the character, social position, 
prospects of success in his profession, temper, and disposition, 
etc. of Mr. B., I would be greatly obliged. 

13 William A. Wright was an eminent member of the Wilmington bar. James 
Sprunt, Chronicles of the Cape Fear River, 1660-1916 (Raleigh: Edwards and 
Broughton Printing Company, 1914), 152, 187, 566, hereinafter cited as Sprunt, 
Cape Fear Chronicles. 

14 Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart (1807-1891), of Virginia, was a graduate of the 
University of Virginia, a Staunton lawyer, and a frequent officeholder. A Whig 
in politics, Stuart was a member of the House of Representatives (1841-1843) when 
Graham was in the United States Senate. Both men served in the Fillmore cabinet, 
Graham as secretary of the navy and Stuart as secretary of the interior. Thomas P. 
Abernethy, "Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart," Dictionary of American Biography, 
XVIII, 160-161. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 19 

Assure Mr. Stuart, whether he writes to you or myself, that his 
communication will be regarded as strictly confidential. 
Help me in the premises, and I shall be obliged indeed. 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Kentucky 
Oct. 26, 1857. 

Your favor reached me on Saturday and also one from the cashier 
of the Bank of the Republic, N. York, enclosing six coupon bonds 
for yourself, five for Mrs Eliza H. Knox, and one for Mrs Washing- 
ton, all for interest due on Maysville City Bonds, July 1st 1857. 

I have brought suit upon the coupons, and also have prepared, 
and will file this morning, a petition praying for a mandamus to 
compel the City Council to levy and collect the tax necessary to pay 
the interest for the present year. There are five out of the nine 
members of the Council who refuse to obey the law and levy the 
tax — a change of one vote would enable us to save the honor of 
our City. I am strongly in hopes that these proceedings will effect 
that change. 

If no unnecessary obstacle is thrown in the way of the petition for 
a mandamus, we can have a hearing of it in ten days, and the court 
upon a hearing, may, under our code, make it peremptory without 
any prelimenary rule to show cause etc. Nevertheless, it may be 
delayed. I will do all that can be done to expedite a hearing. 

From James Alexander Hamilton 15 UNC 

New Brunswick, [New Jersey] 
Nov. 17th, 1857. 

The monetary condition of our country, since I had the honor 
to be your compagnon on voyage, has undergone a sad reverse, the 

15 James Alexander Hamilton (1788-1878), a lawyer and politician, was the son of 
Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804). Initially a Tammany partisan and a supporter of 
Jackson and Van Buren, Hamilton was associated with the Whig and Republican 
parties after 1840. Joseph G. E. Hopkins and others (eds.), Concise Dictionary of 
American Biography (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964), 392, hereinafter 
cited as Concise Dictionary of American Biography. 

20 N.C. Department op Archives and History 

almost necessary consequence of the absence of the conservative 
powers of a strictly national government, through which alone, an 
intelligent and efficient currency can be created and sustained for 
the general purposes of the country. 

Within a few days I have seen in the National Intelligencer a 
short article, stating that the writer of the Mecklenburg Address had 
adopted, as his guide, the style of the Westminister Creed, which I 
have not examined, but which I intend to do for the purpose of 
ascertaining, through the evidence it may afford, whether the 
philosopher of the ancient dominion may not have resorted to the 
same source of inspiration. It will not be, of course, for the reli- 
gious test I shall look, but I may find the same denunciatory spirit, 
the same style of category and the same renunciatory conclusions, 
disproving all claim to special originality. 

The future of Mr. Buchanan's administration is yet to be under- 
stood, as in the antecedents of the chief, there are too many doubt- 
ful points to justify a positive conclusion, that his course will not 
show a direct tendency to seek popularity, at the expense of prin- 
ciple. In my judgment there is no reliable confidence in the manly 
purity of his conduct, and, from his want of moral firmness, in 
adhering to his professions, we may look forward for the exercise 
of the meanest trickery for the attainment of reelection. 

It is said that straws show the way the wind blows, so permit me 
to remark, that little incidents are true marks of human character, 
and thus I conclude that the President's appetite for adulation 
must be of the most morbid nature, when he could tollerate [sic] 
the small flattery, exhibited by the head of the Navy or Treasury 
Department, in giving to the last built Revenue Cutter, the name 
of his neice [sic] . 

This affair may not be worthy of comment; it has no other 
national importance, than as it presents a symbol, illustrative of 
the weakest vanity — and being already understood and played on, 
leads to the conclusion "that there may be something rotten in the 
state of Denmark." 

I think you will be much amused to find with what easy facility 
we can glide from Galen's crucible to the nauseate political fore- 
bodings of Pandora's Box, but as it may afford you a moment's 
amusement, in the ennui of Hillsborough, I shall anticipate to 
be forgiven. 

Remaining, with much esteem, 
Sc respect, my Dear Sir, 
Yours respectfully. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 21 

From John D. Maclean UNC 

Gaston County 

November 22, 1857. 

I went on to see Alexander Wallace 16 at the time appointed, but 
he had not made up his mind. He appointed . . . Friday or Saturday 
to come up and let me know, but has not come yet. I think you 
need not expect him. I would not agree for him to have stock 
brought there — Horses, Hoggs and Cows. 

When I first conversed with him, he appeared willing to come 
with out his stock. He made a great many excuses to me for not 
comming or agreeing to my proposition. I promised Too [sic] 
hundred dollars, some pork, Corn, and Wheat — a little more than 
you told me in order to get him. I do not think you can depend on 
him. If there is any one in your country, you had better get them. 

I know no one here at present that I think will suit you. Your 
Negroes have been a good deal sick with Simptons of Fever from 
bad Coalds. I have understood Burton is not going to stay with you 
next year. 

I would have written to you sooner but in order to get an anser 
from Wallace I have put off until now. Let me know your prospect 
about getting one soon. Burton does not know I have tried to get 

You have a gooddeal [sic] of Cotton in the field yet. Burton 
thought he would get it out this month. I have my doubts. 

From Hildreth H. Smith 17 UNC 

University No. Ca., 
Nov. 24th., 1857. 

I hope you will pardon me for asking your influence with the 
Trustees in my behalf. I believe the salary in my department more 

16 Alexander M. Wallace later replaced John C. Burton as overseer of Graham's 
South Carolina plantation. 

17 Hildreth Hosea Smith, a New Hampshire native born in 1820, was a professor 
and president of Catawba College at the time of his election in 1856 to the chair 
of modern languages at the University of North Carolina. After leaving the 
university in 1868, Smith organized the public schools of Shelbyville. Tennessee, 
and Houston, Texas. Subsequently, he was president of Sam Houston State Normal 
College, and later still, literary editor of the Atlanta Journal. He was married to 

22 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

than twenty years ago was the same as now, and that, when the 
other salaries were raised this chair was not filled, and hence the 
salary remained unchanged. 

In our University, the Professor of Modern Languages ought 
unquestionably to be well versed in the Ancient; nor can I believe 
you wish the former to rank lower than the latter. 

During the session I have given fourteen lessons each week in 
French, and two in German, which number is a third more than 
the regular lessons of any other professor. I have also taught a 
Spanish class, who, knowing the labor to be extra, offered extra 
pay, which I declined. They desire me to teach Italian next 
session, but I have more than enough to do with French and 
German, and greatly desire that my duties may be limited to these 
two languages, and my salary be placed on a footing of equality 
with at least the lowest of the other professors. 

My impression is that the Trustees must deem the chair I have 
the honor to fill, as no less important than that of the Ancient 
Languages, and that they will cheerfully remove or at least 
diminish the dispartity between our salaries. If I am wrong in 
this opinion, please let the matter drop, as I have named the 
subject to no one but yourself. 

From Ralph Randolph Gurley 18 UNC 

Office of the Colonization Society, 

Washington, D.C., 

Nov'r30th., 1857. 

In the name, and by request, of the Executive Committee of 
the American Colonization Society, I have the honor to invite you 

Mary B. Hoke, daughter of Michael Hoke who had opposed Graham in the guber- 
natorial election of 1844. Among their children was Governor Hoke Smith of Georgia. 
Kemp P. Battle, History of the University of North Carolina from Its Beginning to 
the Death of President Swain, 1789-1868, Volume I; Volume II, From 1868 to 1912 
(Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton, 2 volumes, 1907, 1912), I, 660, hereinafter cited as 
Battle, History of the University. 

18 Ralph Randolph Gurley (1797-1872), a native of Connecticut, graduated from 
Yale in 1822- In the same year he began his many years' service to the American 
Colonization Society. As secretary of the society he carried on a wide correspondence, 
planned and outfitted the expeditions of the colonists, and regulated the affairs 
of Liberia. He was the author of the "Plan for the Civil Government of Liberia." 
Gurley opposed abolitionism, loved the Union, and believed that colonization was 
the best hope for resolving the slavery problem. Dictionary of American Biography, 
VIII, 56-57. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 23 

to address the Annual Meeting of this Institution, on the third 
Tuesday (the 19th.) of January next, in this City. I need hardly 
remind you of the friendly interest cherished towards this Institu- 
tion by thousands of the best men in North Carolina, $c throughout 
the South, or of the very encouraging condition of the Republic, 
which, by the favor of Heaven, we have been enabled to plant on 
the African Coast. But we need a far more general and generous 
support from the whole Country. 

We shall be highly gratified, should you find it in your power 
to accept this invitation, 19 and favour us with your good counsels, 
at our approaching Annual Meeting. 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Ky. 
Dec. 10, 1857. 

Your letter and the three packages containing six $ 1 000 bonds of 
your own, five of Mrs Knox and one of Mrs Washington came 
safely to hand to-day, and will be used on the trial of the mandamus 
case. When we shall have gotton through with them, I will return 
them to you. 

It is manifest that we are to have a very fierce contest in this suit. 
The majority of the Council are preparing to make a hard fight of 
it, and are availing themselves of any legal point to force a decision 
against the validity of the bonds. This involves the whole debt. We 
have given the case a very thorough and careful investigation, and 
think that our court of appeals has settled in our favor every ques- 
tion they make in the defence. Whichever way our Circuit Court 
may decide, the case will go to the Court of Appeals. In either court 
we have no fears. 

The defendants have filed a long and formidable answer, and 
had the indelicacy to publish it, before a hearing in court, and I 
suppose for effect in the approaching municipal elections. I will 
send you a copy, from which you will learn the points made in 
defence. The main point, the want of the cooperation of the Mayor 
in the action of the Council, is settled by the law itself — the proviso 
excepting Maysville out of the general provisions of the section. 
The point relating to the authority of the City to issue the bonds 
for subscription made before the amended charter is settled in the 

19 Graham declined this invitation. 

24 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

case of Slack vs the Maysville & Lex Rail Road Co ... . Besides, in 
1854, after the bonds were issued, the legislature passed an act 
consolidating the various acts in relation to the subject, incorperat- 
ing Maysville into the Rail Road Company and declaring the 
subscription valid and the bonds obligatory and binding on the 
City. The other points are equally clear, and I do not think a 
single position they take is tenable. 

From Joseph Graham 20 UNC 

Dec. 17th/57. 

I learn we are to have a holiday of a few days about Christmas; 
and if you have no objection I would like to spend a day or two in 
Washington City. It would be very pleasant to visit it once more, 
and see the improvements that have taken place since I left. And 
I should like to see Congress in session, as I can now appreciate and 
understand their business better than when I saw them formerly. 
Please answer immediately that I may make my arrangements 
according to your decision. 

I have not found time to read the President's message yet but 
hope to do it tomorrow. I am much pleased with the profession I 
have chosen; and the more I study it, the more I become interested. 
The only fault I find with it is the expense. I think medical educa- 
tion costs too much. But we must make better use of the time on 
that account. ... I have a good deal of reading to do tonight and 
must stop. 

20 Joseph Graham (1837-1907) was the eldest child and the first of nine sons born 
to William A. and Susan Washington Graham. After graduation from the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina in 1857, he decided on a medical career. He studied briefly 
with the eminent Dr. Edmund Strudwick of Hillsborough before enrolling in 
Philadelphia's Jefferson Medical College, where he graduated in 1859. In 1860 he 
established his practice at Charlotte. When war came, Joseph Graham rushed to 
the Confederate colors, serving first as captain of artillery but after 1864, as a 
surgeon in the Sixty-seventh North Carolina Regiment. After the Civil War, he built 
a very successful Charlotte practice and was at one time president of the North 
Carolina Medical Society. Spencer Alumni Project; Walter Clark (ed.), Histories 
of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina in the Great War, 
1861-'65 (Raleigh and Goldsboro: State of North Carolina, 5 volumes, 1901), IV, 
642, hereinafter cited as Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 25 


From A. M. Wallace UNC 

York Disstrict [sic] 
January 2th., 1858. 

Agreabel to your request i send you these lines wee are all well 
onely Jack he has a very soar foot for some time But is geting Better 
he got it Mashed By let a pot fall on it the hands and mee gits long 
very well so far Wee have got 9 Akers of new ground choped of 
and part of the railes made wee have Jined 26 Bailes of your cotin, 
and I think you will have 6 to Jin wee will now Brake ing up All 
our steep ground in one days plowing more i am cleaning up a 
great many peaces of ground in the rice fields and cleaned the most 
of the diches and opened them out and has cut sum new ones and 
in tends cuting a great many more your stock all looks very well 
now are Makeing a great Deal of manure intend to clear all wee 
can wee will finish covern your wheat house this day wee would 
had it done long ago But could get no sheating plank to last week 
wee have hailed 20 stocks to the mill it Bee somtime Bee fore wee 
can get them sawed Mr. Burtin still remanes on your Glen place 
the Pork kild By Burtin was 2000 lb By mee since i came was 3064 
lb. I marked your crib when i came in poseshing of it so as you will 
no what wee youse their was 1 2 Bushell of Wheat whin I came her 
Mr Burtin has Been git ing his provishins since i came and keeping 
A count of all wee need som leather and Iron here Bad as sum of 
their shues neds mending i had sum leather of my own give to 
them mend But the need more and their is none near here I would 
it get it 

Anny thing you wish done Rite to mee and i will do it i itend 
to do all i can to im prove your place Excuse my Bad riteing as my 
pen and ink is Both Bad 

I am yors 

N.B. one of the Best hoges you had Died in the pen I havend 
takeing none of my rashins yet But the Meat 

26 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From David L. Swain 1 UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

Jan. 15th., 1858. 

I am giving a pretty wide circulation to copies of the annexed 
circular. I have no doubt a good deal of valuable historical infor- 
mation may be gleaned from the public records of Orange. Whom 
can you induce to search them for me? 

I have received a copy of Hawkes 2 I Vol. by mail, and after a 
hasty glance, am very favourably impressed. It is very neatly 
printed, and illustrated, and gives more evidence of painstaking 
research than his friends generally ventured to anticipate. I know 
of [no] introduction to the history of a single State, so preposessing 
and imposing. 

[Annexed document] 

Chapel Hill, 

January 12th., 1858 

Dear Sir: 

The General Assembly have resolved that the agent appointed 
to procure documentary evidence in relation to the history of 

1 David L. Swain (1801-1868), a native of Buncombe County, and Graham were 
close friends, shared a common interest in history and the university, and were 
political allies. Swain, after a brief stay at the University of North Carolina as a 
student, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1822. He experienced immediate 
success and was a superior court judge before he reached the age of thirty. He 
represented Buncombe County in the North Carolina House of Commons for 
several terms before becoming the youngest governor in North Carolina history. 
During his tenure as governor, he proved to be a constructive figure of the first 
rank. He championed the cause of tax revision, internal improvements, public 
education, and constitutional reform. After influencing the calling of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1835, Swain led the western factions which sought reform. 

In 1835 David L. Swain became president of the University of North Carolina. One 
disgruntled professor allegedly remarked that North Carolinians had elected Swain 
to every office in their power and were now sending him to the university to be 
educated. Fortunately, Swain proved to be a gifted teacher and skillful administrator, 
and under his leadership the university flourished. He was president until just prior 
to his death. Joseph Gregoire de Roulhac Hamilton, "David Lowrey Swain," Diction- 
ary of American Biography, XVIII, 230-231. 

2 Francis Lister Hawks (1798-1866) of New Bern was a graduate of the University 
of North Carolina. A lawyer in his early career, he was later an Episcopal clergyman, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 27 

North-Carolina, may, in case he shall deem it necessary to do so, 
examine the public archives and other sources of information of 
our sister States, as well as the mother country, in the accomplish- 
ment of the object designed in the creation of a Historical Agency. 

There is, no doubt, much interesting material for the construc- 
tion of our history, in the public and private depositories of records 
in England, which cannot be obtained in this country; many 
interesting papers in the archives of our sister States, not to be 
found elsewhere, and perhaps not less important information, if 
it can be gleaned, collected and arranged, within our own borders. 

It is my purpose to secure the possession, as nearly as may be 
practicable, of every species of documentary evidence essential to 
the true and full development of our history, which has been pre- 
served in our own, in our sister States, and in the mother country. 

To the accomplishment of this design, so far as relates to the 
necessary researches in North-Carolina, the earnest co-operation 
of one or more enlightened and patriotic citizens in every county 
is indispensable. May I not invoke your aid, with the assurance 
that it will be promptly and zealously rendered. 

I desire to obtain all the information within your reach which 
may serve to illustrate the history of the State, or your own county, 
viz: — Accounts of the various Indian tribes, which have, at any 
time, inhabited our territory, their wars among themselves, and 
their contests with the white people; — records of associations and 
accounts of other proceedings to resist the execution of the Stamp 
Act; — records of town, county, and district associations organized 
under the Articles of American Association, adopted in 1774; — of 
revolutionary Committees of Safety; — Journals of Provincial and 
Revolutionary Conventions, Congresses and Assemblies, either 
printed or in manuscript; — Court records, especially of trials for 
treason; — Parish and Church Registers; — records of births, deaths 
and marriages; — files and single numbers of ancient newspapers, 
pamphlets, books; — accounts of early settlements, discoveries and 
inventions; — accounts of battles, descriptions of battle-fields and 
fortifications; — epistolary correspondence, and in fine, every thing 
which, in your estimation, may possess historical value. 

Let me entreat you, moreover, in addition to the early collec- 
tions indicated in the foregoing paragraph, to prepare, or secure 

a professor of theology in the divinity school of Washington College (now Trinity) 
in Hartford, Connecticut, and a productive author. Among his works was a two- 
volume history of North Carolina. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "Francis Lister 
Hawks," Dictionary of American Biography, VIII, 416-417. 

28 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

the services of a competent person, to prepare a sketch of the 
history of your county. 

To attain uniformity in the series of county histories which I 
hope to obtain through the intervention of my friends throughout 
the State, perhaps a better plan cannot be suggested than to make 
Wheeler's Sketches of North-Carolina available to the purpose. 
Take his account of your county, and re-write it, correcting errors, 
supplying omissions, and enlarging or retrenching as you may 
deem best calculated to present your views of the past and the 
present, fully and fairly, to the consideration of the historian. 

I venture the hope that I shall receive such assistance from per- 
sonal friends, and patriotic and intelligent gentlemen, with whom 
I have not the advantage of personal acquaintance, as will enable 
me to place in the possession of the historian materials not less 
extensive and authentic than those at the command of any of our 
sister States. 

Do me the favor to reply to this communication with as little 
delay as practicable, 

And believe me, very sincerely and truly, 

Your friend and servant, 

From John D. Maclean UNC 

Gaston Cty, N. Carolina 
Jany 18th, 1858. 

I reeved your letter dated January 4th on the 12th Instant. 
Would have written to you sooner but for want of the mail. Waters 
are high. The post did not come. 

Mr. Alexander Wallace came to your Plantation on the first day 
of January himself and took charge of your hands. Mr. Burton 
remained there 10 days or too weeks after he came but at lenth 
moved to the Glenn place where he is now. 

Mr. Wallace killed your Hoggs the next week after he came. He 
says they were not fat enough. 3 or 4 of the sows was very heavy 
with Pig. He turned out one sow which would Pig in a few days. 
One of your best Hoggs died in the pen the night before he killed. 
He says what he killed and Burton killed made near six thousand 
lbs of pork. He is takan a memorandum of all of your tools from 
Burton. 4 axes is missing. I have to send to Johnstons Store and get 
axes. 3 pair of cotton cards he says not enough. Only 3 spinning 

The Papers of William A. Graham 29 

wheels he can find not enough for your women to make up of when 
the [y] cannot work out. 

He has examined the Farm and says you have not land enough 
open for your hands or to plant as much as you want. He has the 
hands clearing where Burton said you wanted. He says your 
ditchs are all in bad fix. He will have to open them and make some 
more and a good deal of clearing up to do in the inclosed land and 
a good deal of fences to repair. You wanted about 40 bushels of 
oats sowed. He thinks you cannot spare the ground to plant corn 
and cotton enough. Your side ditches are all in bad fix. He is gather- 
ing manure as much as he can. He says the new ground will not 
make cotton the first year and intends planting it in corn and put 
as much of the other in cotton as he can. He says there is not more 
than 8 bushels of wheat there. I directed him to take his pork and 
wheat which he was to get this year. 

He is ginning your cotton and thinks there will not be more than 
25 or 30 Baggs and says you wount have more corn than what will 
do you. He has marked the crib where the corn was when he came 
to your plantation for you to see when you came. 

Mr. Titman came on me for your money. I paid him one hun- 
dred dollars for you out of my own money. He insisted so much on 
it I paid that amount for you. In the settlement with Mr. Burton 
he said you promised to pay me in the spring for him. Be so good as 
to let me know if it is said. 

I handed Wallace over your memorandum of what you wanted 
done on your Plantation. He has separated your sows and Piggs 
and put them in the field below the Road where your smith shop is. 

Your Negroes all are well. We have a great deal of wet weather. 
Nothing can hardly be done. 

My family all well. 

To David L. Swain A&h-Swain 

Jan. 23rd., 1858. 

Your note in relation to College Buildings is received. For the 
last year or two Capt. Berry 3 has rarely been at his house in this 
vicinity two days together, and he is now absent. 

3 John Berry (1798-1870), of Hillsborough, was a skilled brickmason, builder, and 
architect. This self-educated man was unusually intelligent and was widely respected. 

30 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Communications addressed to him at Oxford, will reach him in 
good time. 

I readily agree to offer him the Chapel work, in either of the 
capacities you propose; and you may as well write him at once. 

At the same time have the calculations made, and advertise in 
the newspapers for sealed proposals for one or both of the other 
buildings, to be opened, say, 1st. Monday in April. 

The puerile article in the Fay'ville Observer on the election of 
Prof. Martin, 4 is a specimen of that croaking admission of inferi- 
ority to which, I fear, we are forever destined in N.C. 

From David L. Swain UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

January 27th., 1838 [1858]. 

Capt. Berry was here yesterday, and from him I learned that 
you are, at present, in Raleigh. If the College were fully organized, 
I would be strongly tempted to visit Raleigh on Saturday, in order 

He represented Orange County in the state senate (1848, 1850, 1852, 1864, 1866) 
and in the Secession Convention of 1861. A Democrat in politics, Berry joined 
Graham in opposing secession. Hugh Lefler and Paul Wager (eds), Orange County, 
1752-1952 (Chapel Hill: Orange Printshop, 1953), 324, hereinafter cited as Lefler 
and Wager, Orange County; John Gilchrist McCormick, Personnel of the Convention 
of 1861 (Chapel Hill: University Press [No. 1 of the James Sprunt Historical 
Monographs] , 1900), 19, hereinafter cited as McCormick, Convention Personnel. 

4 The Fayetteville Observer apparently expressed a popular view that North 
Carolinians should staff the state university. Its criticism of William Joseph Martin 
(1830-1896) was poorly placed since he became a useful and respected citizen. 
Martin, a Virginian of Irish parentage, was a graduate of the University of Virginia. 
In 1858, when he was elected to the University of North Carolina's chair of 
chemistry, Martin held the chair of natural sciences at Washington (now Washing- 
ton and Jefferson) College. Although he was devoutly religious, he became an 
energetic warrior and was a revered Confederate officer. Six times wounded in 
battle, Martin served with Lee, after Gettysburg, as colonel of the Eleventh North 
Carolina Regiment. He founded Columbia High School in Columbia, Tennessee, 
before accepting the chair of chemistry at Davidson College in 1870. Martin served 
Davidson as professor, acting president, and vice-president prior to his death in 
1896. His reputation as a challenging teacher and Christian scholar was widely 
known. Henry Lewis Smith, "William Joseph Martin," in the Charles L. Van 
Noppen Papers, Manuscript Department, Duke University Library, Durham, herein- 
after cited as Van Noppen Papers. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 31 

to have an interview with you and Judge Battle. 5 Prof. Martin is 
expected in a day or two, and if he comes, I will probably be able 
to go down on Saturday week, if I shall learn in the mean [time] 
that you will be there. 

Capt. Berry will be disposed to undertake the enlargement of 
the Chapel as superintendant [sic] , if he succeeds in contracting 
for the new edifaces, but not without Mr. Percival, 6 a letter from 
whom I send herewith, thinks that the enlargement of the Chapel 
can be as well done by contract as in any other way, & recommends 
the offering of all our work to the lowest [and most] 
responsible bidder. 

I suppose Mr. Percival is at present in Raleigh, and if so, I wish 
you and Judge Battle to have an interview with him, ascertain 
his views, and when he will be ready to report plans, etc. There 
has not been for several years, so favorable an opportunity to secure 
competent 8c responsible contractors on as good terms as at present, 
and I am anxious to have our work offered to bidders at the 
earliest day practicable. 

I am well satisfied that the scheme we have agreed upon is the 
best that can be devised. Mr. Kimberly thinks that by simply re- 
moving the lath 8c plaster partitions which divide the first floor 
under the Philanthropic Hall into dormitories, and throwing the 
whole space, 36 x 36 in the clear, &: opening a trap door into the 
basement, we can have one of the best arranged laboratories in the 
U. S. The Hall, itself, without any change, will make an admirable 
lecture room, and the library is exactly what is needed for a 
mineralogical Cabinet. 

5 William Horn Battle (1802-1879), a native of Edgecombe County, graduated 
from the University of North Carolina and read law with Judge Leonard 
Henderson. A Whig in politics, he devoted his talents to the law, serving as the 
state supreme court reporter, a superior court judge, and as an associate justice 
of the state supreme court, 1852-1868. He was professor of law at the University 
of North Carolina from 1845 to 1868. Twice he contributed to a revision of the 
statutes of North Carolina. After the Civil War, he was for a time president of the 
Raleigh National Bank. Hope S. Chamberlain, "William Horn Battle," Dictionary 
of American Biography , II, 58. 

6 Due to the influx of students to the university in the 1850s, it was necessary 
to add to the chapel and to construct additional buildings. A building committee 
composed of William A. Graham, David L. Swain, and William Horn Battle 
contracted William Percival, a retired British army officer, as architect. The firm 
of Percival and Grant, Architects and Civil Engineers, of Richmond, established 
a branch office in Raleigh to supervise the construction of New East and New 
West. Archibald Henderson, The Campus of the First State University (Chapel 
Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1949), 151-153, hereinafter cited as Hen- 
derson, Campus of the University. 


N.C. Department of Archives and History 

The dormitories under the Dialectic Hall may remain as they 
are. The Hall itself may be used as a Philosophical Chamber, or 
the President's Lecture Room, and the Library appropriated to 
the collections of the Historical Society of the University. 

Mr. Percival thinks, & the Faculty concur with him in opinion, 
that convenience, and appearances will be improved, by placing 
the new edifaces in a parallel range with the Library and the 
Chapel, instead of ranging with the East and West, thus, - 


S. B. 


E. B. 


W. B. 






Yours very sincerely, 

From A. M. Wallace 


[York District, South Carolina] 
January 27th., 1858. 

I received your leter yeastedday stating that you wished to no 
the petickulars about the stolen Hog I will state to you all I no 
abot it when misen I went and got Dr. Meclain and wee token 
them all up and noune of them could give a strate tail about it 
Jim said Jack came to him the night the Hog was stolen said to Jim 

The Papers of William A. Graham 33 

if he would go and help do a small Job that nigt that the[y] could 
get as much money and Whiskey as do them throgh chisamus Jack 
told Freeman that Beaty uman what has a Still 1 mile from heer 
owed him five galens of Whiskey and he would let him have 2 
gllens of it that was the next night after the hog was taken all so 
he promised Caroline one half galen of it ther is no doupt in my 
mind But Jack took the hog and sold it to this man Beaty and i 
would caut them Both But Jack must a found out about it as took 
my gun and watched the rode and house for one week Jack has 
had no whiskey since But this whiskey will come in when he thinks 
I have quit watch him thur is a negro By the name of ver Jin 
Boyd runaway and was sen heer the nigt after the hog was stolen he 
may have had a hand in it Dr Mcclain said for to keep it still and 
watch a while and see if couldnt ketch the white man all so he 
said it was Best to let it alone untill you come wee have put up 
fifty Bags of cottin wee have 6 or 7 Bags to Jin yet or more the 
hands is all got Better But ann she was take ing Down 2 dayes 
ago same way as the urthes tha take it wit a cold chill shee is Bad 
of yet Tobe got the end cut of one of his fingers yeasdedy in 
Jin corne is worth 60 cents in charlott Sc these wee man neads 
cloth for shimeys and I shant go to charloot to you rite to mee a 
gain to and if it sutites you i will take a few Bushell of corn a long 
and get the cloth & 3 axes and a hundred wait of iron as wee need 
these things this day is very wet 

Yours etc 

From Spaight M. Reel 1 UNC 

Eahart [Earhart] plantation, 

February 1st., 1858. 

Sir I hav bin expecting to hear from you for sevral days I though 
it proper to rit to you to let you no how we war geting a long I hav 
clerd a bought 10 Acre of groung I think I hav bin cuting som 
drean diches in the lower part of the plantation the Sunken 
medou etc and hav bin plowing sum I hav taking but the one 
load of wheat to Charlott I coud not get but 95 cents a bushel 
[for] it I deposit 50 Dollars in the Stat bank of NC to you credit 

Reel replaced William H. Womack as overseer of Graham's Earhart Plantation. 

34 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

and told Mr Dowy to send you a certifict to Hillsbouro as you 
directed me to do I killed the balance of our fating hogs the[y] 
onley waid 1742 lbs I put them in a close pen but tha did not Do 
enney beter then when out One did with quinsy one gut down 
wit kitney worms in day or too after [you] left and is don yet 

the balance of the Worke is in as good order as coud be expected 
cous Sc Mules Hogs etc 

The Moody paster Wheat looks well 8c the my wheat that I soad 
loks well the last soing of Mr Wamacks is very thin on the ground 
and dos not lok so well The too steers is in very good order I 
dont think it nessary to feed them march longer be four shoud be 

I sent the girl Jane to the lower place the 10 day of last monthe. 
the Wingate negro reported him self here newyersday and I give 
order for not to bring one dropt licer a but the plantation if he 
did I lash him 

nothing mour at present Yours etc 

From John W. Graham 8 UNC 

Chapel Hill, 
Feb. 2d, 1858. 

As I am at leisure this evening, I thought I would let you know 
how I am getting along in my new occupation. 

I find the Freshmen easy to manage, the class being a very 
orderly one, though not remarkable in point of talent. Allen 9 from 

8 John Washington Graham (1838-1936), the second of ten children born to 
William A. and Susan Washington Graham, was an 1857 graduate of the University 
of North Carolina. At the time of this letter he had just become a tutor at his 
alma mater. During the same period, he read law with Samuel Field Phillips 
and William Horn Battle. He served the Confederacy with distinction, achieving 
the rank of major in the Fifty-sixth North Carolina Regiment. After the Civil War, 
John Washington Graham was an opponent of Negro suffrage and a leading 
Conservative. His public service included membership in the Constitutional 
Convention of 1868; state senator from Orange County in the 1868> 1870 1872, 
1876, 1901, and 1911 sessions; trustee of the sinking fund of the North Carolina 
Railroad, 1877-1879; and University of North Carolina trustee, 1887-1928. "John 
Washington Graham," Van Noppen Papers; News and Observer (Raleigh), 
March 25, 1928; files of the Cornelia Phillips Spencer Alumni Directory 
Project, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, hereinafter cited as Spencer 
Alumni Project. 

9 Thomas Turner Allen (1841-1862), of Bertie County, graduated from the 
university in 1861. During the Civil War, he served as a private in the Warren 

The Papers of William A. Graham 35 

Bertie, the Moreheads, 10 and Steadman 11 from Fayetteville are 
among the best scholars. I expended about $15.00 for chairs, wash- 
stand, bucket, bowl, tongs, candle, &c. Also paid $15.00 for a 
bureau, $4.00 for a table, $1.50 for wood, $1.50 for a pocket book, 
$2.15 for ink, paper, and blank books, $2.00 to Rev. Mr. Dirwell 
for American Bible Society. 

After having my hair cut, paying for box in Post Office, and 
some few other things, I had $7.00 left, of the $50.00 which you 
gave me. I have received $200.00 of my salary, of which I lent 

Guards, Company "F," Twelfth North Carolina Regiment. He was killed July 1, 
1862, at Malvern Hill. Grant, Alumni History of the University, 9; John W. Moore, 
Roster of North Carolina Troops in the War Between the States (Raleigh: [State 
of North Carolina], 4 volumes, 1882), I, 456, hereinafter cited as Moore, Roster 
of Troops. 

10 Joseph Motley Morehead (1840-1911) of Guilford County, the son of James 
Turner and Mary Leas Lindsay Morehead, attended the university for only one 
year before being forced by poor health to withdraw. He read law in the noted 
school of Chief Justice Richmond M. Pearson, but was unable to pursue his pro- 
fession until 1865 when he began an active life as lawyer and planter. In later years 
he played a large part in the preservation of the Guilford Courthouse battleground 
as a memorial. Samuel A. Ashe, "Joseph Motley Morehead," in Ashe, Biographical 
History, II, 278-282; Spencer Alumni Project. 

James Turner Morehead (1840-1908), also of Guilford County, was the son of 
Governor John M. and Ann Eliza Lindsay Morehead. He graduated with 
honors from the University of North Carolina in 1861. A major of Confederate 
cavalry, he was seriously wounded at Bristoe Station and never returned to active 
duty. During the period of Reconstruction, he was an ardent Conservative who 
represented Guilford County in the state senate, voted Governor William W. Holden 
guilty in impeachment proceedings, served in the Constitutional Convention of 
1875, and generally worked to restore Anglo-Saxon rule in North Carolina. In 
business affairs Morehead proved to be an ingenious textile manufacturer. He 
presided over a manufacturing empire centered in Spray. Later he became interested 
in electrochemical and metallurgical affairs and removed to New York, where he 
died. Samuel A. Ashe, "James Turner Morehead," in Ashe, Biographical History, 
II, 259-265; Spencer Alumni Project. 

11 Charles Manly Stedman (1841-1930), a native of Chatham County, graduated 
from the University of North Carolina in 1861. A Confederate major, Stedman 
became a lawyer after the war. He was a Democrat who served as lieutenant 
governor, 1884-1888, was twice an unsuccessful gubernatorial candidate, and sat 
in the United States House of Representatives, 1911-1930. He also was president of 
the North Carolina Bar Association, 1900-1901, director of the North Carolina 
Railroad, 1909-1910, trustee of the University of North Carolina, 1899-1915, and 
director of the Guilford Battle Ground Company, 1898-1917. Biographical Directory 
of the American Congress, 1774-1961: The Continental Congress, September 5, 
1774, to October 21, 1788, and the Congress of the United States from the First 
to the Eighty-sixth Congress, March 4, 1789, to January 3, 1961, Inclusive 
(Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1961), 1647, hereinafter 
cited as Biographical Directory of Congress. 

36 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

$100.00 to Mr. Charles Phillips, 12 for which I have his note. I paid 
$70.00 for board and have $30.00 remaining. 

The Faculty is now complete, Prof. Martin having arrived on 
Saturday. He is a very pleasant gentleman, and I think will succeed 
very well. Asking one of the Juniors (who had recited to him) for 
his opinion, he replied that he lectures like one who was thor- 
oughly acquainted with the subject. We have had a very quiet 
session so far, and have not had a single case of drunkenness 
before us so far. The recent law in regard to this offence will have, 
I think, a very salutary effect. Hon. Jacob Thompson 13 has been 
requested to deliver an oration at the inauguration of the new 
monument to Dr. Caldwell. It is also reported that Mr. Keith 14 of 
S.C. has been elected by the Philanthropic Society as their Orator. 
Hon. H. W. Hilliard 15 has been selected by the Seniors to preach 
the Valedictory Sermon. They have not received an answer yet. 

12 Charles Phillips (1822-1889), of Chapel Hill, was a lifelong educator who 
held the following degrees: University of North Carolina, A.B., 1841; MA. (Alumni), 
1844; D.D. (Honorary), 1868; Davidson College, LL.D., 1876. He was a tutor 
(1844-1854) and professor (1854-1868 and 1875-1879) at the university and was a 
professor at Davidson (1869-1875). Lefler and Wager, Orange County, 336; Spencer 
Alumni Project. 

13 Jacob Thompson (1810-1885) was a native of Caswell County who removed 
to Mississippi after graduating from the university in 1831. A successful lawyer 
by profession, Thompson enjoyed an active public career. He was a Democratic 
congressman (1839-1851) and secretary of the interior (1857-1861) in the Buchanan 
cabinet. Thompson was an ardent southern rights man who resigned from the 
cabinet on January 8, 1861, anticipating by one day Mississippi's secession. During 
the Civil War, Thompson was inspector general of the Confederacy and a 
confidential agent to Canada (1864-1865). After a brief European exile, Thompson 
settled permanently in Memphis, Tennessee. Concise Dictionary of American 
Biography , 1060; Biographical Directory of Congress, 1708. 

14 Lawrence Massilon Keith (1824-1864), of South Carolina, was a graduate of 
South Carolina College (now the University of South Carolina). A lawyer, he 
served as a Democratic congressman from 1853 to 1860 except for one brief interval. 
He resigned after censure for his part in the attack of Preston Brooks on Charles 
Sumner but was at once reelected. He was a tempestuous, radical slavery leader 
who gloried in South Carolina's secession. He was a delegate to the secession con- 
vention, a member of the Confederate provisional congress, and colonel of the 
Twentieth South Carolina Regiment. He died in 1864 of wounds received at Cold 
Harbor. Concise Dictionary of American Biography, 518; Biographical Directory of 
Congress, 1149. 

15 Henry Washington Hilliard (1808-1892) of Alabama, a native of North Carolina 
and a graduate of South Carolina College, became a lawyer in Georgia. He was 
a professor at the University of Alabama, 1831-1834, state legislator, 1836-1838, 
charge to Belgium, 1842-1844, and Whig congressman, 1845-1851. He was for a 
time a colonel in the Confederate army before being appointed Confederate 
commissioner to Tennessee in 1865. He became a Republican after the war and was 
minister to Brazil, 1877-1881. Concise Dictionary of American Biography, 437; 
Biographical Directory of Congress, 1057. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 37 

Gov. A. V. Brown 16 will be at Commencement, and as we expect 
a very large crowd, we are urging the Governor to try and have 
the Chapel completed by that time. 

From John A. Gilmer 17 A&H 

Washington City, D.C., 
February 23rd, 1858. 

I send you the Tribune containing Douglass' report on Lecomp- 
ton. Heretofore I have on the reference & other collateral matters 
been voting with the Lecomptonites. I am in real doubt as to how 
I ought to vote on the passage of the Lecompton bill. 

I would really be under renewed obligations if you would at 
once send me your views in confidence. 

From the best calculations, if the House is full, the result may 
turn on my vote. Shall I vote for it or against it? 

It is certainly a very small matter of gain to the South, to have 
Kansas come in with a Slave Constitution, %c so to remain only 
until the Legislature can convene, &: call a Convention, that will 
immediately assemble, and, infuriated with a Slavery Constitution 
being forced on them, will abolish Slavery, without reference to 
the interest of slaveowners. 

To fail in getting this triumph is no great loss to the South. The 
Bill being lost, with my vote for it, then I could recount the confu- 

16 Aaron Venable Brown (1795-1859) was a native Virginian and transplanted 
North Carolinian who graduated from the University of North Carolina as 
valedictorian of the class of 1814. His family removed to Tennessee, where Brown 
became a longtime law partner of James K. Polk. A veteran of Tennessee politics, 
he entered the Congress, serving from 1839-1845 as a Jackson-Polk Democrat. He 
was an enthusiastic supporter of Polk's Texas, Oregon, and war policies. As 
governor of Tennessee from 1845-1847, Brown favored educational and internal 
improvements. He opposed the Compromise of 1850 as injurious to southern 
interests but finally acquiesced. In the 1850s he favored economic boycott rather 
than disunion as the guarantor of southern rights. He was Buchanan's postmaster 
general (1857-1859) and proved to be effective in improving mail service, particularly 
to California. Frank L. Owsley, "Aaron Venable Brown," Dictionary of American 
Biography, III, 98-99. 

17 John Adams Gilmer (1805-1868), a native and longtime resident of Greensboro, 
was an excellent lawyer, popular politician, and responsible citizen. He served 
in the North Carolina Senate (1846-1856), where he championed the Whig program 
of humanitarian reforms and state aid to railroads. Upon the decline of the Whig 
party, Gilmer ran a strong but unsuccessful race for the governorship in 1856 
as a Know-Nothing. In 1857 he began an important four-year tenure in the House 
of Representatives. He soon established a reputation as a staunch Unionist 
opposing slavery agitation from any quarter. 

38 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

sion & sectional agitation, which the Kansas project has produced, 
and all for nothing, 8c in support of the Enabling Act, declare that 
it was no real difference to the South whether slaves were driven 
out of Kansas in the way suggested by the President, or by giving 
Kansas a new trial, & let this be effected in a manner peaceable & 
agreeable to the people of Kansas. 

In thinking over the matter, it comes to my mind that the 
Southern members in this state of things, could well split from 
the Southern Democracy, stand for the Union, & shew up our 
opponents for wanting to divide the Union for so little — a shadow — 
a failure to make even a shewing of success in carrying slavery 
beyond 36/30. 

If Lecompton is lost, the Southern Democracy will try to make 
the South believe that they have lost a great thing, excite the 
South — try to rush all parties together against the whole North. 

If Lecompton is carried, it will make the Republican party 
omnipotent. There will be no other party in the free States; they 
will swamp the whole of the new States in the next Presidential 
contest — by a party move they really want Lecompton carried. 
They tell me so privately. 

I write in great haste — do please tell me what you think is the 
best course I should pursue. Shall I vote against Lecompton — 
preceding my vote with a speech, reciting the whole History of 
this Kansas matter — running into ridicule the small point of 

At the time this letter was written, Gilmer was agonizing over his position on the 
fraudulent, proslavery Lecompton Constitution which the Kansas territory had 
submitted to Congress when seeking statehood. Illinios Senator Stephen A. 
Douglas, the champion of popular sovereignty, was bitterly opposed to what he 
believed to be a travesty of democracy, while President James Buchanan and his 
southern friends favored the Lecompton document. (The Lecompton Bill was 
passed in the Senate but defeated in the House of Representatives.) Gilmer opposed 
the Lecompton Constitution, thus assuring his reputation as a Unionist. In the 
crisis between Lincoln's election and inauguration, William H. Seward induced 
Lincoln to invite Gilmer to Springfield to discuss a cabinet position, probably the 
position of secretary of the treasury. Gilmer declined to go when Lincoln refused 
to define his southern policy. He encouraged Seward to secure the withdrawal of 
United States troops and customs collectors from the South as the best hope for the 
Union. Although Gilmer opposed secession, he went with North Carolina once the 
die was cast. He served in the Second Confederate Congress and was a delegate to 
the National Convention of Conservatives in 1866. Death in 1868 spared him the 
trauma of radical Reconstruction. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "J onn Adams 
Gilmer," Dictionary of American Biography, VII, 307-308; Biographical Directory 
of Congress, 948; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 37-38; Wayne Andrews (ed.), 
Concise Dictionary of American History (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1962), 
548, hereinafter cited as Concise Dictionary of American History. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 39 

contest, and that the gain to, as compared with the result of 
Sectionalizing the Country, is too small? 

Or shall I vote for it? 

Do please write me immediately. 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Ky. 
Feb 28, 1858. 

The federal courts have no jurisdiction of a mandamus, and 
there are not enough coupons due to give them jurisdiction in a 
suit upon them. Our state courts have settled the validity of the 
Maysville bonds, and there is a certainty we can get judgment 
upon them in these tribunals. The questions involved have never 
been before the federal courts and there might be some doubt as 
to how they would be settled. It is better, therefore, in my judg- 
ment that we should rely upon the State Court. 

When I say the federal court has no jurisdiction to grant a 
mandamus, I mean that it has not to grant it against our municipal 
authorities to compel them to execute the state law. 

We did not argue the mandamas [sic] at the time fixed by the 
court because the Judge inadvertently appointed the day when 
he would necessarily have to hold court in another vicinity, and 
another day was not fixed because of the doubt whether any action 
would be valid unless had at a regular term of the court. Our Code 
regulates the practice in such cases and requires that the proceed- 
ings shall be had in term time. In the mean time, a new board of 
councilmen have been elected, and we shall amend the petition 
making the new members parties, and have it tried in April at the 
regular term. We have not the least fear of the result. 

There will be no need of protesting the coupons due in Jany, 
and I shall have judgment upon them in April. 

I do not believe the City is willing to make any compromise 
whatever. The rabble are bent upon complete repudiation. The 
cases will be tried by the court, as they involve only questions of 
law, and no jury will be needed. The bad influences you apprehend 
will not I think reach the Court. 

40 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From A. M. Wallace UNC 

York district, S.C. 
March 4th., 1858. 

I send you a few lines to in form you that wee are all in tolurbel 
heath at this time severul of the handes Been com pleaning But 
nuthing more than Bad coldes your stock all lookes well wee are 
a geting a long with our work tolurbl well their has Been a greate 
Deal of rain and Sleet here the ground has not Been fit to plow 
for the last month wee have plowed But 2 dayes this day wee 
comence sowing oates wee have our new groud fence ed and part 
of it Burnt of their is 17 akers of it wee are cleanen up peaces 
in the fields next the river and diching and hailing out manure 
and making all new i aim at Doblin your crap of cottin this year 
if i have luck as i hope i will that is of last year your hands and 
mee has got a long very well so far you wished to no how many 
Bales of cottin you you [sic] had wee have pack ed 32 Bales and 
their is one to pack yet our rope ing rune out and their is none 
in this settelment they will averge 3,65 lb you had better make 
sum arange ments to have your tax paid a ginest the 18th. of this 
month at clay hill as that is the nearest place for you to pay at on 
last thursday carter lizzy sayes went went to the river to put a 
fish Bask et in and is and is [sic] Drowned i expect he had Been 
un well for sum time he went of with out mee none of it wee 
have hunted the river for him But cant find him part of the hands 
needs shoes and sum close i wood had one a weaving all this 
time But the yarn the spin will not do for chain I wish you to in 
form me wether to By chain or not I would Bee glad to see you 
on your plantation as you could see how all things is going on 
and give mee sum in strucktions on the clothing part you told 
Mr Burtin to By sum wooll or cloth and he Did not do it Mr 
Burtin did not take your Bay mare he is gone over the river to 
over see for Mr grier Burtin got 95 lbs of Baken 3 J /2 Bushell of 
corn 66 lb of flour to 63 2 /2 pounds of lard hailed him 4 loads of 
Wood your Wheat lookes But sory i think i sent you the number 
of pork kiled their was 5064 lb of it i taken 2 hoges for my 
rashenes weight was 3,44 lb that was 44 pounds more than i was 
to git But i thot that i would keep it and pay you for it on way 
Back a gain i have take in my 5 Bushell of Wheat their was one 
small hog got out wee got him since and killed him he wayed 
90 lb Meat that Burtin killed and in all mine and all 405,498 lb 

Yours 8cc 

The Papers of William A. Graham 41 

To James W. Bryan 18 UNO Bryan 


March 8th, 1858. 

I am deeply pained to inform you, that Mrs. Washington 19 
departed this life this (Monday) morning about 3 o'clock. Though 
feebler and more frequently ill of late, we were not alarmed as to 
her condition untill yesterday morning, about 7 o'clock, when, 
for the first time she consented to call in a physician. 

We propose to carry her remains to New Bern for interment, 
and to reach Goldsboro' tomorrow night and arrive in New Bern 
by the cars on Wednesday. 

Will you be pleased to cause a grave to be prepared, by the side 
of her deceased husband, so that the burial may take place that 
afternoon. We hope to have a sermon over the corpse here, 
tomorrow, if a Baptist Minister can be obtained from Raleigh, 
and desire that you will request the Minister of that denomination 
in New Bern to attend the interment, with appropriate services. 

A dreadful storm of sleet and hail has raged nearly all night and 
still continues, and it is possible the weather may disappoint the 
foregoing arrangements, but we shall endeavour to be at New Bern 
with the remains on Wednesday next, — that is to say, Mrs. K. 20 
and a part of my family. 

I shall not be able to go myself. 

18 James West Bryan (1805-1864), of New Bern, was a University of North 
Carolina classmate and friend of William A. Graham. After their graduation in 
1824, their friendship was strengthened when they married sisters. Both men were 
lawyers, public servants, and university trustees. Bryan was a delegate to the 
Constitutional Convention of 1835. A Whig in politics, Bryan was a frequent corres- 
pondent in the years when Graham's political career flourished. Spencer Alumni 
Project; William Alexander Graham Clark (comp.), "Descendants of James Wash- 
ington (d. 1766) of Northampton County, N.C." (Washington, D.C.: 1939), 
typescript copy of a genealogical chart in the Graham Papers, UNC, hereinafter 
cited as Clark, "Washington Descendants." 

19 Mrs. John (Elizabeth Heritage Cobb) Washington (1780-1858) was the mother 
of Susan Washington Graham. She resided in Hillsborough much of the time after 
her husband's death in 1837. Graham apparently advised his mother-in-law on 
business matters and assisted in the management of her affairs. Clark, "Washington 

20 Mrs. Elizabeth Heritage Washington Knox (1808-1890) was Dr. Reuben Knox's 
widow; she was also the sister of Susan Washington Graham and daughter of the 
deceased. Mrs. Knox and her numerous family were sometimes residents of Hills- 
borough. Clark, "Washington Descendants." 

42 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

[P.S.] I have written to Kinston, and hope Mr. J. C. W. 21 will meet 
the funeral escort at Goldsboro'. 

From Drury Lacy 22 A&H 

Davidson College, 
April 5th, 1858. 

The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees have 
requested and empowered the Faculty to make an election of 
some person to deliver an Address at the laying of the Corner Stone 
of the New College Building now in the progress of Erection. I 
have the honor to inform you that at a meeting of the Faculty held 
today, you were elected to perform that service. 

We earnestly hope that you will accept the appointment, and 
deliver the Address. The Ceremonies will take place on Wednes- 
day the 14th. day of July '58 — being the day before the Annual 
Commencement, at 10 O.C. A. M. 

I have the honour to be 

My dear Sir, 

Very respectfully and truly, 

From William W. Morrison 23 UNC 

Washington, D.C. 

May 19, 1858. 

Your's of the 16th was received two days since. I have purchased 
the book you wrote for and will forward it by the first opportunity. 
You enclosed one $5. some time since to pay a bill at Taylor's which 

21 John Cobb Washington (1801-1889), of Kinston, was the eldest son of 
the deceased. Clark, "Washington Descendants." 

22 The Reverend Drury Lacy (1802-1884), a Virginia graduate of Hampden- 
Sydney College and the Union Theological Seminary, was at this time president 
of Davidson College. A widely known Presbyterian minister, Lacy served as a 
Confederate chaplain from 1862 to 1865. Cornelia Rebekah Shaw, Davidson College 
(New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1923), 72, 81, 97, 111, hereinafter cited as 
Shaw, Davidson College. 

23 William Wilberforce Morrison (1826-1865) was the second child and eldest 
son of Robert Hall and Mary Graham Morrison. A nephew of Graham, Morrison 
served his uncle as private secretary while Graham was governor. Later, as a result 

The Papers of William A. Graham 43 

was only $4.75 and as I have not had an opportunity of handing you 
the difference it can be deducted from this bill. 

Our City is now very quiet. Since the passage of the Kansas bill, 
but little interest is felt here in the proceedings of Congress except 
by persons interested in claims. 

Some of the citizens are trying hard to get up an excitement over 
the Mayor's election which takes place the 1st of next month. Many 
Democrats refuse to support Perret, the nominee of their party. 
Rich d . Wallach, District Marshall under Mr. Fillmore, is trying to 
unite the Know Nothings, old line Whigs & disaffected Democrats 
but I am inclined to think he cannot succeed. Both could be 
defeated by any worthy, high toned citizen but it seems difficult 
to get a suitable man to offer for the position. 

I presume you will have some excitement over the elections in 
Carolina this summer. McRae 24 will be badly beaten from all we 
hear, but I hope enough good men can be elected to the Legislature 
to defeat Clingman. I think Whigs, Americans & respectable 
democrats ought to unite on some Democrat and defeat him in 
that way. 

of Graham's becoming secretary of that department, he was appointed a clerk in 
the navy department, a position which he held for several years. He returned to 
North Carolina and served as a captain in the state commissary department. 
Clark, "Graham Descendants"; William W. Morrison to William A. Graham, June 3, 
1847, Graham Collection, State Archives, State Department of Archives and History, 
Raleigh; Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, I, 37. 

24 Duncan Kirkland McRae (1820-1888), scion of a distinguished family, was 
born in Fayetteville, After receiving his formal education at William and Mary 
College and the University of North Carolina, he was admitted to the bar and 
practiced briefly in Fayetteville. He served in the Commons in 1842 and remained 
in Raleigh to practice law from 1842 to 1851. Subsequently, he moved to Wilmington 
where he engaged in banking. From 1853 to 1857 McRae was consul to Paris, a 
position which associated him with the famous Ostend Manifesto which he 
carried to Washington. He returned to North Carolina in 1857 and established a 
New Bern law office. A few months later he ran as an independent in the guber- 
natorial contest of 1858. He advocated a positive program of economic development 
against what he considered to be undue emphasis on the slavery question. Although 
he enjoyed the unofficial support of the remnants of the American party, he was 
defeated by John W. Ellis, the Democratic candidate. Early in the Civil War, 
Ellis, McRae's former protagonist, appointed McRae colonel of the Fifth North 
Carolina Regiment. He led his regiment gallantly in the Virginia and Pennsylvania 
campaigns of 1861-1862. Twice wounded, he retired and was sent to Europe by 
Governor Zebulon B. Vance to find markets for southern cotton and state bonds 
and to purchase supplies. Upon his return after successfully completing his 
mission, McRae was defeated in a bid for a seat in the Confederate congress. He 
edited the Confederate, an administration organ, in Raleigh in 1864 and 1865. 
After the war he practiced law in Memphis and Chicago, returning to Wilmington 
in 1880 where he established the last of several highly successful law offices. Irving 
L. Thomson, "Duncan Kirkland McRae," Dictionary of American Biography, XII, 

44 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Your friends here enquire for you very often and many of them 
w d . be glad to see [you] back again. 

From Tod R. Caldwell 25 UNC 

Morganton, N.C. 
June 3rd., 1858. 

At the last Session of the Gen'l Assembly an Act was passed 
amending the Charter of the Western N. C. R. Road Company, 
and in the amendatory law there is a section, authorizing County 
subscriptions, (see Chapter 68, Section 4.) By virtue of this law, the 
County Court of Burke submitted the question to the people 
whether or not a subscription of $100,000 on the part of the 
County should be made, upon this proposition a vote was taken 
on the first Thursday in August, 1857, and it was defeated by an 
overwhelming vote; since then, the County Court caused another 
proposition, to subscribe $50,000 to be submitted to the people on 
the 3rd. April, 1858, which prevailed by a meagre majority. I was 
opposed to both propositions, and am still opposed to them, and 
am now a candidate for a seat in the next Legislature, and that 
question is one of the issues between my loco-foco competitor and 

My opinion with regard to this law is, that if the Legislature had 
the power to invest the County Court and the people of Burke 
with the right to approve or disapprove of an act of Assembly, the 
first action had by said Court and people would be final and con- 
clusive, and as a consequence, the vote on the 1st. Thursday in 
August, 1857 settled the question, and the Court transcended its 
power by submitting it a second time. 

Now, my dear Sir, my object in writing to you is to get your 
opinion, as a friend, with regard to this matter. I do not expect, 

25 Tod Robinson Caldwell (1818-1874), of Burke County, was the son of John 
Caldwell, one of the wealthiest merchants and farmers in the area. Tod R. 
Caldwell was prepared by William J. Bingham's famous school, was graduated 
with honors by the University of North Carolina in 1840, and read law with David 
L. Swain. He soon gained the reputation of being one of the best criminal lawyers 
in western North Carolina. In politics Caldwell was a Henry Clay Whig and a 
Unionist, serving four terms in the state legislature. He supported his state after 
secession, but was deeply hurt by the loss of a son at Gettysburg. After the Civil 
War Caldwell was a Republican. He succeeded William H. Holden as governor 
when Holden was impeached and was reelected in 1872. He died in office. George 
S. Willis, "Tod R. Caldwell," Van Noppen Papers. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 45 

of course, to use your name in connection with it, unless it be 
agreeable to you for me to do so. 

The invincible democracy can be split all to pieces in this 
County on this question, whilst the great body of the Whigs, even 
those who were warm for the tax will stick to me on other questions 
of a political character, and therefore I have strong hopes of carry- 
ing the County if I can with any degree of certainty, assure the 
people that the County can be relieved from this tax. The road, 
too, will not suffer in the least degree, for I am well satisfied that 
the stock would be taken by individuals in less than a week, if the 
tax could be set aside. 

You will confer a special favour upon me if you will examine 
the original act passed at the Session of 1854 Sc 55, and the amend- 
ment of '56 8c '57, and give me your opinions upon the points 
presented, as to the power of the Legislature to pass such a law, 
and the right of the Court to submit it a second time to a vote of 
the people, varying the question only as to the am't to be sub- 
scribed? I do not wish to take untenable positions before the 
people, and therefore desire to be well satisfied before I proceed 
too far in the canvass. I expect to take the stump in a week or ten 
days, and will be much obliged for a reply at an early day. 

From Tod R. Caldwell UNC 

Morganton, N.C. 
June 15th., 1858. 

At February Term of Burke County Court, 1858, the following 
order 8c record was made — to wit: 

"A majority of the magistrates of the County being present, on 
motion the question of a subscription on the part of the County to 
the Western N. C. R. Road was put, and thirty one magistrates 
voted for the following proposition, that an election be opened & 
held at the various precincts in this County, on Saturday, the third 
day of April next, to determine whether the Chairman of the 
County Court shall make a subscription of Fifty Thousand dollars 
on the part of the County to the Western N.C. Rail Road, those 
favouring the subscription to vote "Subscription,'' and those 
opposed to the subscription to vote "No Subscription,'' the select 
Court to appoint Judges for the several precincts, who shall be 
sworn as in other cases of election and that returns be made on 
Monday, the 5th. day of April following, to the Chairman of the 

46 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

select Court of the result of such election at each and every pre- 
cinct, and that, in the event a majority of all the votes polled at 
said election for subscription, the Chairman of the County Court 
shall make such subscription upon the books of the Rail Road 
Company, which shall be binding upon the County." 

[Letter appended] 

Morgan ton, N.C. 
June 15th., 1858. 

Your fav'r of the 11th. Inst., for which I am much obliged, 
reached me by this morning's mail. 

I should have mentioned to you in my letter of the 3rd. Inst, 
that within a week after the vote of the 3rd. of Ap'l, was taken, the 
Chairman of the Court made the subscription of $50,000 on behalf 
of the County, and that $170.00 was subscribed at the same time 
by a private company, Chas. F. Fisher & Co., on condition, as I 
understand, that said private company should have the privilege 
of working out the $50,000. subscribed on the part of Burke, 
agreeing at the same time to receive the Burke bonds at par. This 
was agreed to by the directory, & the road is now considered to be 
under contract to Morganton, & Mr. Fisher 8c Co. are the con- 

On the preceding page, I have given you an exact copy of the 
record of our County Court, verbatim et literatim, a portion of 
which is unintelligible almost, and, as I am determined to resist 
this tax to the bitter end, if resistance can avail anything, I wish 
you to advise me how to proceed, since the Chairman has already 
made the subscription. This matter will eventually, no doubt, be 
carried to the Supreme Court, and hence I feel the more solicitous 
that no false step should be taken in its incipient stages, and as all 
the lawyers, except myself, here, are on the other side of the ques- 
tion, it makes it necessary for me to consult and seek advice else- 
where. I wrote to B. F. Moore, 26 Esqr. at the same time I wrote to 

26 Bartholomew Figures Moore (1801-1878) was a native of Halifax County, 
a graduate of the University of North Carolina, a learned and profound 
lawyer, and a courageous and devoted public servant. He began his political 
life as a Crawford Republican but eventually became a staunch Henry Clay 
Whig. He sat in the 1836, 1840, 1842, and 1844 sessions of the House of Commons, 
where he championed the North Carolina Whig program of reforms and internal 
improvements. He was North Carolina attorney general, 1848-1851. An evidence of 
Moore's talented legal mind was his successful brief in State v. Will, which signalled 
the end of the harsher features of the state's slave codes. Although he felt that 
the South was aggrieved, Moore denied the right of secession and never changed 

The Papers of William A. Graham 47 

you, but have not, as yet, rec'd his reply. If the matter gets to the 
Supreme Court, the parties resisting the tax desire to have your 
& his services as their Counsel. I am much obliged to you for your 
speech on the Free-suffrage bill, and will preserve it with pleasure. 

If I have not given you information enough, please write me, 
and I will endeavour to be more full. I shall be glad to hear again 
from you as soon as is convenient to yourself. 

There is a tremendous effort being made against my election, 
which may prove successful, but I do not now think so. 

From David L. Swain A&H 

Chapel Hill, 

Aug. 13th, 1858. 

I sent a package this morning by Mr. J. W. Graham, 27 to which 
I desired to request your attention, but had no opportunity pre- 
vious to his departure of writing an explanatory note. 

At the conclusion of Bishop Otey's 28 formal oration on Mount 
Mitchell, the duty unexpectedly devolved upon me of attempting 
to vindicate Dr. Mitchell's 29 claim to the discovery and measure- 
ment of that summit. A copy of the Bishop's oration was requested 
for publication, and a resolution was subsequently adopted by the 
meeting requesting me to write out my remarks for publication. 
I promised and at the time designed no compliance. 

that opinion. He refused to swear an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy and was 
thus barred from practicing in Confederate courts. He did not join the peace 
movement in North Carolina but made no secret of his Union sentiments. Moore 
opposed the Johnson plan of reconstruction, favoring continuation of existing 
southern legislatures. When he was made privy to Johnson's plans and asked to 
recommend a provisional governor, Moore declined. Moore was a leader in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1865. He drafted the repeal of the secession ordinance, 
but, predictably, was bitterly opposed to repudiation of Confederate debts. He had 
little sympathy with the Conservatives in the troubled years 1866-1868, but even 
less with the radical Republicans. Moore had a large and successful practice in 
United States Supreme Court cases until his death. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, 
"Bartholomew Figures Moore," Dictionary of American Biography, XIII, 114-115. 

27 John Washington Graham 

28 James Hervey Otey (1800-1863) was a native Virginian who graduated from the 
University of North Carolina in 1820. He was ordained in 1827 and became the 
first Episcopal bishop of Tennessee. He was one of the founders of the University 
of the South at Sewanee. In politics Otey was a Whig Unionist who opposed the dis- 
ruption of his church and the Union alike. Charles L. Wells, "James Hervey Otey," 
Dictionary of American Biography, XI V, 90-91. 

29 Dr. Elisha Mitchell (1793-1857) was a native of Connecticut and a graduate 

48 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

The Faculty at present contemplate the preparation of a neat 
pamphlet of some 100 pages to contain a biographical sketch of 
Dr. M. accompanied by a good engraved likeness, a narrative of 
the events connected with his death, an account of the various 
reminiscences of respect by the Trustees, Faculty, public meetings 
at Wilmington Asheville and elsewhere, Mr. Vance's 30 account of 
the discovery of the body, the Bishop's address, to which my 
remarks may or may not be appended, etc., etc. 

Do me the favour to read carefully the report sent this morning, 
and suggest freely objections to matter and manner. If a more 
eligible mode of vindicating the Dr's claim occurs to you point it 
out. I have no disposition to afford Mr. Clingman 31 opportunity 
for another triumph, or indeed to enable him to make a decent 

of Yale College. After serving briefly as a tutor at Yale, Mitchell was appointed to 
the University of North Carolina faculty, along with his Yale classmate Denison 
Olmsted. Olmsted eventually returned to Yale; Mitchell, a generalist in the sciences 
whose interests included natural history, botany, zoology, chemistry, geology, and 
mineralogy, remained at the Chapel Hill institution until his death thirty-nine 
years later. One of Mitchell's chief interests was in climbing and measuring the 
western North Carolina mountains, an avocation tried first in 1835. Mount Mitchell, 
the highest point east of the Rockies, bears his name, and Dr. Mitchell allegedly 
first measured its peak. However, this claim to priority was contested by Thomas 
Lanier Clingman, who first measured the peak in 1844. Clingman contended that 
Mitchell had measured only a lesser peak. In 1857 Mitchell, armed with better 
instruments and equipment, undertook a fifth expedition to vindicate his claim. 
On June 27, 1857, he fell and was drowned at what is now called Mitchell Falls. As 
this letter suggests, Swain and Graham were anxious to sustain Mitchell's claims, 
thereby honoring a well-loved member of the university faculty. Collier Cobb, 
"Elisha Mitchell," Dictionary of American Biography, XIII, 45-46. 

30 Zebulon Baird Vance (1830-1894), of Buncombe County, was one of nineteenth- 
century North Carolina's most popular men. After attending Buncombe County 
schools, Washington College (Tennessee), and the University of North Carolina, 
Vance studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1852. Not a close student of the 
law, he soon found that politics was his abiding interest. Vance began his political 
life as a Henry Clay Whig. Upon the disruption of the Whig party, he spurned Demo- 
cratic overtures and united with the American party. After one term in the House 
of Commons, Vance was elected to the United States House of Representatives 
where he served from 1858 to 1861. A Unionist, he supported the Constitutional 
Union ticket of Bell and Everett in 1860. After opposing secession vigorously until 
Lincoln's call for troops, Vance raised a company of Buncombe volunteers and 
was soon elected colonel of the Twenty-sixth North Carolina Regiment, a contingent 
which he led ably until his election to the governorship in 1862. Vance was a 
tremendously popular war governor who quarrelled with Confederate authorities 
and Holden's peace faction with equal enthusiasm. Following a brief imprisonment 
in 1865, he practiced law until his disabilities were finally removed in 1872. In 1876 
Vance, always a powerful stump speaker, was elected governor in a hotly contested 
confrontation with the native Republican Thomas Settle. His second administra- 
tion marked a new era in North Carolina history as "home rule" was restored. 
From 1879 to 1891 Zeb Vance served his state as a United States senator. His Senate 
career was characterized by his constructive and conciliatory attitude. Robert D. W. 
Connor, "Zebulon Baird Vance," Dictionary of American Biography, XIX, 158-161. 
31 Thomas Lanier Clingman (1812-1897), of Surry (now Yadkin) County, graduated 

The Papers of William A. Graham 49 

defense. The paragraph near the beginning of the narrative 
marked as a quotation, is extracted from Mr. Clingman's letter to 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1855. The Book 
notice for the Raleigh Register was written by me, and I am the 
friend referred to in the reply. Need an intimation of authorship 
be given in either instance? I am rather inclined to avoid reference 
to Mr. C. by name. Need certificates from Wilson 32 and Black- 
stock 33 be appended? I have them but doubt whether for the 
present it is important to use them. Can you supply me with a 
briefer and clearer summing up that the two concluding para- 
graphs, with respect to removing land marks and the transfer of 
names? I am thus particular because if I publish my narrative I 
wish to call the attention of Mr. Secretary Henry 34 of the Smith- 
sonian Institution to it, and request its notice in the next Report. 
I wish furthermore to place it before the Geographical Society of 
the U.S. 

from the University of North Carolina, read law with William A. Graham, and 
practiced his profession for sixty years in Asheville. Clingman served in the House 
of Commons (1835) and the state senate (1840) before his election to the United 
States House of Representatives. He sat in the House from 1843 to 1845 and from 
1847 to 1858. Initially, he was a dedicated Whig; but, as he became increasingly 
fearful of Northern encroachments upon Southern rights, Clingman wavered. He 
abandoned the Whigs for the Democratic party about 1852, recognizing that the 
Democracy was rapidly becoming the bastion of slavery. In 1858 he was elected to 
replace Asa Biggs in the United States Senate, a position he held until March 28, 
1861. Clingman favored secession and quickly rushed to the Confederate colors, 
serving first as colonel of the Twenty-fifth North Carolina Regiment but later as a 
brigadier general. A participant in numerous engagements, Clingman was severely 
wounded during the defense of the Weldon Railroad in 1864. After the war he 
sought unsuccessfully to resume his place in the United States Senate. Although he 
remained influential in the Democratic party, his only official public service was 
as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1875. As this letter suggests, Cling- 
man was an avid mountain explorer and developer of Great Smoky mineral re- 
sources. William K. Boyd, "Thomas Lanier Clingman," Dictionary of American 
Biography, IV, 220-221; Biographical Directory of Congress, 708; Mark Mayo Boat- 
ner (ed\), The Civil War Dictionary (New York: David McKay Company, 1959), 159, 
hereinafter cited as Boatner, Civil War Dictionary. 

32 Thomas ("Big Tom") Wilson, of Yancey County, was a well-known mountaineer 
and a famous bear hunter. He was a devoted friend of Dr. Mitchell. 

33 Robert Vance Blackstock (1824-1906), of Buncombe County, was the son of 
county surveyor Nehemiah Blackstock. In a statement to David L. Swain the 
younger Blackstock substantiated Mitchell's claim, enclosing a map of the area in 
question, based on an 1845 survey, when he was a chain bearer for his father. 
David Lowry Swain Papers, Southern Historical Collection, Univeristy of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, hereinafter cited as Swain Papers, UNC. 

34 Joseph Henry (1797-1878), of Albany, New York, was a physicist, professor, and 

50 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

To David L. Swain A&H- Swain 


Aug. 17th, 1858. 

The package was received by John, and your letter, on Saturday, 
by mail. 

Dr. Hawk's propositions to publish a documentary history of the 
State, and also an edition of the Statutes at large, are, I fear, rather 
more than the Legislature would sanction. 

I see, however, no objection to presenting the Memorial, and 
receiving such patronage as may be granted. If Dr. H. had pro- 
ceeded so far in his historical work as to illustrate the Revolu- 
tionary epoch (the period most calculated to elevate & gratify the 
National feeling) it would in my opinion, not be difficult to obtain 
appropriations for one, or both, of the objects in question. Or, if 
the Gen'l Assembly were convinced that his history cannot be 
completed without pecuniary aid from the State, in some form, I 
think they might appropriate money for the publication of 
documents as proposed, and assign him the office of editor at a 
salary, or at all events, compensation for the publication. The 
public, however, are a little impatient of delay in the Doctor's 
work, and probably not sufficiently tolerant of the difficulties in 
his way. But untill he shews [sic] them that they have a history — an 
honorable history, (of which at present they are ignorant) — he will 
find the Legislature less liberal than it otherwise would be. 

A resolution, authorizing the Governor to allow such compen- 
sation for editing the work, as he should judge adequate, out of 
an appropriation not exceeding a specified sum per an w'd be the 
least objectionable form, in procuring the aid desired. 

After proceeding so far I was interrupted, and have to regret 
that my inkstand, carelessly left, was blown over by the wind, 
causing a blot on the Memorial. 

the first secretary and director of the Smithsonian Institution. He was president of 
the National Academy of Sciences from 1868 until his death. Henry was one of 
America's great men of science in the nineteenth century. William F. Magie, "Jo- 
seph Henry," Dictionary of American Biography, VIII, 550-553. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 51 

On examining your statement in reference to Doctor Mitchell's 
explorations of the Black Mountain, I think the evidence over- 
whelming, and it cannot fail to produce conviction in every 
impartial mind. Being the sole repository of the facts it contains, 
you are not at liberty to withhold them, from the apprehension of 
any false imputation of being an intruder in the controversy. 

The statement however, I thought somewhat wanting in 
precision of detail, and I have taken the liberty of suggesting 
several alterations or additions — which you will see interlined. I 
have not the leisure to state the reasons for all of them. The state- 
ment will be read beyond the limits of the State, where it will not 
be known that you are a native of Buncombe, born within 6 or 7 
leagues of the contested pinnacle, and other facts intelligible 
perhaps to some, will require amplification and minuteness for 
general readers. 

In a personal interview I could perhaps suggest additional 

I concur entirely in the propriety of not mentioning Clingman 
by name, since you appear in the character of a witness and friend 
of truth, & not as a partisan. If he chooses to assail your statement, 
handle him with gloves off. I w'd not append certificates of Black- 
stock, but produce them, if he renders it necessary. 

Your last page 4, is rather a commentary than statement, and 
should be recast: I mean after the recital of Blackstock's evidence. 
I have no map before me, and am not sufficiently acquainted with 
the relative positions of the true and spurious Mt. Mitchell to' offer 
a substitute. But at the middle of that page, I would proceed with 
the narrative somewhat thus "a late map of North Carolina, 
published by Wm. D. Cooke in 1855 has disregarded Smith's 
Geography & Atlas already cited, as well as the plat of Blackstock, 
and the names of his chain bearers carved on the tree of this lofty 
mountain, and the other evidence I have adduced of Dr. M's 
claim to this discovery, but has given the name of Clingman's 
Peak, to what in 1839 Smith at my instance and suggestion, had 
called Mt. Mitchell — a name which Blackstock had recognized in 
1845, and which was generally acquiesced in by the people of 
Yancy County — and has transferred the name of Mt. Mitchell to 
an inferior height, more than miles distant, which no accurate 
scientific explorer ever could mistake for the highest peak of the 

This inferior height in the aforesaid plat of Blackstock, a 
mountaineer of more than 40 years acquaintance with this Country 
is laid down in 1845 as "Party Knob.'' It lies close upon the line of 

52 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

division, between Buncombe and Yancey Counties, and is a 
[blank space] course from Burnsville, the Court House town of 
the latter. While the true Mt. Mitchell, discovered, named and 
recognized in the manner I have narrated, is situated several miles 
North of this County boundary line, and a South East course from 
"Burnsville." You see the anti-thesis, and will make it such as the 
facts may warrant. 

Let Your last paragraph "Mr. Cook may erase," etc. follow this, 
and then bring in the balance of page 4 — "To attempt," etc. 

I fear that I have suggested more than I have made intelligible. 

From William W. Kirkland 35 UNC 


August 21st., 1858. 

I am about to make a request, which, if you can gratify, will 
very much oblige me. You are the only person to whom I can 
apply under the circumstances. I am engaged to a Young lady of 
this place, and last night had an interview with her father. Being 
a stranger, he very naturally made objections on that ground. Will 
you do me the kindness to write him a letter informing him of 
what you know of me, personally, and of the social position of my 

He told me that a letter from yourself would be satisfactory, 
though you are personally unknown to him. Yet the place you 
occupy in the history of our Country will render a good word in 
my behalf of great service to me. If you can oblige me, please 
enclose the letter to me. 

My address for the next ten or twelve days will be Rider's Hotel, 
West Point, N. York. I leave in the Steamer this evening, and will 
reach home about the 5th. of September. The gentleman alluded 

35 William Whedbee Kirkland (1833-1915), of Hillsborough, who attended West 
Point, was a United States marine (1855-1860) and attained the rank of Confederate 
brigadier general. A gallant officer, Kirkland was seriously wounded three times and 
surrendered only after Bentonville. After the war he was a businessman in Savannah, 
lived for awhile in New York, and died in a soldiers' home in Washington, D. C. 
Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 465; Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray, Lives of the 
Confederate Commanders (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959), 
171-172, hereinafter cited as Warner, Generals in Gray. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 53 

to is a native of this place, is a brother of Col. Hardee, 36 of the 
Army. His address: 

N. A. Hardee, Esq., 37 


I remain, 

Yours very truly, 
L't U.S.M.C 
May hope to hear from you at your earliest convenience. 

From Will L. Scott 38 A&H 

Oct. 18th, 1858. 

The members of the "Greene Monument Association," an 
Association which has for its object the erection of a monument to 
General Greene on the plains of Guilford, desire to have a course 
of lectures delivered here this Winter in furtherance of that object. 

By direction of the Board of Managers, I take pleasure in 
informing you, that you have been chosen to deliver the first of 
the series of lectures. They leave it to you to select your own 
subject, and hope that you will be able to be with us during the 
last of November or first of December. Our people have always 
hailed your coming with pride and pleasure; but coming, as you 

36 William Joseph Hardee (1815-1873), of Georgia, was a graduate of West Point, 
served gallantly in the Mexican War, was commandant of cadets at West Point and 
author of the standard textbook entitled Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics, and was 
recognized as one of the outstanding Confederate corps commanders. He held the 
rank of lieutenant general when the war ended. Subsequently, Hardee was an 
Alabama planter. Warner, Generals in Gray, 124-125. 

37 Noble A. Hardee was a cotton factor and commission merchant of Savannah. 
Allen D. Candler and Clement A. Evans (eds.), Georgia, Comprising Sketches of 
Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form 
(Atlanta: State Historical Association, 3 volumes, 1906), II, 197. 

38 William Lafayette Scott (1828-1872), of Greensboro, was a graduate of the uni- 
versity, a lawyer, later a lieutenant colonel of the Twenty-first North Carolina 
Regiment in the Civil War, and a member of the fraud commission of 1871. Spencer 
Alumni Project. 

54 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

would on this occasion, to speak to them of Greene and the brave 
men who were with him on the plains of old Guilford in '81, 
would make the greeting, if possible, thrice more hearty. 

Allow me to add my own solicitations to those of the members 
of the "Greene Monument Association" that you will accept our 
invitation, and be with us during the Winter 

With high regard, 

Your ob't serv't. 

P.S. If you could accept, we did not know what day would suit you, 
and, hence, left it to you to designate the day. 

From C. S. More head 39 UNC 


Nov. 1, 1858. 

In consequence of a temporary absence from home, immediately 
after the receipt of yours of 30th Sept, it has been out of my power 
to answer it as promptly as otherwise I should have done. I regret 
very much that you have made such unprofitable investments in 
our city stocks. The Covington and Lexington Rail road Co, from 
bad management I suppose, are unable to meet the interest on all 
their bonds, but those endorsed by the city of Covington must 
ultimately be good, and I understand that arrangements will soon 

39 Charles Slaughter Morehead (1802-1868), of Kentucky, was a member of the dis- 
tinguished North Carolina family, being a second cousin of John Motley Morehead. 
A graduate of Transylvania College, he became a highly successful attorney. He was 
a Kentucky attorney general, a frequent member of the state legislature, Whig 
congressman (1847-1851), and American (Know-Nothing) governor of Kentucky 
(1855-1859). A Unionist concerned about southern rights, he supported the Com- 
promise of 1850 but was disappointed in the northern "nullification" of the Fugitive 
Slave Law. He was a delegate to the abortive Washington Peace Conference in 1861 
and to the May border states conference. He favored Kentucky's neutrality but 
declined to sign the address to her people because he could not approve all the 
statements therein. Morehead became increasing critical of the Lincoln administra- 
tion, especially of the role Seward played. He publicly criticized the abandonment 
of trade with the South. He was arrested in September, 1861, and imprisoned, with- 
out trial, until he was paroled in January, 1862. His friend John J. Crittenden was 
influential in securing Morehead's release. Fearing arrest again because of his 
refusal to take an oath of allegiance, he lived abroad until the war ended. 
Subsequently, he lived and died on his plantation near Greenville, Mississippi. 
W. C. Mallalieu, "Charles Slaughter Morehead," Dictionary of American Biography, 
XIII, 157-158. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 55 

be made to pay the coupons as they mature. I cannot, however, 
give you any positive or certain information on this subject. I have 
made known to the corporate authority informally, that legal steps 
would be very soon taken unless such arrangements were made. 
My term of office will not expire until the 1st of next September, 
and until that time it would be out of my power to undertake the 
prosecution of your case. Should you need the professional services 
of an attorney I would reccommend the Hon James Harlan 40 of 
this place Att°. Gen 1 ,, of our state, as in all respects reliable and 
worthy of your fullest confidence. 

I take great pleasure in saying that I have entire confidence in 
the zeal & integrity of the Hon. R. H. Stanton, and doubt not his 
ability to manage your Maysville case well. I showed your letter 
to Mr. Crittenden 41 who unites with me in regretting that you 
should have had such poor specimens of Kentucky punctuality. He 
was much gratified at your approval of his course last winter. 

With very sincere & high regard I remain yr friend 

From S. S. Nicholas 42 UNC 

Louisville, Kentucky 
November 5, 1858. 

Dear Sir 

If not presuming too much upon the very slight acquaintance 
formed at the Baltimore Convention, I beg a careful consideration 
of the enclosed "plan" 43 & the benefit of your opinion upon it. 

40 James Harlan (1800-1863) was a son of one of the early settlers of Kentucky. 
After receiving an elementary education, he was employed in a mercantile house. 
He read law and established a practice at Harrodsburg in 1823. He was common- 
wealth attorney, Whig congressman (1835-1839), Kentucky secretary of state, state 
legislator, state attorney general, and United States district attorney. Perhaps his 
most notable public service was in opposing secession. He was instrumental in 
saving Kentucky for the Union. Robert Spencer Cotterill, "James Harlan," Diction- 
ary of American Biography, VIII, 267. 

41 John J. Crittenden. 

42 Samuel Smith Nicholas (1796-1869), a native of Lexington, Kentucky, became 
a prominent New Orleans merchant and then returned to Louisville where he 
practiced law. He was a state legislator and judge and assisted in revising the 
Kentucky legal code. He was author of a legal work entitled Constitutional Law. 
John Howard Brown (ed.), The Cyclopaedia of American Biographies Comprising 
the Men and Women of the United States Who Have Been Identified with the 
Growth of the Nation (Boston: Federal Book Company of Boston, 7 volumes, 
1897-1903), VI, 4. 

43 This reference is to a pamphlet entitled A Plan For Obtaining Our Presidents 
Without the Intervention of Political Parties. 

56 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Disgust at the excesses of parties 8c apprehension of the danger 
from their sectionalism has proposed the nation to give a favorable 
hearing to any plan, which under the auspices of some of our more 
experienced and able statesmen shall promise to relieve us from 
the evils of our presidential elections, without violation to any 
cardinal Republican principles. If this be not the best plan its 
discussion will evoke that best plan. It cannot be thought amiss 
for one Conservative to urge another to aid in the pursuit of the 
best plan, or if he approves the present plan to give it the benefit 
of his publicly avowed approbation. Even should you disapprove, 
your critical censure will be most acceptable as aiding me to see 
faults 8c objections that I have not been able to detect. 

It seems to me a valuable substitute for that dual Executive 
which Mr Calhoun sought as a protection to the South against 
that force of northern numbers, influenced by sectional feeling, 
about which he made it his mission to create so much southern 
jealousy. In that way it would serve to check the disunion 
tendency. Its value towards purging off [sic] government corrup- 
tion all must perceive. 

To Nathan Sargent 44 A&H 

Hillsboro', N.C. 
Nov. 17th. 1858. 

Your favor of the 1 1th. inst. proposing a meeting in Washington 
on the 1 5th proximo of conservative gentlemen of different States 
of the Union, to consult on the present condition of the Country, 
has been received, and I very heartily approve of the proposition. 
I feel, however, that causes of a domestic nature will deny me the 
pleasure of being present. I will today forward your letter to 

44 Nathan Sargent (1794-1875), a native of Vermont, had a long career as a lawyer, 
journalist, and public official. He practiced law in Cahawba, Alabama, and Buffalo, 
New York, from 1818 to 1830. In 1830 he moved to Philadelphia where he founded 
the unsuccessful Commercial Herald. Eventually he became the Washington 
correspondent of the United States Gazette (Philadelphia). His pen name "Oliver 
Oldschool" gained a national reputation. Sargent was a Clay Whig and a Unionist, 
but he became a Republican and was devoted to the Lincoln administration. Sargent 
held the following federal positions: sergeant-at-arms, House of Representatives, 
1847-1851; register-general of the United States land office, 1851-1853; and 
commissioner of claims, 1861-1871. William E. Smith, "Nathan Sargent," Dictionary 
of American Biography, XVI, 368. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 57 

Governor Morehead, 45 who is a member of the Legislature, now 
in Session at Raleigh, and will endeavour to induce some of our 
friends of proper discretion and sagacity to attend at the time 

We have fallen under the sway in both North and South of 
merely professional agitators pro and con on the subject of slavery: 
each of which classes persuades its own section, that but for them- 
selves and their vehement and spasmodic efforts of patriotism, the 
other would invade their land with chains and slavery in the one 
quarter, or incendiarism and devastation in the other. This has 
been found so profitable as party capital, that no extravagance or 
absurdity is now supposed too gross for popular belief. Hence the 
recent speech of Mr. Seward 46 on the eve of an election, in which 
the question is reduced to the alternatives of "slave labor in the 

45 John Motley Morehead (1796-1866), scion of the substantial Virginia family 
which moved to North Carolina, attended the "log college" of David Caldwell and 
graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1817. He read law with Archi- 
bald De Bow Murphey. Until 1835 Morehead was a Jacksonian Democrat, but as 
a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1835, he associated himself with 
the western group favoring constitutional revision, internal improvements, and 
public education. As North Carolina's second Whig governor (1841-1845) he 
actively sought the goals suggested above while fostering significant humanitarian 
reforms such as a state school for the afflicted. Morehead opposed the dissolution of 
the union and was a delegate to the abortive Washington Peace Conference in 
February, 1861. He was briefly a delegate to the Provisional Confederate Congress. 
In addition to his political connections, which were many, Morehead was very 
influential in state business circles. He was involved in railroad building, textile 
manufacturing, and commercial and mercantile enterprises. At one time president of 
the North Carolina Railroad Company, he advocated development of a complete 
transportation system. William K. Boyd, "John Motley Morehead," Dictionary of 
American Biography, XIII, 159. 

46 William Henry Seward (1801-1872), at the time a Republican senator from 
New York, was a graduate of Union College and a successful lawyer and politician. 
A former governor of New York (1838-1842), Seward entered the United States 
Senate as a Whig; however, in the acrimonious debates of 1849-1850 he adopted an 
unequivocable anti-slavery position which soon propelled him to leadership among 
Conscience Whigs. His name was an anathema to the South in the 1850s, as he 
became the embodiment of northern anti-slavery sentiment. Seward was an early 
leader of the Republican party and aspired mightily to that party's presidential 
nomination in 1860. Despite his disappointment he agreed to become Lincoln's 
secretary of state. In the last months of peace he tried to effect a compromise in 
order to preserve the Union. Initially skeptical of Lincoln's abilities, Seward sought 
to promote himself as the natural leader of the new administration. Skillfully 
thwarted by the masterful Lincoln without becoming alienated, Seward became a 
very effective secretary of state. He served from 1861 to 1869, exerting considerable 
influence on both Lincoln and Johnson. He favored conciliation after the war and 
was disappointed at what he considered Republican radicalism during Recon- 
struction. Dexter Perkins, "William Henry Seward," Dictionary of American Biog- 
raphy, XV 'I, 615-621. 

58 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

wheat and Rye fields of New York 8c New England", or "free 
labor in the cotton and Rice fields of the South"; as if every man 
of ordinary perception did not know, that either of these extremes 
is incapable of accomplishment without a Revolution of the 
bloodiest character, and is not desired by one man in a hundred of 
either section. 

I think with Mr. Hamond, 47 that it will be difficult to find fuel 
for the flame of slavery agitation any longer, and that parties must 
find some other means of commending themselves to popular 
approbation, than championship on the one side or on the other 
of this issue. 

The time is therefore favorable for a calm consideration of 
public affairs, and affords an opportunity for Statesmanship to 
supplant mere partisanship in Administration. 

I do not however intend to anticipate the deliberations of our 

But remain very truly and faithfully 


From John W. Norwood 48 A&H 


Nov. 18th. 1858. 

I think I have arranged all my business at Alamance Superior 
Court except one case, and I will be much obliged to you to take 
charge of that one for me. 

And now, my good friend, our relations through life render it 

47 James Henry Hammond (1807-1864) of South Carolina, a graduate of South 
Carolina College (the University of South Carolina), was a lawyer, planter, and 
politician. Always a vigorous defender of southern interests, Hammond was a 
nullificationist legislator, a State Rights Free Trader member of the United States 
House of Representatives (1835-1836), governor of South Carolina (1842-1844), a 
State Rights Democrat member of the Senate (1857-1860), and a secessionist. 
Biographical Directory of Congress, 999. 

48 John Wall Norwood (1802-1885), of Hillsborough, was an 1824 graduate of the 
University of North Carolina and a lawyer. Thus, he and Graham had much in 
common. Norwood served one session in each house of the state legislature, having 
been elected to the Commons in 1858. In addition to his legal practice, he advocated 
and practiced scientific farming. Spencer Alumni Project; Lefler and Wager, 
Orange County, 336. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 59 

proper that I should say something to you on the subject of my 
late course in politics. When I was induced at the last hour to take 
the subject of being a Candidate into consideration my intention 
was to have consulted you and Waddell 49 about it, without 
reserve, and after I had accepted the nomination I had intended to 
confer freely with you about it, 8c gave Mr. Waddell some intima- 
tion to that effect. But upon reflection I found that I could with 
propriety do neither, as you will readily perceive from the state- 
ment which I am about to make. 

I thought that from the condition of affairs both State and 
National and of Parties, a person who occupied a position like 
mine might act with the Democratic parties, provided he was free 
from all selfish motives and did so truly and solely from a sense of 
public duty. 

Two principal reasons impelled me to take the step. First, 
opposition to the course indicated by the friends of the Western 
Extension Road and the Wilmington and Rutherford Road. Their 
success I thought would prove to be little short of ruinous to 
State Credit. 

But this subject alone would not have decided my course. At the 
time I accepted the nomination I did not believe our venerable 
friend, Judge Nash, 50 would ever take his seat again on the Bench, 
& I had reason to think so not only from my own observation, but 
from the express declaration to that effect which Dr. Strudwick 51 
had made to me. And, as the election of a Supreme Court Judge 

49 Hugh Waddell (1799-1879) of Orange County, an 1818 graduate of the University 
of North Carolina, was a lawyer by profession. He was a member of the House of 
Commons in 1828, state senator in 1836, 1844, and 1846, and lieutenant governor 
in 1836. Waddell was a Whig and a close friend of Graham. Lefler and Wager, 
Orange County, 340; Spencer Alumni Project. 

50 Frederick Nash (1781-1858), of Hillsborough, son of Governor Abner Nash, 
graduated from the College of New Jersey (Princeton) in 1799. After representing 
Orange County for several sessions in the House of Commons, he devoted himself 
increasingly to the legal profession. He was a noted jurist, serving as judge of superior 
court from 1818 to 1826 and 1836 to 1844. In 1844 Nash succeeded the deceased 
William Gaston on the North Carolina Supreme Court. Nash remained on the court 
until his death, presiding over the court as chief justice after 1852. Concise Diction- 
ary of American Biography, 720; Lefler and Wager, Orange County, 335-336. 

51 Dr. Edmund Charles Fox Strudwick (1802-1879), of Hillsborough, began his 
medical studies under his eminent townsman Dr. James Webb, received his M.D. 
from the University of Pennsylvania in 1824, and, after two years' service at a 
Philadelphia almshouse, established his practice in Hillsborough. He was a general 
practitioner of heroic "country doctor" proportions; however, he was also a talented 
surgeon. Strudwick was a concerned citizen, active in public affairs, and a Whig. He 
opposed secession until 1860, when a trip to Alabama convinced him that North 
Carolina must inevitably join the lower South states. On April 14, 1861, he presided 
over the first war meeting held in Hillsborough. His ardent support of the Confed- 

60 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

has never, I think, been made a party question, I desired in case of 
a vacancy to have it in my power to aid in placing you on the 
Bench. I have always thought that a seat on the Supreme Court 
Bench was your appropriate place, that you could there render the 
most Honorable and important services to the public, 8c for the 
greatest period. You may perhaps remember that when you were 
about to enter into National Politics, I expressed to you my regret 
that that course would disappoint this, my cherished anticipation 
for you. 

And now, my dear Sir, without going into commonplaces you 
have the matter before you. 

I mentioned these things to but one person at the time 8c could 
not to you. 

Yrs very truly. 

Courts will be continued for Treasurer. 

Brogden 52 Comptroller, 8c Page 53 will be elected Secretary of 

I think there will be no opposition to R. R. Heath 54 and 
Shepperd 55 for Judges. 

eracy resulted in financial ruin. Refusing to take advantage of bankruptcy 
proceedings, Strudwick surrendered all to his creditors and took up life anew in a 
two-room cottage. He was the first president of the North Carolina Medical Society. 
Richard H. Shyrock, "Edmund Charles Fox Strudwick," Dictionary of American 
Biography, XVIII, 158. 

52 Curtis Hooks Brogden (1816-1901), of Wayne County, was a lawyer and busy 
politico. An able debater known as "Rough and Ready," Brogden began his 
political career as a Jacksonian Democrat, but, to the dismay of his section, supported 
radical Reconstruction after 1865. A political cohort of William W. Holden, Brogden 
favored Negro suffrage and rule by the military. Only during the 1870s did he seek 
conciliation with the white majority. He was very frequently an officeholder in over 
fifty years in public life. During his lifetime he held the following offices: member 
of the Commons, 1838-1850; state comptroller, 1857-1867; state senator, 1868-1872; 
lieutenant governor, 1873-1874; governor, 1874-1877; United States House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1877-1879; and state house of representatives, 1887-1889. He was also 
one of the largest landowners in Wayne County. George S. Willis, "Curtis Hooks 
Brogden," in Ashe, Biographical History, VI, 106-113; Biographical Directory of 
Congress, 601. 

53 Rufus Page, of Wake County, was North Carolina secretary of state, 1859-1862. 
R. D. W. Connor (comp. and ed.), A Manual of North Carolina . . . 1913 (Raleigh: 
North Carolina Historical Commission [State Department of Archives and History] , 
1913), 441, hereinafter cited as Connor, Manual, 1913. 

54 Robert R. Heath (1801-1871), of Chowan County, a native of New Hampshire 
and a graduate of Dartmouth College, came to North Carolina before 1840 as 
a teacher. He became a prominent lawyer and he served as a judge of superior 
court (1859-1865) before moving to Memphis, Tennessee. Connor, Manual, 1913, 

55 Jessie George Shepherd (1821-1869), of Cumberland County, graduated from 
the University of North Carolina in 1841. A lawyer by profession, he was a member 

The Papers of William A. Graham 61 

From what I can learn, Clingman will probably be elected 
without serious opposition for the short term as Senator. 

And the contest will be between Brag 56 8c Holden 57 for the 

Pride Jones 58 and I are for Judge Ruffin 59 first and last. 

of the House of Commons, 1854-1858, 1862-1865; a superior court judge, 1858-1860; 
and a university trustee, 1862-1868. Spencer Alumni Project. 

56 Thomas Bragg (1810-1872), a brother of Confederate General Braxton Bragg, 
was born in Warrenton. He was educated in a local academy and had three years at 
the famous Partridge Military School in Middleton, Connecticut. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1833 and established a successful legal practice in Northampton County. 
In politics Bragg was a Democrat in a Whig stronghold; nevertheless, he won a 
seat in the Commons in 1842, was governor (1855-1859), and served as United 
States senator (1859-1861). He and Holden were rivals for the leadership of the 
Democrat party, with Bragg usually having a dominant position. C. C. Pearson, 
"Thomas Bragg," Dictionary of American Biography, II, 588-589. 

57 William Woods Holden (1818-1892), a native of Orange County, had been since 
1843 editor of the partisan North Carolina Standard (Raleigh), the outstanding 
Democratic organ in the state. Holden had been a powerful force in the revitali- 
zation of the Democratic party but was denied the party's support for the high 
public offices which he coveted, as in this case when Bragg was elected to the senate 
seat in question. Never one to be trammeled by political philosophies, Holden was 
successively a Whig, a secession Democrat, a Unionist during the Civil War, and 
a Republican. He was appointed provisional governor by Andrew Johnson but was 
defeated for the governorship by Jonathan Worth late in 1865. However, he was 
elected to that position in 1868 after the franchise had been broadened and the 
freedmen galvanized to the Republican party. In 1870 Governor Holden was removed 
from office by impeachment for acting arbitrarily while protecting corrupt elements. 
Holden, clearly a man of energy and ability, was one of the most controversial figures 
in North Carolina history. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "William Woods Holden," 
Dictionary of American Biography, X, 138-140; Thomas M. Pittman, "William Woods 
Holden" in Ashe, Biographical History, III, 184-206; McCormick, Convention 
Personnel, 45-46. 

58 Pride Jones (1815-1889), of Hillsborough, was a graduate of the University of 
North Carolina. He was a member of the House of Commons in 1858 (at the time of 
this letter) and the North Carolina House of Representatives in 1872. During the 
Civil War, he was captain of the Orange Guards, Twenty-seventh North Carolina 
Regiment, and then regimental captain. Spencer Alumni Project; Clark, Histories of 
the North Carolina Regiments, II, 425-426. 

59 Thomas Ruffin (1787-1870), a native of Virginia, graduated from the College 
of New Jersey (Princeton) in 1805. He studied law in Petersburg, Virginia, and 
with Archibald DeBow Murphey in North Carolina. He established his practice in 
Hillsborough in 1808. After holding various minor court positions, he served on the 
North Carolina Supreme Court from 1829 to 1852, presiding as chief justice from 1833 
until his retirement. He returned to the court for one year in 1858. Judge Ruffin was 
widely respected for his knowledge in common law and equity. In constitutional 
law he is ranked with John Marshall and Lemuel Shaw. Unlike his Virginia cousin. 
Edmund Ruffin, Thomas Ruffin was an ardent Unionist who denied that secession 
was legal. When all attempts at compromise failed, he voted for secession in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1861 and supported the Confederate war effort. 
McCormick, Convention Personnel, 70-71; J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "Thomas 
Ruffin," Dictionary of American Biography, XVI, 216-217. 

62 N.C. Department of Archives and History 


From Joseph Graham UNC 


Jan. 1, 1859. 

I hope Mother and the little brother are doing well. You did 
not say what you propose calling him. I presume names are 
becoming scarce, and he will have to go without, till he is capable 
of calling himself. 1 I intend writing to Mother soon. 

I finished my Thesis today. The subject I have been consider- 
ing is inflammation of the brain, technically called meningitis. 
1 still continue much pleased with the study of Medicine. I noticed, 
with much pleasure, in my last Register, a memorial to the Legis- 
lature of our State, requesting the appointment, in the state, of a 
board of medical examiners. It is designed to put a stop to the 
practice of unquallifled unlicensed imposters, calling themselves 
Doctors. I hope the Legislature will consider it with favor — for 
there are many such, both in ours and other states, much to the 
detriment of worthy Physicians, and injury to the public generally. 

From James Hastings 2 UNC 

Henderson Plantation 
January 14, 1859. 

I was Requested By Mr Charles Wilson to rite to you he has 
Six Sheep to Sell 3 yous and 3 yearlin Sheep he Askes $ 1 25 for the 
old ones and $100 Apees for the others he sais tha or very 
gentle tho he is a cripple and cannot keep them tha will not 
Jump he sais and I have got Sams hous up and wood have had 

1 His brother's dire predictions were premature and this child was christened 
Eugene Berrien Graham. The child died in 1863 at age four. W. A. Graham Clark 
(comp.), "Descendants of James Graham (1714-1763) of Ireland and Pennsylvania," 
(Washington, D. C: 1940), typescript copy of a genealogical chart in the Graham 
Papers, UNC, hereinafter cited as Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

2 Hastings was overseer at Graham's "Henderson Plantation" which was 
located in Lincoln County. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 


it covered tho I was disapointed in geting someone to rive 
Bords I am now geting railes and Jining Cotin as it is so wet 
that I cant plow I did expect to have comenst Bracking som 
Cotin land yesterday tho the rain provents ... I have nothing new 
to say to you wee air All well as usal Cyntha and Susan is Com- 
plaining tho nothing serias . . . ther is I under stand Several cases 
of neumonia and ty fored feever and some deths up the river 

I will haf to have som more winter Close for self and children 
that I for got when you was her and you wood oblige me if you 
wood send me som money . . . Mr Willson wishes to no Soon if you 
want those Sheep as he moste Sell them 

The General Nathanael Greene equestrian statue is one of about thirty monuments 
and markers in the Guilford Courthouse National Military Park northwest of 
Greensboro, North Carolina. Photograph from the files of the State Department of 
Archives and History. 

64 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Address to the Greene Monument Association 3 UNC 

January 20, 1859. 

the life and character of 
general nathanael greene. 

Mr. President, and Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Your design to erect in the centre of this town, a durable 
monument in commemoration of the services of General Greene, 
in the great struggle for the Independence of America, is, in my 
view, an object so noble and national, that I esteem it a privilege 
to give to it my most hearty co-operation. I have, therefore, 
considered the request of your Board of Managers, that I should 
appear here, this evening, to bear a part in the exercises appoint- 
ed by them, and in this manner, possibly to render some aid in its 
accomplishment, as equivalent to a command. 

It is surely most appropriate, that, here at Guilford Court 
House, almost within cannon shot of that battle field, which 
has passed into history by this name — in the busy haunts of men — 
in the place of public assemblage of the people — amid institu- 
tions for the instruction of the young — in sight of a great railway, 
the intelligent traveller on which, feels as he passes your bor- 
ders, that then he is in classic land — that here, rather than on the 
immediate, but now solitary, scene of the conflict, there should be 
some striking memento of the illustrious American Commander 
who, though apparently defeated on that battle field, there rolled 
back the tide of invasion, which had pursued him for six hundred 
miles, delivered the State of North Carolina from conquest, and 
gave his consummate adversary a check and a wound, which even- 
tuated in his surrender at York town. 

Of the three great battles of General Greene in the South, 
Guilford Court House, Hobkirk's Hill, near Camden, and Eutaw 
Springs, in lower South Carolina, that of Guilford Court House 
was the first in time, most important in its results, and most 
abounds in romantic interest. Not merely from the long doubt- 
ful and severe conflict, on that bright, clear and cold March day — 

3 This paper, read before the Greene Monument Association on January 20, 
1859, was apparently not printed until 1878 when it appeared in the University of 
North Carolina Magazine. A pamphlet edition was printed in 1901. It reflects 
Graham's continuing interest in the history of the American Revolution. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 65 

the readiness, sagacity, and calm intrepidity of the rival Generals, 
and the ardent heroism and perseverance of their respective hosts 
— but from the series of thrilling and striking occurences, be- 
tween the two armies, for two months preceding. From Tarleton's 
defeat by Morgan at Cowpens on the 17th. of January, 1781, 
onward to this great contest on the 15th. of March, there was 
hardly a cessation of the most active hostile operations. The re- 
treat and pursuit across Broad River on the borders of South 
Carolina, across the Catawba, and Yadkin and Dan, into Virginia 
— the quick return of the American army with additional forces 
and supplies — the rising of the loyalists under Pyles, and their 
suppression by Pickens and Lee — the maneuvering and skirmish- 
ing from Hillsborough across Haw River, Alamance and Reedy 
fork, to the Iron works on Troublesome creek — the arrival of 
new reinforcements there — the final advance — the grand struggle 
— the sullen retirement of Greene from the field, and the flight 
of the victorious British army, when in three days he returned to 
renew the fight, form a narrative scarcely exceeded in interest 
in the most admired stories of works of the imagination. Indeed 
his whole campaign of 1781, from the time of his superseding 
Gen. Gates, in command of the Southern army at Charlotte, until 
after the battle of Eutaw Springs in September, 1781, during 
which, he expelled Lord Cornwallis from North Carolina, and 
reconquered South Carolina and Georgia, is so fraught with 
stirring incidents, that almost every page of its history is calculated 
to cause the heart to beat, as at the sound of a trumpet. 

When called to this service he had reached the thirty-ninth 
year of his age. Born of parents devoted by religious vows, to the 
most inviolable peace, and reared to mature manhood in the 
benevolent morality and pacific conduct of their denomination, 
his education, though respectable and sufficiently liberal to de- 
velop faculties of no common order, was very far removed from a 
preparation for the art of war. Yet he had a genius, which seemed 
to learn war by intuition, and which made him, with the single 
exception of the great Commander-in-Chief, the first soldier of the 
Revolution. Except as a school boy, he had not read Caesar, 
and had never looked into a page of Xenophon, Turenne, or 
Vaubon, but he had seen discipline under Steuben, and had been 
five years in the school of Washington. Entering as a brigadier in 
1775, he had served under him in New England, New York, across 
the Jerseys, at Brandywine, and Germantown — had shared in the 
privations at Valley Forge, and had generally followed the flag 
of the Commander-in-Chief through the Middle States. When, 

66 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

therefore, Washington recommended him to Congress, for the 
command in the South, he mentioned him as "an officer, in whose 
abilities, fortitude, and integrity, from a long and intimate experi- 
ence of them, he had the most entire confidence." 

The critical situation of the patriotic cause in the South at 
that juncture, rendered the selection of a Commanding General 
for this department, of the utmost importance. Charleston had 
fallen on the 12th. of May, and the army of Gen. Lincoln, com- 
prising all the continental troops of the South, and a still larger 
body of militia, had been surrendered to the enemy — a few days 
thereafter, a Virginia regiment, under Col. Buford, had been 
literally cut to pieces, by Tarleton, near the Northern boundary 
of South Carolina. General Gates, who succeeded Lincoln in com- 
mand, and who brought with him the prestige of the conquest of 
Burgoyne, had, on the 16th. of August, been overwhelmingly 
defeated at Camden, but a few days subsequently, Gen. Sumter 
had been defeated and routed, and his force dispersed. The Royal 
Government had been re-established in South Carolina and 
Georgia. The main British army advanced to Charlotte, and but 
for the opportune victory of King's Mountain, which compelled 
its retirement from the State, General Greene would probably 
have found the enemy in the very heart of North Carolina. The 
routed army of Gates having been re-formed and reinforced 
at Hillsborough, had returned to Charlotte in the direction of the 
enemy, when the command was transferred. But in the then con- 
dition of affairs, there was everything to discourage a mind less 
adapted and accustomed to master events than was that of Greene. 
Instead of complaining of fortune, he grappled with the diffi- 
culties which surrounded him, and endeavored to overcome 
them. He had the American faculty, so conspicuously and so often 
displayed by Washington, to invent means to effect the most im- 
portant ends in circumstances, the most apparently adverse — 
to create armies as well as to combine, and maneuvre and fight 
them — to inspire confidence — to oppose troops half fed and 
clothed and armed, to veteran British regulars, supplied with all 
the appointments of the war — to strike with celerity, when 
opportunity allowed, but to avoid battle when odds were against 
him. When he assumed the command of an army of less than two 
thousand men, one-half of which was militia, in a country ex- 
hausted by the recent occupation of the grand army of invasion, 
he immediately divided this small force, relying upon the 
resource of calling other militia from their homes, as events should 
require them; and in less than six weeks, the right column of 

The Papers of William A. Graham 67 

his army under Morgan, with accessions of militia, under Pickens, 
McDowell, and Cunningham, had signally defeated the light 
troops of the enemy under Tarleton. And, notwithstanding the 
persistent efforts of Lord Cornwallis from this time, in a pursuit 
of six hundred miles, to bring him to a general action, he success- 
fully evaded it, until reinforced by superior numbers, he chose 
his own time and place, at Guilford Court House, and advanced 
to attack his adversary. So in his other great battles, within the 
limits of South Carolina, he was always the assailing party; 
yet at no time did his regular force exceed two thousand men, 
while that of his adversary was estimated at four thousand. Ever 
on the alert, never surprised, dejected, or dismayed, the persever- 
ing spirit with which he was animated throughout this brilliant 
campaign, is embodied in a single expression of a dispatch to the 
Commander-in-Chief, in one of the darkest hours of his fortunes, 
in which he declares, "I will recover the country, or die in the 
attempt." Chief Justice Marshall, in a just encomium on his 
conduct of the war in the South, remarks it "as a singular fact, 
well worthy of notice, that, although he never gained a decisive 
victory, he obtained to a considerable extent, even when defeated, 
the object for which he fought." How truly is this illustrated in the 
flight of Lord Cornwallis from his victorious field at Guilford — 
in the retirement of Lord Rawden from Camden after the battle 
of Hobkirk's Hill, and the retreat of Col. Stuart to Charleston, 
after that at Eutaw Springs. With a generalship adapted to the 
nature of the war which he prosecuted, and the means afforded 
for conducting it, he arrested the adverse course of events, gave 
courage to the desponding friends of the country, and closed the 
war in the Southern department with a lustre upon the American 
arms which excited the admiration of the Confederacy and of the 
world. The State of North Carolina, as "a mark of her high sense 
of the extraordinary services of that brave and gallant officer," 
voted him a devotion of 24,000 acres of land in the most eligible 
part of her territory in Tennessee. The State of South Carolina as 
a like acknowledgement, bestowed on him 10,000 guineas, and 
the State of Georgia 5,000 guineas — to which each of these States 
added magnificent plantations, from the confiscated property 
of their disloyal citizens. 

Before taking leave of his military command, he had determined 
to make his future home among these Southern fields of his fame, 
and soon established his residence in the vicinity of Savannah, 
Georgia, where he found an early grave, in the year 1786. His pub- 
lic services were purely military. He did not, like Washington, 

68 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Hamilton, Randolph, Knox, Davie, and others of his comrades in 
arms, survive to participate in founding our civil institutions, and 
to aid in their administration. Though there is little reason to 
doubt that the resources of his fertile and inventive genius, which 
had been equal to all the complicated difficulties of his military 
life, would have been as useful in the new fields of American 
Statesmanship, as it had been in arms. 

"The lives of such [great] men all remind us, 
We can make our lives sublime; 
And departing leave behind us, 
Footprints on the sands of time." 

I have deemed it a fit occasion while we assemble to unite in 
our efforts in rearing a monument to General Greene, to pass in 
review the military services rendered by North Carolina in the 
War of the Revolution. I am the more induced to undertake this 
task, because so far as I am advised, it has never yet been attempted 
by any writer of history. It is true that here and there, among 
the writers on that memorable event, the troops of the State are 
occasionally mentioned, and some of their achievements and 
sacrifices in the general cause of the country, like oases in the 
desert, appear in a creditable light, but for the most part, they 
have been allowed to sleep in oblivion, and in some instances, 
they have been recorded to the credit of other States. Brave men 
have lived since, as well as before Agamemnon, who have been 
denied justice, from the muse of history. It was the remark of a 
critic on Plutarch, that "read his compositions in what language 
you please, you will perceive that they are the work of a Greek." 
And it will be obvious to the dullest critic of the various accounts 
of the American Revolution, that no one of the writers of them was 
a North Carolinian. I am far from believing this neglect and 
even misrepresentation of our history has been owing to preju- 
dice or intentional injustice. It may be ascribed almost wholly 
to the fact that we have no State history, and that a large portion 
of her annals have never been generally published. The Annalist 
precedes the Historian, and in great part prepares his materials, 
and at this late day most writers appear to extend their research no 
further than [to] what has been printed and published. After 
much discussion and controversy, it is now conceded, that the 
people of the State spoke brave words at Mecklenburg in 1775, 
and that her provincial Congress in April, 1776, was the first in all 
the Colonies to instruct its continental delegates to vote for abso- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 69 

lute National Independence. How did she give these sayings deed 
and maintain her resolves with arms? The answer involves 
inquiries and researches, necessarily tedious, but I trust not 
wholly unprofitable. 

Of officers of the Continental line, she furnished one Major- 
General, Robert Howe, commanding, October 20th., 1777. Five 
Brigadier-Generals, Robert Howe, commanding, March 1st., 
1776; James Moore, March 1st, 1776; Francis Nash, February 5th., 
1777, Jethro Sumner, January 9th., 1779; James Hogan, January 
9th., 1779. Of the latter, the two most distinguished for military 
genius, Moore and Nash, died early in the war. The first named 
of these had signalized himself, in a correspondence with the 
loyalist General, Donald McDonald, in February, 1776, in which 
he declared "the cause of the colonies the most glorious and 
honorable in the world, the defence of the liberties of mankind, 
in which he was determined to hazard everything dear and 
valuable — " in a spirited command, for the suppression of the 
loyalists within the State, and had at the head of his Brigade, 
co-operated in the first defence of Charleston, under General Lee, 
in June, 1776. He died a natural death, in Wilmington, in April, 
1777. General Nash had been commissioned a Colonel in the 
Continental forces of the State, early in 1776; was also in service 
with the other Continental troops of North Carolina, in the 
defence of Charleston, and being promoted to the rank of a 
Brigadier, united his Brigade with the army of General Washing- 
ton, in New Jersey, in June, 1777. His fall in the line of gallant 
duty, in the battle of Germantown, Pennsylvania, amid the tears 
and regrets of his comrades, has caused his name to be recorded 
by a part, and only a part, of the Historians of the Revolution. 

It is a fact which should not be lost sight of, in this period, that 
Massachusetts first becoming the theatre of war, had raised a force 
of 13,600 men, and had prevailed on the other New England Col- 
onies to levy men, in like proportions, and that Congress in May, 
1775, was induced to adopt this force, as a Continental Army. 
This accounts for the further fact, that in the course of the war, 
Massachusetts obtained appointments of five Major Generals, 
and eleven Brigadiers; Connecticut, five major Generals, and five 
Brigadiers; New Hampshire, one Major General and five Briga- 
diers; Rhode Island, one Major General and two Brigadiers; and 
that almost all the troops of New England, in the service of the 
Union, appear as Continental soldiers. This army, except the 
officers, adopted by the Continental Congress, was with difficulty 
kept embodied, after the command was assumed by Washington, 

70 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

during the seige of Boston, owing to the brief term for which its 
men had been enlisted, and soon melted away, when the British 
forces evacuated that city, in March, 1776. When Congress, after 
the Declaration of Independence, came to organize forces for a 
more determined and protracted struggle, they called for eighty- 
eight Battalions, to serve during the war. These were apportioned, 
to be furnished by the States, in the quotas following: Massachu- 
setts, 15; Virginia, 15; Pennsylvania, 12; North Carolina, 9 
Maryland, 8; Connecticut, 8; South Carolina, 6; New York, 4 
New Jersey, 4; New Hampshire, 4; Rhode Island, 2; Delaware, 1 
Georgia, 1. Such were then considered to be the relative popu- 
lations of the States, and their consequent liabilities to contribute 
men to the common cause. 

But long before this requisition, North Carolina having pro- 
claimed that "the cause of Boston was the cause of all the Colonies," 
and driven out her Royal Governor, an exile upon the sea, had 
marshalled her hosts, made expeditions and gained victories in 
the cause of the freedom of America. A thorough organization of 
her militia was provided for, by a Provincial Congress, 
assembled at Hillsborough in August, 1775; and at the same session, 
six Battalions of Minute Men, for the defence of province, and 
two Regiments of Continental troops agreeably to the recom- 
mendation of the previous session of General Congress, were 
ordered to be levied without delay, and the officers of all these 
forces were appointed. For, although in the latter description of 
troops, the commissions issued from the Continental Congress, 
the several States selected all officers up to, and including the 
grade of Colonel, leaving to the confederation only the election of 
the Generals. 

1. In December, 1775, one of these Continental Regiments, 
under Colonel Howe, being stationed in the eastern section of 
the State, defeated and suppressed a lawless army of whites and 
slaves under Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor; compelled his 
Lordship, like his Royal colleague in North Carolina, to take 
refuge on board a ship of war, and burned the town of Norfolk 
to prevent his further machinations with his motley followers, 
who found refuge there. I agree with Mr. Jones, in his defence 
of North Carolina, that the historical writers of Virginia have 
given but a cold and distant recognition, to this early and gallant 
assistance from a sister State, in rescuing her lower country from 
the ravages of a servile war, and putting the King's Governor to 
flight, never again to set foot on her shores. On his return from 
this expedition, Colonel Howe received the honors due to his 

The Papers of William A. Graham 71 

success, in being called into the presence of the Congress of the 
State, and greeted with an address of thanks and congratulation. 
And although her historians have given to it but a casual mention, 
we find in the correspondence of Governor Caswell, in August, 
1777, when the British fleet appeared in the Chesapeake, as was 
supposed, with a design to make a descent on her coasts, that Gov- 
ernor Page of that State, most warmly acknowledged this important 
aid, and expressed his desire, that like succor might then be 
afforded according to her then necessity. The prompt reply of 
Caswell was that "this State will ever be ready to give to her sister 
States every assistance in her power." 

2. While one of the Continental Regiments of the State was thus 
employed in Virginia, a portion of the other, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Martin, with militia forces under Colonels Rutherford, 
Polk and Neal, made an expedition against the Tories, in the 
Northwestern part of South Carolina, under Paris, Cunning- 
ham, and Fletcher, and uniting with the Whig forces of that 
State under General Richardson and Colonel Thompson, com- 
pletely suppressed the revolt. 

3. But a cloud was now lowering on her Southern coasts, 
which called for an united effort of the patriot forces of the State. 
Governor Martin, though expelled from the land, still lingered in 
his floating castle at the mouth of the Cape Fear, maintained a 
correspondence with his adherents within her borders, and threat- 
ened to excite the Indians to a war upon the frontiers, to arm 
the slaves against their masters, and with a large band and naval 
force that he daily expected, to ravage the country, and, in con- 
junction with the loyal Highlanders on the Cape Fear, to annihi- 
late opposition, and re-establish his Majesty's Government. The 
spirit of the country was roused to a sense of the impending danger, 
and ten thousand men were quickly found in arms to meet these 
domestic and foreign foes, and were on the march to the Cape Fear 
region. Fortunately the Highlanders rose before the arrival of the 
British force, were closely pressed by Colonel Moore, in command 
of one of the Continental Regiments of the State, and triumphantly 
defeated by Colonels Caswell and Lillington of the militia, at 
Moore's Creek Bridge, on the 27th. of February, 1776. On the 
effects of this important victory, it is unnecessary to dilate. Perhaps 
at no period of the war, in any State, was there so creditable an 
exhibition of patriotism and courage, as in this grand uprising 
of the people, when it is computed that every third man of the 
population fit for duty, was under arms. The whole subject is well 
illustrated in the lecture of President Swain, in the Revolutionary 

72 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

History of North Carolina, and I take leave of it here with the 
expression of my regret, that in the Life of Washington, by Irving, 
a work which will for ages be ranked among the American classics, 
no allusion whatever is made to it, although Judge Marshall in his 
biography, had assigned to it its due prominence as a great event 
of the war. 

4. Within three months from this time, we find the Continental 
Brigades of the State, under Howe and Moore, both now advanced 
to the rank of Brigadiers in the Continental establishment, by 
hurried marches reaching Charleston, South Carolina, and taking 
part under Major-General Lee in the defence of that city, when the 
attack of Sir Henry Clinton and Sir Peter Parker was so trium- 
phantly repelled. And it appears from a letter of Colonel Lilling- 
ton to Governor Caswell, that they remained on duty in that State 
as late as February, 1777. 

5. Simultaneously with this assault upon Charleston, the Chero- 
kee Indians opened a bloody war upon the inhabitants of the 
frontiers, and Colonel Griffith Rutherford, by this time a Briga- 
dier-General of the militia of Salisbury district, at the head of 
nineteen hundred men from his command, in July and August, 
1776, crossed the mountains, ravaged their towns, compelled the 
more obstinate of the Indians to flee for refuge to Florida, and the 
body of the nation to sue for peace. 

Before noticing the further service of our troops in the Conti- 
nental line, I deem it proper to mention the names of those officers 
of the State who held the rank of Colonel in that establishment in 
the order of their rank. These were James Moore, Robert Howe, 
Francis Nash, Alexander Martin, Jethro Sumner, Thomas Polk, 
Edward Buncombe, Alexander Lillington, Henry Irwin, John 
Armstrong, James Hogan, Thomas Clark, Abraham Sheppard, 
John Williams, William Lee Davidson, Archibald Lytle. 

6. The campaign of 1776, in the Middle States, having resulted 
in the loss of New York, and the retreat of General Washington, 
through New Jersey, with a force greatly reduced by reason of 
short enlistments, the North Carolina Brigades were ordered to 
that service early in 1777. General Howe being left in command 
of the Southern department of the army, and General Moore 
having died, General Nash led these troops, and joined the camp 
of the Commander-in-Chief at Middlebrook, New Jersey, in the 
month of June of that year. Through the remainder of this year, 
other troops followed from the State, and the nine Regiments 
called for by Congress, all appear to have gone forward to this 
department of the army. It should not be forgotten, among the 

The Papers of William A. Graham 73 

trials they endured, that the disease of smallpox prevailed both 
in the army and the country, to which they were sent, and that 
the process of vaccination not having then been discovered, 
the only mode of alleviating it was by inoculation, after due prep- 
aration of the system. Our Regiments were successively halted at 
Georgetown, Maryland, (now in the District of Columbia) for 
this purpose, and an extensive burial place is still recognized 
in that town, as the sepulchre of North Carolina troops, who died 
there of this malady. From this time forward, these troops formed 
a part of the army of the Commander-in-Chief, were present at the 
battle of Brandywine, on 1 1th. of September, and from a letter of 
Governor Burke, who appears to have left his seat in Congress 
to be present at this engagement, that portion of them, which 
constituted the Brigade of General Nash, co-operated with the 
division of Major-General Greene. At the battle of Germantown, 
on the 4th. of October following, we are informed by Marshall 
and other historians, that General Nash was among the officers 
killed, and that was all we learn from them, of North Carolina 
having furnished any part of the army engaged. Whilst it is well 
known that Colonel Irwin and Captain Turner, of the North 
Carolina line, were also killed, and that Colonel Buncombe 
was taken prisoner. From a contemporaneous report of General 
Sullivan, to the Governor of New Hampshire, we are informed that 
a Regiment of North Carolinians, under Colonel Armstrong, in 
conjunction with his own division, had driven the enemy a 
mile and a half beyond Chew's House, near which the action 
commenced, before the panic, caused by the unknown condi- 
tion of affairs, from the deep fog of the morning, seized the whole 
army, and occasioned a retreat, when victory was completely 
within their grasp. Mr. Irvin also mentions this latter fact on the 
authority of Sullivan, though I think he confounds Armstrong's 
Regiment with the Brigade of Nash, from the fact of their both 
being North Carolinians. We have also reliable evidence that 
Colonel Hogan, of North Carolina, was distinguished in that 
battle. In a letter from Governor Burke, then a delegate in Con- 
gress, to Governor Caswell, in January, 1779, he justified his 
support of Hogan for the appointment of Brigadier General over 
Colonel Clark, whom the Legislature had recommended, upon 
the ground of seniority commission, and also that Colonel Hogan 
had "in that action behaved with distinguished intrepidity, and 
that Colonel Clark had been restrained by superior command, 
which denied him the opportunity to obtain like distinction." 
We are told in a letter of General Lockton Mcintosh, from the 

74 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

camp at Valley Forge to Governor Caswell, that no troops suffered 
more in the intensely cold winter of 1777-78, than did those of 
North Carolina in the army of Washington. Indeed, throughout 
the war, the arrangements requiring that the States should provide 
arms and clothing for their Continental troops, though the food 
for these subjects was furnished, or at least promised, by Congress, 
our Continental forces, serving as they did out of the State, appear 
to have undergone great privations for want of necessary supplies. 
Though no general officer was appointed from the State for more 
than twelve months after the fall of the gallant Nash, these Regi- 
ments continued to serve in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New 
York, as far North as West Point, on the Hudson, fought 
gallantly in the battle of Monmouth, and participated in the 
vicissitudes of the war in that quarter, until November, 1779, 
when they were ordered South, for the defence of South Carolina 
and Georgia. Its ranks in the meantime, had become thinned, 
from the casualties of the service, the nine Regiments had been 
reduced to six, and the supernumerary officers were sent home, 
but it is shown by a letter from Mr. Sharpe, one of the State's 
delegates, in Congress, that when they passed Philadelphia, on 
the march to the Southward, the Brigade yet numbered seven 
hundred men, and levies had been continued at home to keep up 
their complement. 

7. It argues much for the disinterested zeal of the State in the 
common cause, that she permitted those troops to be absent at the 
North for three campaigns, during every one of which, her 
own borders or those of her adjacent States, were menaced or 
invaded by the enemy. In 1777, when the British Fleet passed up 
the Chesapeake and landed at the head of Elk, occasioning the 
application for assistance, by Governor Page of Virginia, already 
mentioned. Governor Caswell promptly ordered the Generals of 
the militia to hold men in readiness to march to her relief in case 
of need. And in the autumn of 1778, when the enemy for the 
second time, prepared for a descent on the Southern extreme of 
the Union, Congress invoked the State for three thousand Militia, 
to be forthwith levied and marched into South Carolina; and at 
the urgent instance of the delegation from the latter State, solicit- 
ed Governor Caswell, who had achieved renown as a soldier, to 
assume the command of this force, with the rank of a Major 
General in the Continental service, second only to General Lincoln, 
who about this time succeeded Major-General Howe, in the South- 
ern department. 

This was probably the highest honor paid to the Executive 
Magistrate of a State, in the course of the war. The call was 

The Papers of William A. Graham 75 

seconded in repeated letters by Governor Lowndes, of South 
Carolina, who expressed his hope "to baffle the enemy by the aid 
of his good friends in North Carolina," and by General Lincoln 
in person, who visited Caswell at Kingston, on his route to the 
Southward, and during his entire command there, appears to 
have maintained with him a correspondence indicative of the 
highest official and personal regard, and of his steady reliance for 
succor on the State under his government. The Governor, after 
some deliberation, thought proper to decline this flattering request, 
but adopted the promptest measures for raising the troops. For 
the command of them, he selected Major-General John Ashe, an 
early and intrepid leader of the Revolutionary movement in 
the State, whose popularity and courage afforded a sure guaranty 
that the required contingent should be furnished, without needless 
delay. They were levied in the Wilmington, New-Berne, Edenton 
and Halifax districts, rendezvoused at Elizabethtown, in the 
County of Bladen, and were to serve three months from the time 
of passing the State boundary. It appears from the Executive 
correspondence to have been impossible to procure sufficient 
arms for them, in either of the Carolinas or Georgia. They suffered 
a surprise, and were defeated and routed at Brier Creek, in the 
latter State, in the month of March, 1779, when their term of ser- 
vice had nearly expired; and their high-spirited, gallant commander, 
though acquitted of any imputation on his personal honor or 
courage, received the censure of the Court Martial for want of 
sufficient vigilance, which saddened the evening of his life. 

8. Within a short time after the requisition on the State for this 
quota of three thousand militia, came another for two thousand 
more, to serve five months — also to the Southward, and the Con- 
tinental recruits, which had been assembling at Halifax, prepara- 
tory to being still forwarded to the north, were also turned in the 
same direction. And soon after the march of the division of Ashe, 
from the low country, Brigadier Generals Rutherford, of the Sal- 
isbury, and Butler of the Hillsboro' districts, entered South 
Carolina by way of Charlotte, with this latter requisition, 
accompanied by the recent levies of North Carolina Continental 
troops, which were formed into two regiments, under Colonels 
Archibald Lytle, and John Armstrong, and constituted a brigade 
under General Sumner, These troops forming a part of the main 
army under General Lincoln, were in the maneuvering and 
skirmishing between him and General Prevost, and were actively 
engaged in the battle of Stono, in June, 1779. It was unfortunate 
that the militia were ordered to but brief terms of service — three, 
or at most, five months, often going out of the State, so that the 

76 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

army of General Lincoln was frequently changing, and was often 
reduced to very limited numbers. 

9. Our veteran regulars, who had served so long in the middle 
States, and marched the entire distance from New Jersey, in the 
unusually cold winter of 1779-'80, arrived in Charleston, under 
General Hogan, early in March. General Sumner was already 
there with his brigade; and new aids of militia, upon the urgent 
appeals of South Carolina and Georgia, and of General Lincoln, 
had been constantly supplied by our Legislature, as their succes- 
sive terms of service expired. In a letter to Governor Caswell, 
of the date January 3rd., 1780, the General wrote from Charleston: 
"It affords me great pleasure to be informed that your militia 
have been drafted, and are on their march, and may soon be 
expected here, where their services are greatly needed, and by the 
last accounts from Philadelphia, will probably soon be more so, 
while the continued exertions of your State, for the defence of 
this and of Georgia, leaves no room to doubt of their zeal in 
support of the common cause, and the particular interest of your 
neighboring States, who must view with pleasure your voluntary 
and timely efforts to preserve their safety and happiness. The 
impartial historian will record these acts among those virtuous 
deeds which have reflected so much lustre on the three first years 
of American independence." Mr. Edward Rutledge, an eminent 
citizen, appears to have been dispatched on a special visit to the 
Executive of North Carolina, to urge speedy aid; and Governor 
John Rutledge, of the date of January 31st., writes to Governor 
Caswell that the enemy had certainly landed a large force in 
Georgia. "There is no doubt," he proceeds, "that the invasion 
and conquest of this State are their objects, and I therefore most 
earnestly request, that the troops of your State, destined for our 
assistance, may be sent on, and that you will afford us what other 
aid you can, with the utmost despatch. I flatter myself that, in this 
trying occasion, North Carolina will exert herself to the utmost. 
It will be expedient that a body of your men should hang on our 
frontiers, and on the least prospect or apprehension of an insur- 
rection amongst our disaffected, march in to crush it." The assis- 
tance so much urged did arrive, and the commanding General 
having determined to make an effort to defend the city of Charles- 
ton, it was encircled within the lines of siege, and more than one 
thousand of our militia, and all our Continental forces were 
surrendered to the enemy by the articles of capitulation. The whole 
force consisted of three thousand men; of these North Carolina 
furnished at least one thousand seven hundred. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 77 

10. This dreadful blow to the Southern States was soon followed 
by the unresisted advance of the British troops, and the destruction 
of Buford's regiment of Virginia Continentals, by Tarleton, on 
the northern confines of South Carolina. Hitherto North Carolina 
had borne her part in the cause of the whole country, by con- 
tributing men without limit to fight its battles in other States. 
What was to be done now, with the enemy at her doors, and her 
most reliable forces prisoners within the British lines, or on board 
prison ships at Charleston? General Rutherford, who seems to 
have been untiring in his exertions, and whose command con- 
stituted a species of national guard, of which each man was 
counted out with his wife or his parents, to be called into service 
at a moment's warning, quickly embodied the militia of Mecklen- 
burg and Rowan to resist the advance of the enemy, and to keep 
down disaffection, now arising to a fearful height, in consequence 
of our late disasters; and by his orders, Col. Locke, of Rowan, and 
other brave Whig leaders, defeated and dispersed the gathering of 
the Tories at Ramseur's Mills, and compelled a regiment under 
Colonel Bryan, in the forks of the Yadkin, to flee from the State 
to the British posts in South Carolina. At this crisis also appeared 
in the field the effective Legionary Corps of Colonel Davie, 
whose brilliant services have nowhere received justice, except in 
the Life of Jackson, by Kendall, where the great captain of 1812- 
'14 gives his youthful recollection of this accomplished soldier. 
His clashing exploits in the slaughter of Bryan's Tories, on the very 
edge of the British camp, and retreating with success before the 
enemy were in readiness for attack, in the battle of Hanging Rock, 
in the surprise at Wahab's plantation, in the defence of Charlotte, 
and generally in annoying the outposts of the enemy, exhibited a 
genius for war which, in the opinion of Jackson, combined all 
the best qualifications, of Sumter and Marion without their 

Another body of Mecklenburg militia, on an alarm of the 
approach of the British on the west side of the Catawba, turned out 
early in July under the command of Colonels Irwin and Huggins, 
and being joined by General Sumter, of South Carolina, with an 
inferior force, and yielded to him the command of the whole. 
With these troops he fought the battle of Rocky Mount on the 1st. 
of August, and in conjunction with the corps of Davie, that of 
Hanging Rock, on the 6th. of the same month. From the fact that 
the chief commander and several field officers in these actions was 
of South Carolina, the historians seem to have taken it for granted 
that the troops were of the same State. The memoranda of General 

78 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Graham, furnished to Judge Murphy in contemplation of his 
undertaking to write the history of North Carolina, state that 
Davie's corps and the Mecklenburg militia, under the officers 
already named, constituted a great part of Sumter's command at 
this period, and that many of the field officers present from 
South Carolina had but few followers. General Davie, in his manu- 
scripts, describes the force which attacked Rocky Mount as a 
"number of South Carolina refugees under Colonels Sumter and 
Neal, and three hundred of the militia of Mecklenburg, under 
Col. Irwin:" while of that which fought at Hanging Rock he 
says: "The North Carolina militia, under Col. Irwin and Major 
Davie, numbered about five hundred men, officers and privates; 
and the South Carolinians, under Colonels Sumter and Loes, 
Hill, etc., about three hundred." 

The late Governor Caswell, also, now a Major General of militia, 
took the field with a full division, and united it early in August 
with the Continental troops of Maryland and Delaware, which 
had been ordered South, under the Baron DeKalb, who was 
afterwards superceded by General Gates, and formed the centre 
of the line of battle at the disastrous defeat of Gates on the 16th. 
of August, in which five hundred of the North Carolina troops, in- 
cluding Brigadier General Rutherford, were captured by the 

The defeat and dispersion of the command of General Sumter 
three days thereafter, and the re-establishment of the Royal 
Government in South Carolina and Georgia, gave a still darker 
gloom to the patriot cause in the South. 

1 1. Having in a discourse before the Historical Society of New 
York, which has been since published, treated of the services ren- 
dered by the State during the invasion of her territories, which 
was the next operation of the enemy, I am relieved from the 
necessity of expatiating on it here. 4 The advance of the army of 
Lord Cornwallis to Charlotte; the gallant resistance made by the 
corps of Davie, and the Mecklenburg militia, under General 
Davidson; the galling annoyances to his Lordship during his 
occupation of that town; and the annihilating defeat of the left 
column of his army, under Lieutenant-Colonel Ferguson, at 
King's Mountain, which caused his precipitate retreat backward 
into South Carolina, are matters of familiar information. I deem 
it, however, a fit occasion to remark, that the State has never re- 

4 This speech, entitled "British Invasion of North Carolina" and delivered by 
Graham on January 19, 1853, is included in Volume IV of The Papers of William 
A. Graham. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 79 

ceived her due share of credit for the men she furnished for the 
achievement of that ever-memorable victory at King's Mountain. 
Not only were the commands of Shelby, Sevier, Cleaveland, and 
McDowell unquestionably her citizens, but I think it clear that 
a large portion of that of Colonel Williams, who are reported in 
history to have been South Carolinians, and to have numbered 
400 men, were also of North Carolina. That heroic officer him- 
self was a native of Granville county, in this State, but had been 
a resident citizen of South Carolina several years prior to this 
action. After his adopted State had been overrun by the enemy, 
he seems to have retired to his native land, and on the 8th. of 
September, 1780, says Dr. Johnson in his "Traditions of the 
Revolution in South Carolina,'' Colonel Williams was authorized 
by Governor Nash, at Hillsboro', to raise 100 men. He joined 
the mountaineers in the pursuit of Ferguson, at Cowpens, on the 
5th. of October following, with near five hundred men, and was 
accompanied by about sixty men under Colonel Hambright, and 
Major Chronicle, of Lincoln County, in this State, who had joined 
him on his march. By what route he had proceeded from Hills- 
boro', how many men he had levied in this State, and where he was 
joined by that portion of his force which consisted of inhabitants 
of South Carolina, I have not been able to ascertain. Doubtless 
there were many gallant refugees of that State within our borders 
who gladly united themselves to his standard; (for Governor 
Rutledge himself was at that time at Hillsboro') but the circum- 
stances warrant the conclusion that a considerable part of his four 
hundred men were raised under the authority derived from 
Governor Nash. It is remarkable that Judge Johnson, in his Life 
of Greene, should, in his account of this battle, have designated 
Colonel Cleaveland as a South Carolinian, and in that of the 
Cowpens he speaks of Major McDowell as of the same State, when 
they are as well known historical characters in North Carolina 
as Nash or Davidson, and their commands were every man, moun- 
taineers of the then Salisbury district. And Lee and other 
writers, from the fact of General Pickens, of South Carolina, 
having been in that campaign, elected to the command of the 
brigade of North Carolina militia, after the fall of General David- 
son, in February, 1781, have credited these troops, more than seven 
hundred men, to South Carolina, when there were not 40 South 
Carolinians amongst them. 

It is mentioned by the former of these authors more than once, 
and with an emphasis that implies a reflection, that North Caro- 
lina had not a Continental soldier in the field from the fall of 
Charleston until some time after the evacuation of her territory 

80 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

by the British in 1781; and some ground for the censure thus 
intimated may be possibly found in the earnest invocations 
of General Greene in his communications to the authorities of 
the State, urging the re-establishment of his Continental battalion. 
Every indulgence is freely accorded to the urgency or importance 
of the commanding General in that season of dread and doubt; but 
the philosophic historian, with a more minute examination of 
facts, would have found both excuse and reason for this apparent 
delinquency. A state whose Continental troops had been, from the 
outset of the struggle, now five years, so constantly in service in 
other States; in Virginia in 1775, in South Carolina in 1776, in 
New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania and New York in 1777, '78 
and '79; and who lost all that remained of these veteran battalions, 
in addition to more than one thousand militia, in defence of the 
capital of South Carolina in 1780, and who had been always but 
tardily supplied by monies from the Continental Treasury for 
their support, might well be pardoned some delay in levying 
troops, which required supplies that by no possibility could she 
command. Herself the theatre of a most active foreign invasion, 
every success of the enemy in which was ripening a ferocious 
Civil War; cut off from all commercial intercourse, on the one 
hand by the British occupation of South Carolina, on the other, 
by the landing of an army under Arnold, at Norfolk, Virginia, 
and a threatened invasion from that quarter; added to which, her 
own port of Wilmington fell into the hands of the enemy, about 
the time that Lord Cornwallis passed the Catawba; with few trans- 
ports, a short stock of provisions, and an almost total destitution 
of salt, the commonest necessary of life — to have raised and main- 
tained a respectable regular force would have been difficult, if 
not impossible. On the other hand, a militia man in those days was 
regarded as a "self-sustaining institution;" mounted on his own 
horse, with his own domestic arms — generally a rifle, pistols, 
and a sword, swung high under the arm, if he was so fortunate as 
to own these; a shot bag, which sustained the breech of the 
rifle, while the muzzle was held in a leathern foot, fastened by a 
strap to the right stirrup, with great-coat, blanket or coverlid, 
and a pair of saddle bags for the food and clothing of the rider, and 
a wallet of provender for his horse — they went forth without 
baggage wagon, quartermaster, or company, to manuever and to 
battle with the well appointed and trained regulars of Britain. In 
her besieged and environed situation, the State had nothing but 
men to contribute to the common cause, and these she poured 
forth in a profusion more than equal to the public demand. Besides 
Davidson's brigade, which, we have seen, after his fall, passed 

The Papers of William A. Graham 81 

under the command of Pickens, and which served with great effec- 
tiveness the greater part of this campaign, and the brigades of 
Butler and Eaton, which gained us laurels on the field of 
Guilford, it appears from the journal of the Board of War, estab- 
lished by the State in 1780 for the more energetic prosecution of 
the war, that large bodies of militia, under General Allen Jones, of 
the Halifax, and General Gregory, of the Edenton districts, 
ordered out to the aid of General Greene, were halted and 
discharged on account of the scarcity of the means of subsistence. 

In turning to the statute book after the organization of the 
State government, we find that, besides attending to the requisi- 
tions of Congress for Continental troops, or militia, in 1777, there 
appears "An act to enable the Governor to send an aid from the 
militia, to oppose the enemies of the United States, if the same 
shall be requested by Congress," beginning thus: "Whereas, 
opposing the enemies of the United States by vigorous and 
powerful efforts will greatly tend to bring the present war to a 
speedy and happy conclusion, and this State is at all times willing 
and desirous of assisting to the utmost of its power in the common 
defence;" and empowering the Governor to detach from the militia 
an aid, not exceeding five thousand men, to march to such place 
in the United States as Congress shall direct, and serve for twelve 
months; and declaring that the Governor may march with and 
take command of these troops, if it shall be adjudged by himself 
and the Council to be consistent with the safety of the State, and 
of use to the public service. In January, 1779, there was passed 
"An act for raising forces for the defence of this and the neighbor- 
ing States," which provides for the levying of 2,000 men. In 
October, 1779, "An act for sending an aid to South Carolina and 
Georgia," reciting that, Whereas, on the representation of the State 
of South Carolina, it appears absolutely necessary that an aid 
should be sent from this State to the aid of the State and the State 
of Georgia; and ordering out three thousand men, including those 
directed in the act last mentioned. In April, 1780, besides a 
statute for raising three thousand men to complete the Conti- 
nental battalions of the State, there is "An act granting an aid to 
South Carolina," directing a levy of four thousand men, to serve 
for three months from the time of leaving the limits of the State, 
and appointing Richard Caswell, Esquire, Major General to 
command this aid, as well as all other militia of the State, now in 
service. In September, 1780, "An act establishing the Board of 
War," "for the more effectually and expeditiously calling forth 
the powers and resources of the State against the common enemy," 
and in some degree to act as a substitute for the General Assembly. 

82 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

which, though then holding two sessions each year, could not 
be "constantly in session." The subject is still followed up in 
January, 1781, in "An act to regulate and establish the militia 
of the State," and an act to fill up the Continental battalions of 
the State, now reduced from six to five; in June, 1781, in "An 
act for raising troops out of the militia of the State for the defences 
thereof," raises one regiment; an act to compel the counties to 
furnish their quotas of Continental troops; an "Act for drafting 
militia to re-enforce the Southern army," which orders five hun- 
dred men to be levied to march to such posts or places in this State, 
in the State of South Carolina or Virginia, as the commander-in- 
chief of the Southern army shall direct; "and in April, 1782, 
for raising troops to complete the Continental battalions of 
the State." A glance at these acts will convince the most skeptical 
of the unfaltering spirit and energy of the authorities of the 
government, and subsequent events will show that there was no 

decline in the spirit of the well affected portion of the people. If 
there was delay, therefore, in recruiting our Continental troops, 
it was by reason of hindrances beyond control. Her militia, 
we have seen, were hurried forth without stint, and although some 
of them ingloriously abandoned the pose of danger at the great 
battle here, others, sons of the soil of Guilford, rallying around 
the heroic Forbes, with him offered up their lives, a willing 
sacrifice to the liberty and glory of their country. Indeed, badly 
armed and clothed and provided as many of our militia were 
in several of their expeditions, it would seem an act of cruelty 
in a government which had any other alternative to expose them 
in open battle with the thoroughly accoutred soldiers of the 

12. We have time only to hint at topics, not to discuss them. 
General Greene, after pursuing his victorious adversary from 
Guilford Court House to Ramsay's Mills, on Deep River, formed 
the bold design of carrying the war into South Carolina. He ac- 
cordingly took that direction on the 7th. of April, and on the 2nd. 
of May fought with Lord Rawden the battle of Hobkirk's Hill, 
and here the militia of North Carolina, omnipresent on the battle 
fields of that State, still attended. It is stated both by Marshall 
and Lee that two hundred and sixty men, under Colonel Read, 
of this State, formed his second line of battle. 

13. Her Continental battalions being by this time also reorgan- 
ized, one of them, under Major Eaton, who gallantly fell in this 
service, co-operated with General Pickens and Colonel Lee in 
the reduction of the posts of the enemy in upper South Carolina, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 83 

and Augusta, in Georgia. The residue joined the camp of General 
Greene, at the High Hills of Santee in the month of August, the 
whole forming a brigade of three hundred and fifty men, under 
Brigadier General Sumner. With them was again a detachment 
of North Carolina militia, consisting, according to Johnson, of 
one hundred and fifty men, under Colonel Malmedy. These troops 
constituted one-fourth part of Greene's entire force at the battle 
of Eutaw Springs, and in that fierce conflict both the militia and 
regulars covered themselves with renown. Johnson quotes a 
letter from General Greene to the Baron Steuben, in which, speak- 
ing of the militia of the two Carolinas, which formed the first line, 
he says of their gallantry: "Such conduct would have graced the 
veterans of the great King of Prussia." Of the brigade of Sumner, 
under whom were Colonel Ashe and Majors Armstrong and Blount, 
he also declared, "that he was at a loss which most to admire — the 
gallantry of the officers or the good conduct of their men." 

But in this field North Carolina is entitled to something more 
than appears on the records of history. The memoranda of General 
Graham assert that of the State troops of South Carolina under 
Sumter, the regiments commanded by Colonel William Polk 
and Wade Hampton, at least, were wholly or in great part, raised 
between Yadkin and Catawba, in this State. We also find, in an 
act of the Legislature of June, 1781, to compel the counties of the 
State to furnish men for her Continental battalions, that those 
counties were excepted which had recently "furnished men for 
the Southern army, to serve ten months under General Sumter." 
It appears, likewise, in the Executive correspondence, that in the 
course of the war, leave to recruit men both for South Carolina and 
Georgia, within our limits, had been asked and granted on pre- 
vious occasions. 

After this memorable battle a state of hostilities and alarm still 
existed, and other troops, both militia and Continental, con- 
tinued to be furnished by the State to the Southern army, in 
accordance with the acts of the Legislature, already briefly referred 
to, but active military operations having mainly ceased, in 
consequence of the surrender of Cornwallis, which soon 
followed, and the evacuation of Wilmington by Major Craig, a 
detail of them is deemed unnecessary. 

14. The memoranda of General Graham presents an intelligible 
account of the expedition of General Rutherford, after his return 
from captivity of twelve months as a prisoner at Augusta, in the 
autumn of 1781, with about twelve hundred men, from Mecklen- 
burg, Rowan and Guilford, against the port of Wilmington and 

84 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

the Tories of the intervening country, which chastised the latter 
and compelled the departure of the garrison in that town to the 
main army in Charleston. 

15. Of the incidents of the Tory war within our limits, especially 
between the Cape Fear and the Pee Dee; of the risings, ma- 
raudings, and devastations of Fanning and his comrades, which 
continued with great fierceness even after the retreat of the 
royal forces from Wilmington; and the numbers and services of 
these "extemporaneous hosts" of gallant Whigs, who risked, and 
in many cases lost, everything, battling against them in the cause 
of the country, we have not time to speak here, nor in my hurried 
investigations much material to speak from. The historian, how- 
ever, in estimating the military exertions of the State, in the cause 
of the country at large, will not fail to observe that they were put 
forth not only under the disadvantages to which allusion has 
already been made, but under the incubus of a domestic foe, in 
several sections formidable, in most requiring vigilance, and in 
the district just mentioned dominant for twelve months, at least, 
in the darkest period of the contest. 

In these hasty notes I have but sketched the index to the 
volume of the military history of the State during the Revolution, 
and this very imperfectly, and doubtless with many important 
omissions. In an address of this nature, necessarily brief, collected 
from materials such as could be obtained from limited sources, 
in intervals snatched from other pursuits, amid many interrup- 
tions, there is no opportunity to dilate on events, or to do justice 
to the heroes and patriots who shaped the destinies of the State, 
and led her armies and marshaled her forces in the trying scenes 
we have endeavored to review. If I can but attract attention to 
these topics, and cause the imperfect outline to be filled up by 
those of more ability, leisure and material, I shall be compensated 
for the labor and attention bestowed upon them. In view, however, 
of the just reputation acquired to the State by their services even 
as they have now been presented, we are struck with the observa- 
tion, from the military mind of Davie, during the state of hostilities 
between this country and France, when, in writing to Iredell, 
he remarked "that in the event of a war, the population and mili- 
tary resources of the State would give to her a character in the 
Union which, from the course of circumstances, she seems to have 

From geographical causes, it has been conceded that her neigh- 
boring States enjoyed over her some advantages in commerce 
and exchanges; but in the day of adversity, when the independence 

The Papers of William A. Graham 85 

of all were at stake, drafts upon her for men were at a premium, 
and the balance in her favor. 

He who shall recover from oblivion, rescue from ruin and mis- 
representation, and establish the truthful fame of the State in this 
department of her history, is entitled to be cherished as a public 
benefactor. Even the undertaking deserves the encouragement 
and approbation of all patriotic citizens. The announcement of 
his intention to write the history of the State, by the late Judge 
Murphy, while there yet lived many of her men of the Revolution, 
was itself a fortunate event; for although he did not live to perform 
the task, he awakened attention to the subject, saved much mate- 
rial that was passing away, and demonstrated that it was a history 
rich in honorable renown, and well calculated to justify the 
feeling of a just national pride. I rejoice to know that now 
another son of the State, of profound learning, accomplished 
scholarship, matured judgment, habits of labor, and a zeal for her 
just rights, truly filial, has such a work in progress, and that in due 
time we may expect historical justice to the long neglected military 
services of our fathers. Heroic deeds and generous sacrifices sink 
into forgetfulness without literature or art to embalm them for 
future ages. Literature and art combined are still more potential 
to this beneficent result. Your monument, gentlemen, comes 
in aid of history, and will be itself a history. While it shall serve 
to keep in perpetual and bright recollection the invaluable 
services of Greene, it will also awaken patriotism and excite to 
virtue, by commemorating those of our immediate fellow- 
citizens, who acted and suffered in the same glorious cause, to the 
fame and memory of future ages. 

From James T. Morehead 5 and Will L. Scott a&H 


Jany. 21st. 1859. 

In behalf of the "Greene Monument Association," we are 
appointed a Committee to tender you the thanks of the Association 
for your able and learned Lecture delivered on last evening, and 
to request a copy of the same for publication. 

5 James Turner Morehead (1799-1875), a native of Rockingham County but a 
longtime resident of Greensboro, graduated from the University of North Carolina 
and was a teacher, lawyer, and farmer at various times in his life. He was a member 
of the state senate from 1835 to 1844, the United States House of Representatives, 
1851-1853, and the university board of trustees, 1838-1868. Spencer Alumni Project; 
Biographical Directory of Congress, 1854. 

86 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

We beg leave to add our earnest solicitations to that of the 
Association, that you comply with the request, believing, as we do, 
that in your laborious researches you have brought to light many 
important events connected with our early history, heretofore 
but little known, which will prove of great interest to many who 
had not the pleasure of hearing you. 

With sentiments of high regard, 
Your obedient servants. 

From George Little 6 UNC 


26Jan'y, 1859. 

The Whigs of the Legislature have had a meeting to 
reorganize the Whig party in this State, and have appointed an 
"Executive Committee" of one from each Congressional District. 
Your name has been placed upon it, and as Chairman of the 
Committee, I have been requested by the meeting to ask your 
acceptance of the appointment. 

Those who originated this movement are now perfecting, or 
endeavouring to do so, such general measures towards this object, 
as will insure in all probability, the success of our party at the 
election of the next year; and they feel assured you will give your 
hearty aid and cooperation in the cause. 

As for myself, I should have very reluctantly taken the place 
assigned me on this Committee, but that I hoped to have the 
benefit of your wise counsels and experience to aid in carrying out 
the objects in view. 

To John Maclean 7 A&H 

Hillsborough, N.C, 

Jany. 27th, 1859. 

Reverend Sir 

My son, William Graham, 8 presents himself as a Candidate for 

6 George Little, of Raleigh, was influential in the affairs of the Whig party and 
was frequently a member of the central committee. 

^John Maclean (1800-1886), of New Jersey, was the youngest graduate of the 
College of New Jersey (Princeton) in 1816. In 1818 he returned to his alma mater 
and remained there as professor of various subjects until 1868. He was vice president 
of the institution in 1829-1853 and president in 1853-1868. He proved influential 
in fostering the growth, development, and financial stability of Princeton. George 
M. Harper, "John Maclean," Dictionary of American Biography, XII, 128-129. 

8 William Alexander Graham, Jr. (1839-1923) was born in Hillsborough and 

The Papers of William A. Graham 87 

admission into the Junior Class half advanced, in the College of 
New jersey, having passed, with approval, to the same stage of the 
course in the University of North Carolina. From the latter 
Institution, he carries the certificate of the President that he has 
taken leave of it, without censure. 

Should he be so fortunate as to pass the examination required, 
and enter your College, I shall esteem it a favor, should your 
convenience allow, if you will, from time to time, specially advise 
him, both as to deportment, and the best method of improving 
his opportunities. 

I am With high respect 

Your Obed't Serv't. 

From Dorothea L. Dix 9 to Susan Washington Graham 10 UNC 


S. Carolina, 

Mills House, 

Jan'y 28th., 


My dear Mrs. Graham, 

Though I know no introduction at Princeton is important for 

was educated at the University of North Carolina (1856-1859) and Princeton College 
(A.B., 1860). With his father he opposed secession initially, although during the 
war he was a captain of North Carolina cavalry. Wounded during the Gettysburg 
campaign, he served subsequently as a major and assistant adjutant general of the 
North Carolina troops. He settled in Lincoln County and was a successful farmer, 
representing Lincoln in the state senate two terms and in the lower house one. A 
member of the state board of agriculture from 1899 to 1908, he was commissioner of 
agriculture from 1908 until his death in 1923. During his tenure as commissioner, 
the total value of North Carolina crops rose from twenty-third to fifth in the nation. 
Spencer Alumni Project. 

9 Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802-1887), of New England, was an eminent teacher, 
author, and humanitarian reformer. She devoted much of her life to improving 
conditions for the mentally ill by collecting data, educating the public, and 
lobbying. Her travels took her throughout the United States and to Canada and 
Great Britain. Miss Dix was very influential in prompting the establishment of a 
North Carolina institution for the insane. She spent much time in North Carolina 
when Graham was governor and became an intimate of the Graham family. 
Christina H. Baker, "Dorothea Lynde Dix," Dictionary of American Biography, 
V, 323-325. 

10 Susannah Sarah Washington Graham (1816-1890), daughter of the John Wash- 

88 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Willie, beyond his father's name and word, I send a line for Profes- 
sor Alexander, 11 — an excellent man, and one who will at all 
times meet Willie's behests as a judicious, kind, advising friend. 

I hope you are now quite recovered, and that the little One is 
thriving. I recall my visit with you with much satisfaction, and 
with renewed good wishes, and respectful regards to Gov'r 
Graham, I am 

Yrs cordially and 

From David L. Swain UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

Feb. 2nd., 1859. 

I am sorry to learn that Mr. Miller 12 declines lecturing here on 
the 22nd., and the more so, because I will be compelled to take 
his place. I must go over the history of the Regulation, and must 
beg you to have my M. S. notes on that subject sent to me as soon 
as convenient. 

I received last night your note and the accompanying extract 

ingtons of New Bern, married William A. Graham in 1836 and was his congenial, 
devoted, well-loved companion through successes and tribulations. She bore him 
ten children — nine sons and one daughter. Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

11 This is probably Joseph Addison Alexander (1809-1860), educator, linguist, and 
author, who was then professor of biblical languages and literature at the Princeton 
Seminary. Concise Dictionary of American Biography, 15. 

12 Henry Watkins Miller, a native of Virginia, came to North Carolina at an 
early age and was a graduate of the university in 1834, He was a public-spirited 
lawyer who was a Whig in politics. He was an ardent Unionist who devoted his 
considerable powers as an orator to that cause. Blessed with a magnificent voice 
and faultless elocution, he has been characterized as the greatest orator in North 
Carolina history. Spencer Alumni Project; News and Observer (Raleigh), January 
26, 1913. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 89 

of a letter from Burke 13 to Caswell; 14 I am very glad to get it. 
The Cape Fear gentlemen first claimed the command for Lilling- 
ton, 15 and when driven from this, they asserted that if not actual 
commander the stratagem to which Burke refers was planned and 
executed by Lillington. 

From David Webb 
and the New York Whig Committee UNC 

New York, N.Y. 

Feb. 7, 1859. 

Hon William A. Graham 

Dear Sir 

At a meeting of the Whig General Committee of this City held 
on the 4th Inst the following Resolution was introduced & 
refered [sic] to the corresponding Committee with power to 
communicate with Some of the Old Standard bearers of the old 
Whig Party requesting in return their opinions upon the Subject 
together with their views as to the Political Signs of the times. 

Your name having been suggested as one of the unchangeable 
adherents to the policy of the old Guard the Sames [sic] is most 

Respectfully Submitted asking your Early Reply 

13 Thomas Burke (1747-1783), a native of Ireland, came first to Virginia but 
settled in Orange County in 1771. He practiced both law and medicine at various 
times. He was one of the three framers of the North Carolina Constitution of 1776, 
an influential member of the Continental Congress, and governor in 1781-1782. 
William K. Boyd, "Thomas Burke," Dictionary of American Biography, III, 

14 Richard Caswell (1729-1789), born in Cecil County, Maryland, moved to what 
is now Wake County at seventeen. He was a surveyor, lawyer, and politician. 
A member of the North Carolina Assembly from 1754 to 1771, he commanded the 
right wing of Governor Tryon's army at the Battle of Alamance. Subsequently, 
he presided over the provisional assembly and was, with Burke, on the committee 
which drafted the first state constitution. During the Revolution, he was successively: 
a delegate to the Continental Congress, 1774-1776; colonel of North Carolina parti- 
san rangers, 1776-1777; governor, 1776-1780; and major general of state militia, 
1780-1783. His reputation was tarnished by the record time he, with General Horatio 
Gates, made in leaving the disastrous Camden battleground. Edmund Kimball 
Alden, "Richard Caswell," Dictionary of American Diography, III, 571. 

15 Alexander Lillington (d. 1785), an early inhabitant of the Cape Fear region, 
was an early opponent of the Stamp Act, a member of the Wilmington committee 
of safety, and a hero of the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge where he shared 
command with Richard Caswell. Samuel A. Ashe, "Alexander Lillington," in Ashe, 
Biographical History, III, 261.269. The Burke letter to which Swain refers probably 
deals with that battle. 

90 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From James Hastings UNC 

Henderson plantation, 
February the 14, 1859. 

Deer Sir 

I recived your leter dated the 22 of laste month and wood 
have rote sooner tho I cold get no stamps I have got Sams 
house ner don and have the plank sawd for the other house Mr 
Cing has put up one chimny and will Bild the other in shorte 
he sais I have some land Broke for Cotin and some for corne tho 
the wether has bin so wet tha I cold not plow I have the fens 
maid from the hickry corner to the cotin Field and A good meny 
railes maid fore the other string etc. I have Jind all of the cotin 
tho not all pact I have 2 1 pact and anof to make 3 or more. I had 
somthing over 19 of ours the oats I have not sold any as yet 
I shal comense soing As soone as the wether will omit I sent Anotis 
up to the Mills the other day that I had oats to sell etc Mr Gillin 
has Ronaway as I under stand Mr Litle had a garna see served 
on m to day for what work I had don that tho tha have not got his 
Books as yet etc Mr Duglas was her the other day with A mule to 
sell he asks $110 for it 5 yers old this spring Mr R Whitler nose 
it well it is Jentle and is as good to work as can bee good leed sopk 

I got those Sheep from Mr Willson etc Sams wife has had A 
fine sone 2 weeks and 2 days olde and is dooing well Lidia has 
Been puney ever sine you was up she must carid By some 
means the weman has Been all Bad off with Coles or pretents 
tho tha air All able for ther alouans etc 

nothing more that I can think of now as I have no time to 

Yours very respectfooly 

To New York Whig Committee A&H 

Hillsborough, N.C, 

Feb. 21st. 1859. 


I regret that my absence from home, and engagements of 
business, have thus long delayed the acknowledgement of your 
letter of the 17th. ult. transmitting a resolution of the Whig 

The Papers of William A. Graham 91 

General Committee of the City of New York, and requesting my 
views on the present aspect of political affairs. 

I still more regret the want of leisure now, which would enable 
me to respond to this request, in a befitting manner. 

You do me but justice, Gentlemen, in classing me in the "Old 
Guard" which was wont to be marshalled under the lead of Clay 
and Webster, and which in every time of public emergency and 
National danger, has approved itself the life-guard of the Constitu- 
tion, and a Constitutional Union — which, whether in or out of 
power in a party sense, has ever been loyal to the Government, 
and relied upon to extricate it from difficulties, and save it from 
the antagonism of factions and sections. 

Most heartily do I concur with your Committee, that there 
should be an end of agitation, on the subject of slavery. In the 
Union formed by our Fathers, they mutually agreed to stipula- 
tions on this topic, which in the first half-century of the Republic 
were rarely misunderstood. Upon the enlargement of our 
borders, and the institution of new States and territories, it 
gave rise to divisions of the most serious character. These, upon 
two most memorable occasions were composed under the 
auspices of Henry Clay; and if the settlements thus made were 
not approved by all, they were acquiesced in and regarded as final 
by the great majority of the American people. 

Without designing to censure those entertaining and acting on a 
different opinion, I more than doubt the wisdom of reopening 
this controversy since the Compromise of 1850. It has been pro- 
ductive of no results, but violent factions and disgraceful 
contentions in the distant territories, and sectional alienation 
among the States. It excited hopes in the South, and fears in the 
North, which have been alike disappointed, and which never 
can be realized. The Law of soil and climate, turns out to be 
nearly the same in effect, with the Law penned by Henry Clay. 
Practically, therefore, there is no longer an exciting cause of 
dissention on this vexed question, and the slavery agitation must 
die out, unless new fuel shall be found for the flame. 

The political organizations which may aspire to guide the 
future destinies of the Nation must consequently appeal to 
public sentiment on topics more expansive and general than 
opposition to, or zeal for the establishment of slavery in a territory 
which must soon become a State, and regulate its own affairs. 
The period has passed when this issue like the rod of Aaron, can 
be permitted to swallow up all questions of National policy, and 
to obstruct, as for years it has done, the necessary attention on 

92 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

the part of Congress at least, to the National interest, and to pro- 
scribe as unworthy of trust all who do not subscribe the tests of 
political orthodoxy set up by extremists on either side. 

Considering this approaching calm in the public mind, I 
cannot but regard the quickened appetite for the acquisition of 
Cuba, and the very extraordinary measures proposed to obtain it, 
as a party device, having for its object to introduce a new test of 
patriotism and party fealty. As in the declining periods of the 
Roman Empire, conquests were made in foreign Countries, in 
order to furnish spoils for distribution among the followers of the 
Emperor, so it would seem to be supposed, that the American 
desire for the acquirement of new territories, expecially in the 
inviting region of the tropics, is so intense as to justify a disregard 
of the laws and usages of nations, and the innate sense of right 
and wrong, in order to add this island to our possessions. 

Now it should ever be borne in mind, that the extension of 
their territories was not one of the objects for which the people of 
the United States entered into the Federal Union. These as 
enumerated in the preamble of the Constitution were "to form a 
more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tran- 
quillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general 
welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to themselves and 
their posterity." 

In the progress of events magnificent domains have been 
acquired, adding greatly to the National convenience and power: 
but always of territories contiguous to our own, on the main land 
of the Continent, and by treaties made with the free assent of 
the prior sovereign, and for a reasonable equivalent, or by con- 
quest in war. The weakness and inability of Spain to resist the 
force of the United States appeals to the magnanimity of the 
nation, to be scrupulous in dealing with her, in a spirit of 
justice and forbearance. The asservation that we are powerful 
enough to defy the consequences even of a wrong action, and to 
cope with the most powerful allies, that may espouse her cause, 
may be all true: but it must also be recollected that the most 
eager advocates of this course are those who habitually threaten 
to rend the Union asunder, and thus to weaken the National 
power. That other allegation that Cuba is needed for our National 
defenses if true, would not authorize its seizure by violence, but 
since this Country has passed through its period of infancy and 
weakness without damage from that quarter, it is difficult to 
conceive how the danger has become imminent, in the present 
day of its gigantic strength. The declaration was made to the 

The Papers of William A. Graham 93 

world by the administration of Mr. Fillmore, that we should 
never consent to the transfer of this island from Spain, to any 
other European power, and the enforcement of this declaration 
is all that our interest or honor requires. I do not know that under 
all circumstances I should say with Mr. Calhoun that it was 
"forbidden fruit." But when we know of a certainty that it is not 
for sale, and that propositions for its purchase are offensive to the 
owner, it is not only idle but mischievous, to appropriate monies 
for the purchase, and threaten seizure, in the event of refusal. 
The time may come when it will be expedient and necessary to 
enlarge our boundaries, and even to annex islands of the sea, 
but let all such events be the results of time, and necessity; and 
let them not be sought as benefits to be eagerly acquired. The 
present limits of the United States comprehend an empire of 
sufficient magnitude to satisfy any reasonable aspirations for 
national grandeur, and care should be taken neither to sully our 
good name, nor to exact exorbitant levies, to the amount of 
hundreds of millions as proposed, from our present population, 
to the end that we may boast of more extended dominions. 

The Whig policy, Gentlemen, is founded in no one idea which 
may form the subject of a temporary excitement, expending all 
its energies now upon Kansas, and now upon Cuba. It builds its 
structures on no narrow platforms, framed to be interpreted in 
different sections, with different meanings, but it looks to the 
great interests of the Nation as confided to the Federal Govern- 
ment, and seeks to advance them by the means committed to 
its power. While abstaining from the exertion of powers denied, 
it contemplates the free and beneficent exercise of those conferred 
for the public good. It endeavours to allay sectional excitement, 
and promote sentiments of harmony and union by doing justice 
to all. Economical in fact, not in idle railing or boasting, it 
estimates the amounts required for an efficient public service, 
and appeals to an intelligent people for its contribution, not by 
direct taxes, as some insist, but by duties on imports, and with 
discriminations in favor of American industry. When last invested 
with authority under the mild and just rule of Fillmore, it gave 
due attention to all the National interests at an annual cost of 
less than 52 millions of dollars, and the complaint then made in 
a higher quarter that this was an extravagance calling for the kind 
of democratic reform, when under its author we have seen 
expenditures mount up to 81 millions per year, in a time too 
of profound peace, but proves what was said long ago by the most 
philosophic of statesmen that "the act of gaining power and tnat 
of using it well, are often found in different persons." 

94 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

But our views of public policy are too well understood by the 
Country to require them to be discussed at length — and in my 
opinion, the people are ready to return to them, as to the tried 
paths of experience. They want not war but peace, except where 
a resort to arms is necessary for the defense of American interests 
and honor. They are actuated by no lust for conquest or dominion. 
They want no sectional agitation, but a return, if possible to 
fraternal feeling. Instead of extravagance they require retrench- 
ment, not by spasmodic efforts which threaten to destroy whole- 
some public institutions, but by correcting abuses, and begining 
with those tolerated by Congress itself, in the department of public 
printing, for example. They desire, in fine, a more conservative 
national and healing influence in the public counsels, and need 
but a union of effort on the part of all actuated by this sentiment 
to effect the object of their wishes. 

From Joseph M. Graham 16 UNC 

Camden Arkansas 

March 1, 1859 

We have been living in Camden since the 21st of last June. 
And we are all much pleased with the place. The society is good & 
the town improving rapidly. . . . Ham 17 has been on a visit to us 
with a view of locating for the purpose of practicing his profession. 
He left here about a month since for Texas and I met with him 
in New Orleans week before last on his way to Key West Florida. 
If he is not pleased with Florida, he will settle I suppose either 
in Galveston Texas or in Camden Ark. 

16 Joseph Montrose Graham (1823-1871), a son of John Davidson Graham (1789- 
1847) and nephew of William A. Graham, graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1844, lived for a time in Catawba County, and eventually setded in 
Arkansas. Family ties were even closer because the nephew married a younger 
sister of Susan Washington Graham. Spencer Alumni Project; Clark, "Graham 

lf Dr. Alexander Hamilton Graham (b. 1835), William A. Graham's nephew and 
another son of John Davidson Graham of Lincoln County, had settled in Leander, 
Williamson County, Texas, about 1857. He served as a Confederate surgeon. 
Clark, "Graham Descendants"; William A. Graham, General Joseph Graham and 
His Papers on North Carolina Revolutionary History (Raleigh: Edwards and 
Broughton, 1904), 174, hereinafter cited as Graham, General Joseph Graham. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 95 

Have you abandoned the notion of settling a Farm on Red 
River. The lands have gone up Rapidly in that section 8c still 
rising. Now is the time to purchase if you desire to do so at any 
time. An appropriation has been made by both the Legislatures 
of Arkansas 8c Louisiana to open Sc keep open for a term of years 
the Raft on Red River which will add much to settling up &: the 
improvement of a large Territory which is now wild in South 
Western Ark. 

Our River is in good boating order at this time Sc some of the 
boats are perfect palaces floating up Sc down the River Sc enliven- 
ing the natives with music from the Calliope of steam music which 
is one of the great improvements of the age. 

We have now six children. The youngest three months old 
which we have named Susan Graham. We are all in the enjoyment 
of good health Sc all join in much love to yourself and family. 

Say to Aunt Susan that Mary 18 has written her frequently Sc has 
not receved [sic] an answer. Mary is now engaged in getting up 
a subscription to erect a Baptist Church in Camden Sc wishes Aunt 
S to take up a collection for its benefit from the brethren and 
sisters in N. Carolina .... 

To William A. Graham, Jr. 19 A&H 


March 3rd, 1859. 

My Dear Son 

I have been very busy this Winter, and therefore have not 
replied to your last letter. I was very much gratified to learn that 
you had passed your examination, and been admitted into 
College, and that your Cousin Eliza 20 has consented to take you 
into her family. I have received a letter from her, also, saying that 
she declined to receive board from you. Whilst I am greatly 
obliged to her for this kindness, I must insist on making compen- 

18 Mary Ann Washington Graham (1824-1888) was the wife of the letter writer. 
Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

19 William A. Graham, Jr., had just been admitted to Princeton College. 

20 Eliza Caroline Washington Evans (1819-1884) was the wife of Dr. Augustus 
Evans (1819-1863). Clark, "Washington Descendants." 

96 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

sation. I will write her in a few days. If your neuralgia continues, 
you have my permission to apply to be excused from attendance 
on morning prayers, but unless this is the case, I would prefer 
that you should attend. The habit of early rising is a part of the 
College Course, not without its benefits. 

If you still feel the cold oppressive, you can get an over Coat 
now, although the season is advanced. The pants you can get at any 
time, and if you think it necessary, get also flannel drawers. You 
must take care of your money, and a part of it must go to your 
Cousin, about which I will write you again. 

I was glad to learn from your last letter to your Mother, that 
you proposed to take lessons in elocution, and am willing that 
you should pay a teacher for them. 

We are all in usual health except your Mother, who still 
suffers from neuralgia. 

John and his colleagues Messrs Alexander 21 and Anderson 22 
came up about two weeks ago, and he remained from Saturday 
untill Tuesday. Rob't 23 walked home from Dr. Wilson's 24 last 
Thursday night, with T. Roulhac, 25 and stayed until Monday, 
but was made sick by the journey, and in bed most of the time. 

We are sowing Oats at the plantation, and have Crabtree 

21 William Lee Alexander (1833-1875), of McDowell County, was at this time a 
tutor at the University of North Carolina. He graduated from the university in 
1854 with first honors and received a law degree there in 1860. After serving as a 
Confederate captain, he was a lawyer and civil engineer. Spencer Alumni 
Project; Battle, History of the University , I, 640, 690. . 

22 Robert Walker Anderson (1838-1864), of New Hanover County, a brother of 
Confederate general George B. Anderson, graduated from the university in 1858 and 
was a tutor in Greek, 1858-1861. After having served on his brother's staff, he was 
assigned to Cooke's Brigade as ordnance officer. Lieutenant Anderson was killed in 
the Wilderness on May 5, 1864. Later, his widow Rebecca Cameron Anderson, a 
daughter of the Paul C. Camerons, married John W. Graham. Spencer Alumni 
Project; Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, IV, 506-507; Clark, 
"Graham Descendants." 

23 Robert Davidson Graham (1842-1905), the fifth son of the William A. Grahams, 
farmed before the war. He attained the rank of captain in the Fifty-sixth North 
Carolina Regiment and was wounded in 1865. A lawyer and farmer, he also held 
various government appointments, 1884-1890. He never married. Spencer Alumni 
Project; Clark, "Graham Descendants"; Compiled Military Service Records, National 
Archives, Washington, D.C., hereinafter cited as Military Service Records. 

24 Dr. Alexander Wilson conducted an excellent classical school at Melville in east 
Alamance County. George W. and Augustus W. Graham attended the same school 
later. Walter Whitaker, Staley A. Cook, and A. Howard White, Centennial History 
of Alamance County, 1849-1949 (Burlington: Burlington Chamber of Commerce, 
1949), 193. 

25 Thomas Ruffin Roulhac (1846-1907), of Hillsborough, attended the Wilson 
School and the Hillsborough Military Academy, but ran away from school to become 

The Papers of William A. Graham 97 

building a stone fence. I have no overseer here. The plantations 
in the West are doing pretty well. I wish to go there in the course 
of a month — have not yet sold any of the crops of last year. 

I hear that James Johnston has sold his Furnace, to Jonas 
Derr, 26 and will remove South. 

Wm. Kirkland and his bride arrived from Savannah a week ago, 
and have had parties given them at his Father's, Mr. Hill's 8c 
Mr. Cameron's. The County Court is in session this week, and a 
great number of people have been in town. 

The Military boys have gotten a grey uniform of roundabout 
coats, Sc make a handsome appearance. There are now about forty 
of them. Col. Tew 27 and his assistants wear their uniform at the 

Your Bro. Joseph has sent home a saddle from Phila. and ex- 
pects to be here about the 1 8th. of this month. I hope your Aunt 
Sophia will come with him. 

Some of the Chapel Hill students made a riot at the house of 
Mr. Saunders in the village lately, and are indicted for it, as I 
hear. I don't know who they are. 

. . . Enclosed I send you a note of introduction from Miss Dix to 
Prof. Alexander. She enclosed it in a note to your Mother from 
Charleston. You can present it or not, as you prefer. Such letters 
may be used or not, as the bearer desires. 

a soldier the day after North Carolina seceded. Before he attained the age of fourteen, 
he was a Confederate drillmaster. Later he was a private and after Gettysburg a 
lieutenant in the Forty-ninth North Carolina Regiment. Captured at Five Forks on 
April 1, 1865, he was imprisoned briefly at Johnson's Island. He studied law with 
his eminent grandfather Thomas Ruffin, practiced in California, and married and 
settled in Alabama in 1890, where he practiced at Mobile, Greensboro, and Shef- 
field. He was a circuit judge and later United States district attorney. Joel C. DuBose 
(ed.), Notable Men of Alabama, Personal and Genealogical with Portraits (Atlanta: 
Southern Historical Association, 2 volumes, 1904), II, 78-79. 

26 Jonas W. Derr bought the Mount Welcome furnace in east Lincoln County from 
the sons of William Johnston. Derr operated an iron business there until his death 
in 1881, which marked the passing of iron manufacturing in the county. He was a 
large landowner. Sherrill, Annals of Lincoln County, 58, 234. 

27 Charles Courteney Tew (1827-1862), of South Carolina, was the first graduate 
of The Citadel. For a while he was superintendent of The Arsenal, a preparatory 
school for The Citadel. He had just established the Hillsborough Military Academy 
which was located among the Occoneechee hills about one mile south of Hillsborough. 
He became colonel of the Second North Carolina Regiment in the Civil War. A 
superb officer, he was killed in September, 1862, at Antietam. Lefler and Wager, 
Orange County, 339; Ruth Blackwelder, The Age of Orange: Political and Intellect- 
ual Leadership in North Carolina, 1752-1861 (Charlotte: William Loftin, 1961), 
130-131, hereinafter cited as Blackwelder, Age of Orange. 

98 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Edward Everett UNC 


April 10th., 1859. 

Your favor of the 7th. was handed to me on my arrival at this 
place. I shall be very happy as you propose, to stop at Hillsborough 
on my way from Raleigh to Chapel Hill, on Friday, provided the 
hour of speaking is such that I can arrive in season at the Univer- 
sity. Of that point I suppose you may be able to inform yourself. 
I venture also to request that the dinner may be at an early hour, 
in order to allow me to have a little time for repose after arriving 
at the University. 

As I am obliged to return to Richmond on Saturday, & for 
that reason must take the early train in the morning, it will not be 
in my power to visit You on that day. 

I am, Dear Sir, with great respect, 

faithfully Yours 

From Edward Everett A&H 


April 14th, 1859. 

I deeply regret to find that the arrangements at Chapel Hill are 
such as to put it out of my power to take Hillsborough in the Way. 
I would gladly visit you on my return, but as I have an appoint- 
ment to speak at Lynchburg on Monday, it is absolutely necessary 
that I should return to Richmond on Saturday. 

I remain, Dear Sir, in great haste, but with sincere respect, 

Very truly yours. 

From William A. Graham, Jr. UNC 


April 18th [1859]. 

It will take more money for me here than at Chapel Hill but 
as I buy all my clothes here I dont think it will be any dearer for 

The Papers of William A. Graham 99 

a year. The boys dress more here than at the Hill. I suppose you 
are the best judge of what the cost of my clothes should be; I 
should like to get a suit which will do for spring and summer. It 
will cost from $25 to 35.00. I might get my summer clothes from 
Carmichael when I return but I can get them in N.Y. or Phila. 
cheaper and a great deal more stylish. 

Last week was quarterly examination; it will be three or four 
weeks before you get my report. I dont know what it will be as 
they give reports on examination and I had the misfortune to be 
taken up twice on places that I was sick when the class recited 
them. I expect however to get 90. 

I dont expect to stay to commencement for I shall be too glad 
to get away from this the dullest town in creation. 

Johnnie writes me he is going to resign at commencement. 

I suppose Robert is delighted at the idea of going to Mr. Swain's 
big school. . . . 

I should like to get a dress coat (a swallow tail) if you can spare 
the money conveniently it is not necessary however. 

The Theological seminary commencement comes off this 
week. They have a new kind of exercise at the seminary called 
Landonics. They invite the ladies to see them perform once in a 
while. It consists of 500 motions thus exercising every muscle in 
the body. 

From J. Smith Harris 29, UNC 


April 16, 1959. 

In answer to your favour of the 1 1th Inst. I have the pleasure 
to informe [sic] you that the order you were pleased to send me 
has been executed in the best manner and best materials. . . . the 
Box containing the Clothing as per Invoice was shipped by 
steamer for Norfolk which leaves here at 8 Oclk tomorrow morn- 
ing direct according to your letter. I hope that it may reach you in 
good time and prove to be satisfactory in all respects. 

With thanks for the Order 

28 Harris was a Philadelphia merchant with whom Graham frequently traded. 

100 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From William Joseph Headen 29 UNC 

Chapel Hill, N.C, 
April 23rd., 1859. 

The Editors of the University Magazine for the Collegiate 
year, 1859-60, have directed me, as the Secy of the Corps, to 
apply to you for an article for publication in their Magazine. 
It would afford them much pleasure if you will comply with 
their request, and, if needs be, they will, when the occasion 
presents, take great delight in thanking you in proper terms. 
Judge Battle is to write us a memoir of Judge Henderson. 30 Hon. 
John H. Bryan 31 will furnish an article on Judge Nash. 32 I beg 
leave to suggest that you furnish us a sketch of some other Chief- 
Justice, we design publishing ten such pieces, if possible. We hope 
by this appeal to touch some cord of generous sympathy with 
those who are using their best talents to adorn the Literature of 
the Old North State. 

I hope therefore, that if you will grant this, our most earnest 
request, or furnish us an article on any other subject, you will let 
us know at an early day. 

I have the honor to be, 
Your Ob't Serv't 

P.S. Enclosed you will find a stamp for return letter. 

29 William Joseph Headen (1837-1865), of Chatham County, was a graduate of 
the university, a teacher, and later first lieutenant in Company E, Twenty-sixth 
North Carolina Regiment. He was elected to the House of Commons in 1862 and 1864. 
Spencer Alumni Project; Connor, Manual, 1913, 552. 

30 Leonard Henderson (1772-1833), of Granville County, was a superior court 
judge, 1808-1816, associate justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court, 1818-1829, 
and chief justice, 1829-1833. An influential teacher, he conducted a law school in 
conjunction with his practice. Concise Dictionary of American Biography, 424. 

31 John H. Bryan (1798-1870), of New Bern and Raleigh, was the son of a prosperous 
merchant whose family settled in Craven County in 1747. He roomed with John Y. 
Mason, later secretary of the navy and attorney general, before graduating from the 
University of North Carolina in 1814. After reading law with William Gaston, Bryan 
practiced in New Bern and, after 1838, in Raleigh before gradually retiring because 
of poor health. In politics he was a firm and ardent Whig. He was four times a 
member of the General Assembly while a young man but later in life promoted 
Whig principles by attending meetings, contributing money, letter writing, and 
public addresses. He was a university trustee for forty-five years. Bryan and Graham 
had similar interests and views, and their correspondence is frequently very revealing. 
Henry R. Bryan, "John H. Bryan," Van Noppen Papers. 

32 Frederick Nash 

The Papers op William A. Graham 101 

From Leonidas Compton Edwards 33 UNC 

Oxford, N.C., 
May 8th., 1869. 

You have probably observed, in the two last numbers of the 
Raleigh Register, a call upon me to become a candidate for Con- 
gress in this district. With every inclination to obey the summons, 
I nevertheless, in consideration of my wife's unconquerable 
aversion to my engaging in political strife, feel obliged to consult 
her wishes and to decline the call. I wish, however, in declining, 
to express some views upon the state of parties, and the condition 
of the country; and knowing that your general opinions of public 
policy accord precisely with my own, I hope that it will not be 
asking too much of you to favor me with yours at your earliest 
convenience. I should be glad to receive an answer by the last of 
the week. 

I am with great respect, 

Your friend and obedient servant. 

Please give me some facts and dates, which will be of service in 
preparing a letter. 

To John H. Bryan a&H-Bryan 


May 23rd, 1859. 

I rec'd your note of the 3rd. inst. in relation to your proposed 
Memoir of Judge Nash, and was gratified to learn that you had 

33 Leonidas Compton Edwards (1825-1908), a native of Person County who 
settled in Oxford, graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1844 and 
read law with Judge Richmond M. Pearson. As a lawyer he was thorough, logical, 
and eloquent. Prior to the Civil War his political convictions were those of a Clay 
Whig. He was the assistant secretary of the Constitutional Convention of 1861 and 
state senator, 1870-1872. As this letter indicates, he was an admirer of Governor 
Graham. Later, Edwards and Graham were frequently associated in federal court 
cases. Edwards was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress. McCormick, Convention 
Personnel, 92-93; Oxford Public Ledger, September 19, 1908. 

102 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

undertaken it. I handed the note to H. K. Nash. 34 who promised 
to furnish the information requested. 

I had hoped to confer with you when last in Raleigh in 
regard to the subscription of stock in the new Bank. 35 The conserva- 
tive part of our people have it in their power to put this Institu- 
tion under proper control, 1st. by exceeding the State's subscription 
of $500,000. 2nd. by taking a major part of the individual sub- 
scription. My impression is, that by a little concert, those enter- 
taining our views, can easily take two to one in the latter subscrip- 
tion, and have the election of the directory (a Majority) in their 
own hands. In Charlotte, where I was a few weeks since, the sub- 
scription will perhaps be $200,000, and nearly all by reliable 
persons. Mr. McGehee. 36 whom I saw at Person last week, says 
Milton will take $100,000, and all by proper persons. By writing 
to New Bern you could probably get a like amount there, and from 
good sources. But, after all, the largest subscription must come 
from Raleigh. If at the seat of the corporation, where it's 
directors must be residents, there is not a manifestation of spirit 
and confidence, by the men of character, the Bank will become a 
mere Government machine, and those who deprecate this result, 
will have only themselves to blame. 

I had calculated on a subscription of $300,000 in Raleigh, 
and with that (coming from the quarters that it must come from, 
if subscribed at all) the new Institution can be made to take the 
place of the old one, with a directory that will command public 
confidence at home and abroad, and to save the Community from 
any pressure in the operation. 

The Charter is a more favorable one than will probably be 
offered again, and if not in a good degree filled up by subscrip- 
tions at Raleigh, a new location will probably be sought for the 
parent Bank. 

34 Henry Kollock Nash (1817-1897), of Hillsborough, was the son of Chief 
Justice Frederick Nash. He was prepared by William J. Bingham and graduated 

from the University of North Carolina in 1836. A lawyer, he was a Whig in 
politics and a member of his party's central committee. He abandoned his Unionist 
convictions favoring secession by early 1861. Frank Nash, "Henry Kollock Nash," 
Van Noppen Papers. 

35 This reference is almost certainly to the Bank of North Carolina, chartered by 
the General Assembly in its 1858-1859 session. See Private Laws of North Carolina, 
1858-'9, c. 67 ss. 1-47, hereinafter cited as Private Laws, with appropriate date. 

36 This is probably Montford McGehee (1822-1895), of Milton, a planter and lawyer 
who was a graduate of the University of North Carolina, longtime member of the 

General Assembly, delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1865, and commis- 
sioner of agriculture, 1880-1887. Spencer Alumni Project. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 103 

I had not expected to write so much, and therefore didn't 
look to my paper. But I regard the matter of taking this stock 
as of more interest, than it seems to excite among our friends in 
your Town. 

From John A. Gilmer UNC 

Greensboro, N.C. 
June 2nd, 1859. 

Please write one of your best articles on the political issues and 
prospects of the day and send it to me. I desire to have it published 
in the Patriot as an Editorial, and take extra Copies of the paper 
and distribute them in my district. 

By taking your time to this extent you will very greatly oblige. 

From Joseph Graham UNC 

725 Samson St. 
June 9th 1859 

I left home six weeks ago this morning, and not one word have I 
received from any member of the family in North Carolina. I 
have written to both you and Mother several weeks since — I 
wrote to you relative to my buggy. I have been to the best factories 
in the city and find that a Top-buggy will cost $260. without a 
pole, with it $280. (I am not certain at this moment which it is 
$260 or $160 — it has been so long since I was there. It was in the 
letter I sent you previously, and I am pretty certain $260). As to 
having a pole, you can decide that — and I shall be satisfied. I have 
been thinking we might as well have the buggy built here as in 
Newark, N.J. I presume the expense of going over there — and 
additional freight etc. would over balance the difference (if there 
be any) in the price of the vehicle itself. It takes about two weeks 
to make a buggy — and you will please let me know early what plan 
to pursue. The top is made to shift, and it can be used without the 
top at pleasure. 

104 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

I presume there was a grand time at Chapel Hill last week. 
President Buchanan no doubt created quite a sensation among the 
"Sovereign People," especially the good Old Line Whig Demo- 
crats. Please write soon in answer to my queries and requests. 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Ky. 
June 18, 1859 

I send you enclosed an abstract of the opinion of our court of 
appeals in the mandamus case. Although not full, and very little 
of the reasoning of the court given, you will see that it is emphatic 
on all the points. 

This result ensures to the benefit of all the bond-holders, and 
will secure to them their money. It is not right that you, who 
with one or two others in New York, have had the courage to fight 
the case to its present successful issue, should be burdered with 
the whole expenses of the suit; and I therefore suggest to you that 
you ought to write immediately to the bond-holders in Washing- 
ton City and insist that they contribute their share to the expense 
of the litigation. I do not think they have shown a proper disposi- 
tion . . . and if they do not consent to make us up a handsome fee 
for our services, I promise that I will take no interest in securing 
to them their part of the fund to be levied. We have a right to act 
for you, in all future steps necessary to be taken, but can the City 
Council be coersced by us to provide for those who have taken no 
pains to see that their own interests are cared for. In other words, 
if they pay the interest due you, what right has any body else to 
complain. The other bond-holders are no parties to the proceeding, 
are unknown to the Council, and have no attornies here to 
act for them. If they wish to avail themselves of the benefit of this 
decision, they ought to be willing to share with you the expense 
of obtaining it. I hardly think that the gentlemen in Washington 
interested will be so ungenerous and unjust as to refuse to 
pay a proper share of the fee. Will you be good enough to write 
and have the matter attended to. 

It is impossible yet to determine what other steps may be nec- 
essary to secure to you your money. I hardly think the councilmen 
will resist the mandate of the court; but if they should, we can 

The Papers of William A. Graham 105 

make them personally liable to the extent of their estates. A 
very short time will determine what course they will take. The 
attornies for the City seem anxious for a compromise, and this is 
the sentiment of the people; but, after a decision in your favor 
upon all the points involved, I would hesitate long before I con- 
sented to any considerable sacrifice. The town is good for the debt 
and can ultimately pay. 

From James Hastings UNC 

Hendrson plantation, 
June the 20th., 1859. 

Deer Sir 

Sam has ron of from her on Satrday Evning last I had cut 
wheat til diner and had no more ripe so I went to plowing in the 
logrounds put Sam and the hoe hands to hoe some nerer the house 
till wee got rose for them plowd the hoe hands cam in the corse 
of half hour I ast for Sam tha said he had sot up his hoe and stept 
off an I have looked out for him and cante get no Acount of him 
I thote maby posable that he mite try to get down thar laste 
Sunday he was charging About your not riting and said that he 
must know somthing About Tab or he should go to see if she 
wanot sole I toled him that his mistres only wanted her for A few 
weeks and not for him to name Tab to mee any more so whether 
he is lurking About or not I cant heer from him no plase as yet if 
so that he shold reach you pleas to have him well wipt and not 
let him stay one hour 

I have cut neer all of my wheat the froste or somthing cors 
it to Bias heds in some low plases the hed looks well tho thar 
is no grain in the top of the hed tho not much of it so very 
good Crop tho som as good as I have ever seen any whar I have 
my May wheat housd and stock in the paster my crop of Cottin 
is yet small for time of yer the Corne crop is as good as comin 
or the Best I have seen the oats Crop is very shorte my Stock is 
dooing very well since the got in to the paster I have fine paster 
now I have had 2 sows to have pigs Jeste in time I have now ner 
70 hed of hogs I herd from Mr Cristenbery yesterday tha was 
not qite don cutin of ther wheat all ar well as comin nothing of 
intrest yours very respectfooly 

106 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From David L. Swain UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

June 27th., 1859. 

By reference to 2d. Wheeler's Hist. Sket. 37 p. 322, you will find 
that numerous indictments against Fanning 38 for extortion were 
tried at September Term, 1768, of orange Superior Court, and 
that "William Butler 39 and two others were tried and found 
guilty, and sentenced to lay in prison some months, and pay a 
large fine." etc. 

Do me the favour to ascertain whether the criminal records 
of that term (Sept. 1768) are extant and accessable. If they are, 
I will thank you to make me a copy of one of the indictments 
against Fanning, and of that against Butler and copy from the 
minute docket the sentence passed upon "Butler and two others." 
I think it not unlikely that affidavits and other papers on file in 
connection with these indictments, may serve to reflect light on the 
history of the Regulation & will be greatly obliged if you will take 
the necessary pains to ascertain what materials for history can be 
obtained from the records of that period. 

I have heard nothing from New Bern about my watch. 

37 This reference is to John Hill Wheeler's Historical Sketches of North Carolina, 
which was published in 1851. Wheeler (1806-1882) was born in Murfreesboro and 
was graduated from Columbia College (now George Washington University). He 
was a lawyer, diplomat, journalist, and historical writer, although his histories are 
generally regarded as poorly organized and erroneous. He was a member of Commons, 
1827-1830, superintendent of the Charlotte branch of the United States Mint, 1837- 
1841, state treasurer, 1843-1845, and minister to Nicaragua, 1854-1857. J. G. de 
Roulhac Hamilton, "John Hill Wheeler," Dictionary of American Biography, XX, 50. 

38 Edmund Fanning (1739-1818) was a native of New York and a Yale graduate. 
He settled in Hillsborough, where he was admitted to the bar in 1762. A favorite 
of Governor Tryon, he was colonel of militia, Orange County register of deeds, 
judge of superior court, and a member of the colonial assembly. His alleged extortions 
as register of deeds has been given as one cause of the Regulator movement. During 
the Regulator "outrages," Fanning was physically mistreated and his house burned. 
In 1771 he accompanied Tryon to New York as his private secretary. Few men in 
North Carolina history have been so thoroughly unpopular among the general 
populace. James Truslow Adams, "Edmund Fanning," Dictionary of American 
Biography, VI, 265-266. 

39 William Butler was one of the early leaders of the Regulators. He was tried, 
fined, and imprisoned, but was later released. He was again a leader in the 1770 
riot in Hillsborough when Fanning's house was burned, the court records altered, 
and Judge Richard Henderson driven from the bench. Hugh Talmage Lefler and 
Albert Ray Newsome, North Carolina: The History of a Southern State (Chapel 
Hill: University of North Carolina Press, Revised Edition, 1963), 174-175, hereinafter 
cited as Lefler and Newsome, North Carolina. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 107 

Dr. Wheat 40 has sent in his resignation, designed as I suppose 
to take effect instanter. I fear we will find our situation at the 
beginning of the next term rather a perplexing one. If Mr. 
Phillips 41 does not resign, it will not be for the want of unparrallel- 
ed exertions to coerce it. He is in Raleigh at present. I do not 
know what the result of his conferences with his friends on the 
subject will be, but hope he will not yield to the overtures of his 
Virginia friends. 

From Joseph Graham UNC 

June 30th 1859 

Mr. Hill very kindly delivered in safety your letter, containing 
the check and two coupons, for which I am much obliged. I have 
time this morning to write you a short note by Willie who is to 
pass through today. He says he cannot stop, so I shall meet him 
at the Depot. I am sorry that the amounts you have already remitted 
me will be insufficient for my purposes — I shall give you a short 
memorandum which I have made out. 

Buggy $285.00— Harness $40.00— (Watch $ 1 35— Studs and Sleeve 
buttons $15.00) $150.00— Instruments $30. Hat $5.00, in all 
$510.00 — You observe I have purchased my watch — I did not like 
to wear Jimmie's so much, if I could help it — and / cannot 
count a pulse by it, as it has no second hand. Mr. Hill aided me 
in my selection I concluded, as Grandma had given me $150.00 
to make the purchase, and I found a watch which suited me at 
$135.00, I would invest the remainder in the buttons I 
mentioned, which I have been wanting some time. I have now 
my books to buy and a great many other things which I have not 
time to narrate. And before I go home I should like to make a 
short trip to N. York City, to say I have been there. I have never 
been further in that direction than Princeton. I will try and give 
you an estimate of what additional sum I shall need, in time for 
you to sent it to me by July 15th. 

40 John Thomas Wheat (1801-1886), born in Washington, D. C, was a graduate of 
the Virginia Theological Seminary, professor of logic and rhetoric at the University 
of North Carolina, 1850-1860, and rector of numerous southern churches. Battle, 
History of the University, 1,617-618; Henderson, Campus of the University, 176-177. 

41 At this time Dr. James Phillips was professor of mathematics at the university, 
and his son Charles was tutor in the same subject. Battle, History of the University, 

108 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

It takes so much money to answer my wants, is the reason I 
have not made out an estimate earlier. I dislike to look at the 
amount, it is so large. You have a number of us to supply — and 
again I fear it must be some time before I shall realize any fruit 
from what (apparently) I am so abundantly planting. I believe 
with most all Doctors we have a right to good fees, for those of 
us who have endeavored to fit ourselves for all emergencies, cer- 
tainly have laid out quite large sums of money therein. And 
probably for some time we will not even make the annual interest 
upon it. 

I fear I shall need the greater part of $200.00 more, if not all of it, 
to carry me home. 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Ky. 
July 2, 1859 

Your favor of the 25th June is at hand. I sent by mail yester- 
day a printed copy of the opinion of the Court of Appeals in the 
Mandamus case. You will see how thouroughly [sic] every point 
made by the defendants has been met and overruled by the court, 
and how effectually the integrity of the state has been vindicated 
from the polluting stain of repudiation, as far as the highest court 
could do it. 

Our circuit court meets here on the 4th Monday in July when 
we will have entered . . . the mandate of the Apellate Court and 
the writ of mandamus issued against the Council. Some of our 
best men are beginning to appreciate the necessity of taking some 
steps to meet the exigency, and save, if possible, the credit of the 
City, and have had some consultations on the subject. The present 
Council is composed of bad men, having but little interest in the 
welfare of the City, and none of that high . . . integrity which would 
incline them to save its credit. Those who would do right are not 
in power, and the best we can now expect is that at the next 
January election there will be a change. With good financial man- 
agement, the City can pay off its whole debt in a comparatively 
small time, and the taxation not be oppressive upon the citizens. 
It has more than revenues enough for its own support, independent 

The Papers of William A. Graham 109 

of taxation, and in the last two years and less, with a levy of only 
one per cent, it has paid off its home debt $20,000, besides the 
interest. In a year or two more, at this rate, the home debt 
would be extinguished, and it would be an easy matter even now 
to lay the foundations of a sinking fund for the extinction of the 
bonds issued for Rail Road purposes. 

It is uncertain what course the Council will take in regard to the 
mandamus. They will no doubt levy the tax and rely upon the 
mob spirit to resist the sale of property, at least such seems to be 
the sentiment of some. They cannot, however, get rid of the debt. 
That the Court says must be paid, and I doubt very much if the 
prudent, honest men in the community do not in a very short 
time get control of affairs and provide for the payment of the 

I do not remember exactly what I did propose to the bond- 
holders at Washington in regard to my compensation for the labor 
of enforcing the debt, but Mr Marbury has my letter, which he will 
show you when you go there. I kept no copy of the letter, but think 
it was a certain per cent on the bonds to be paid by each holder. 
I did not think the amount unreasonable in view of the magnitude 
of the interest involved, and the popular hostility we would have 
to encounter. Mr Wadsworth, Mr Taylor and myself were en- 
gaged in the case, and whatever we get will be divide among us. 
In consequence of Mr Wadsworth's absence from home at 
present, I cannot say to you what our charge will be. He has in 
his hands some bonds from New York, but how many I do not 
know, which will bear a portion of the burden of the litigation 
which we have had, and of any in the future that may be necessary. 
As soon as he returns I will write you on this point. 

I do think the bond-holders at Washington will act scurvily if 
they do not contribute something to the payment of the expenses 
of litigation. They certainly cannot intend to see you incur expense 
to establish their rights and not be willing to bear a part of it. I 
hope you will go there. Let them raise what they are willing to 
pay, and give it to you, and we will see them through the difficulty. 
If they do not, and we can get the money for you, and the bonds 
for N. York, it would be just treatment to dismiss the proceeding, 
and let them fight for themselves. . . . 

You may rely upon us to omit nothing that is necessary to be 
done to enforce the advantage we now have, and as speedily 
as it can be done we will have the matter in its proper and natural 
train for the regular payment of the interest. 

110 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Those who talked a few weeks ago of buying the bonds at 25 
cents on the dollar begin to see that it cannot be done, and the 
disappointment in this respect is beginning to have a whole- 
some effect. 

From David L. Swain UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

July 13th., 1859. 

I did not succeed in obtaining an interview with Mr. Percival, 42 
until the 3rd. attempt, and then, the day after I had intended 
leaving Raleigh. He excused himself for not coming out on 
Tuesday on the ground of indisposition, and promised to call on 
me on Wednesday. I saw him on Saturday and learned that he 
had not been well since the 4th., when he was an assistant 

His delay in reporting to you in relation to lighting the 
edifices with gas, and his failure to notify Mr. Coats 43 that we 
have determined to adopt hot water furnaces, excite some appre- 
hension that his remissness may arise from a habit not calculated 
to increase his reputation as an architect. 

He promised me to examine the foundation of the East Building 
before the brick work should be begun. They are proceeding with 
the East with considerable energy. The bricks are not as well 
burned as I could have wished, but Mr. Phillips supposes they 
are sufficiently tough, and the walls are to be stuccoed. 

I suppose we will meet in Raleigh this day week. The two 
vacancies ocasioned by the resignations of Drs. Shipp 44 and Wheat, 
call for the early and earnest consideration of the Board. 

42 Architect William Percival. 

43 Thomas H. Coates was the contractor who constructed New East and New West. 
The reference here is to an abortive scheme advanced by Percival for heating by 
water pipes rather than by open fireplaces. Henderson, Campus of the University, 

44 The Reverend Albert Micajah Shipp (1819-1887), a native of Stokes County, 
was a graduate of the University of North Carolina, an outstanding Methodist 
clergyman, and a distinguished educator. He was professor of history at his alma 

The Papers of William A. Graham ill 

From David L. Swain UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

August 8th, 1859. 

I desire an interview with you in relation to various matters 
connected with the University, the course to be taken with respect 
to Mr. Percival, who has neither visited us nor written since I 
saw you, the propriety of subscribing the reserved $10,000. in the 
stock of the Bank of the State, et cet. 

Gov. Manly 45 writes me that a special meeting of the Board will 
probably be called to consider the question. As at present advised, 
I incline to the subscription. I wish, moreover, to submit to your 
consideration the first part of a historical memoir I am meditat- 
ing in relation to the Regulators. 

To effect these purposes, I am inclined to take Ella to your 
house on Wednesday or Thursday evening on her way to 
Greensboro', unless in the mean time you shall advise me that you 
will not be at home. 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Ky. 
Aug 15, 1859 

You will see by what follows the reason I have had for delaying 
to answer your letter of July 7 th. Our Circuit Court, which is now 
in session, met on the last Monday in July, and on the 2nd day 
of the term, we filed the mandate of the Court of Appeals and 

mater, 1849-1859, president of Wofford College, 1859-1875, and professor and some- 
times dean of Vanderbilt University's theological school, 1875-1885. He was a member 
of every general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, from 1850 to 
1866. D. D. Wallace, "Albert Micajah Shipp," Dictionary of American Biography, 
XVII, 113-114. 

45 Charles Manly (1795-1871), a native of Chatham County, was the brother of 
Judge Matthias E. Manly and the Rev. Basil Manly, president of the University 
of Alabama. He graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1814 and was 
a lawyer by profession. Politically Manly aligned himself with the Whig party, 
serving for many years as a member of its central committee. As governor of North 
Carolina (1849-1851) he was an advocate of education and internal improvements. 
He was secretary and treasurer of the University of North Carolina trustees from 
1821 to 1869, except when he was governor. Marshall De Lancey Haywood, "Charles 
Manly," in Ashe, Biographical History, VI, 349-356. 

112 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

subsequently the opinion, affirming the judgment of our court 
in your case, and asked for an order enforcing the mandamus. 
The Court very promptly granted us the order and required that 
within 10 days the Council should return when they had obeyed 
the writ. Yesterday was the last day the writ had to run, when the 
defendants in a body came into the court and filed a written 
petition in which all united, signifying their determination to 
obey the writ, if further time until the first week in October 
were given them to do so. The pretext for this was that the Council 
could not execute the order in the time limited because the levy 
was required to be made upon the state assessment, and the books 
were not under the control of the Council, must be copied etc, 
and that the duty imposed involved the exercise to some extent 
of discretion, deliberation etc and made necessary various 
calculations which could not be done without lapse of time, and 
ought not to be done hastily. I say this was the pretext, but the real 
purpose to be accomplished was to gain time, with the hope of 
effecting some arrangements with the bond-holders, by which 
they can buy in the bonds at a low rate. This leaked out in the 
course of the arguments, and I can have no doubt is the real 

We resisted any delay and occupied the whole day with a very 
strenuous effort to enforce immediate compliance with the writ 
of mandamus. The court this morning rendered its opinion upon 
the motion. After some very appropriate and decided expressions 
in favor of a firm and uncompromising execution of the law, and a 
determination upon his part even at the risk of his life to see it 
enforced by all the power at his command, he determined in 
view of the facts alleged, and the solemn pledge made by each 
of the Councilmen to execute the law and levy the tax, modified 
his former order so as to give them until the first Monday in 
October to perform the duty. 

So you see that at last there begins to be day light, and we shall 
have in the course of six or seven weeks a levy of the tax. If in 
the meantime they can buy up some of the bonds at a low rate, 
it will make more certain the collection of your interest, and in 
time the principal. The bonds, which they hope to buy, we 
understand are in New York, some few perhaps of the 150,000 
issued to pay subscription to the Mays & Lexington R Road Co, 
and the others issued to the Rail Road to raise money to take up 
the floating debt of the City (30,000) and $25,000 issued to the 
Mays & Big Sandy R. Road. They cannot hope to get yours, or 
those of the Washington City holders, and it would be very unwise 
for you to part with them at a very great sacrifice. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 113 

I think, perhaps, the result as above stated, is the very best 
thing that could have been done. You have forced a refractory 
council into obedience, and extracted from them an humble 
pledge, in open court, to pay the debt. If we had succeeded in 
compelling instant compliance with the writ, it might have 
resulted in an outbreak, and further litigation, further delay, and 
perhaps ultimate loss of the debt. I have no doubt the debt will 
now be paid. 

The amount which Mr Marbury suggests will be a fair compen- 
sation for our services in prosecuting these proceedings and is 
satisfactory to my colleagues and myself, if it can be had. I fear, 
however, that many of the holders will not agree to his suggestion, 
as he writes to me that though he is willing to pay his part, he 
wishes his letter to you to be considered as withdrawn, as it 
was not written by him and only signed while he was in feeble 
health and at the importunity of the writer. I do not know what 
he means. Perhaps he has written and explained to you. 

We have incurred expenses for traveling twice to Frankfurt 
and attending the Court of Appeals, printing briefs and the 
opinion of the Circuit Court, and for costs paid to the officers, 
of about $300, and this we ought to have in cash. If the bondholder 
will send us their coupons, as suggested by Mr Marbury for our 
fee, we could get the money here; but all this we leave to you. If 
they do not aid you in meeting the expenses and our fee, they 
will fall upon you and upon the New Yorkers whose claims Mr 
Wadsworth has in his hands. I think they — the New Yorkers — 
represent about 15,000 of the bonds, which are owned in 

Will you write to Mr Marbury, and if you can make an 
arrangement for obtaining the coupons from the other bond- 
holders do so. I have very great confidence in your justice and 
liberality, and will be satisfied with whatever you do. 

Please also communicate the facts above to Mr Marbury, that 
he and others may be prepared for any overtures that the council 
may make to buy their bonds. 

From James Hastings UNC 

Henderson Plantation 
August 16, 1859 

Dear Sir 

This is to inform you Sam has again left me he left on 

114 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

yesterday evening I am afraid that he was induced to run away 
through influance of Some white person as he had told Some one 
of the negroes that he he would follow his wife . . . whether 
you would Sell him or not. He never Said any thing to me about 
his wife and seem to be well enough Satisfy untill a day or two 
before he left 

From George Little UNC 


Sept. 7th, 1859. 

I had intended to call a meeting of the "Executive Committee" 
about the time of our "State Fair," say 18th. Oct. in order to 
appoint a time and place to hold a convention, and also to perfect 
our arrangements as to the new paper, etc. But the Register 
with its usual injudicious zeal has taken the matter out of our 
hands and fixed a time %c place that is, "1st. Wednesday in Dec'r, 
at Raleigh." 

This time, in my judgment is much too early for many reasons, 
and I am supported in this opinion by many of our Eastern 
friends %c in the West too. However, it has forced upon us the 
necessity (in order to avoid confusion in the matter) to have a 
meeting of the Committee as early as practicable, and I have 
therefore addressed a note to each one of them, to meet here on 
Saturday, the 24th. Sept. inst. and I must earnestly urge you to 
attend. I fixed on Saturday so that you could leave Chatham Court 
(if you attended there) in time to reach here. The same facility 
would be offered Hon. R. S. Donnell, 46 Mr. R. Barringer, 47 and 

46 Richard Spaight Donnell (1820-1867), of New Bern, attended New Bern 
Academy and Yale College before graduating from the University of North Carolina 
in 1839. He practiced law in New Bern and Washington, N.C, during his career. 
Donnell was a Whig member of the United States House of Representatives, 1847- 
1849, a delegate to the constitutional conventions of 1861 and 1865, and a member of 
the General Assembly during the war years. He was speaker of the House of 
Commons in 1864. In the convention of 1861 he opposed secession and counseled 
compromise. McCormick, Convention Personnel, 32; Biographical Directory of 
Congress, 82 1 . 

47 Rufus Barringer (1821-1895), of Cabarrus County, was a lawyer, politician, 
Confederate general, farmer, and historian. After graduating in 1842 from the 
University of North Carolina, he studied law with his elder brother Daniel M. 
Barringer and at Judge Richmond M. Pearson's law school at Richmond Hill, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 115 

Jas. A. Long, 48 Esqr. 

The matter of the new paper will come up before us, and, 
I think, some of the Committee may be indisposed to sanction my 
proceedings in that business. Mr Banks 49 has consented to come 
& take charge of it, and will be here next Monday to see me, %c 
make the final arrangements about it all, which I shall submit 
to the Committee. He has prepared a prospectus, which I wish 
you to examine carefully, and correct it before it appears. 

It is my present intention to be in Hillsboro' on Tuesday of 
your Superior Court, and will then have a Conference about 
these matters, but in case anything should prevent me, I have 
written what I intended to say to you. 

Yadkin County. In politics he was a Whig who favored progressive policies. As 
a member of the Commons in the 1848-1849 session, he was influential in the 
establishment of the North Carolina Railroad Company. Barringer, a Bell-Everett 
elector in I860, opposed secession but supported the Confederate effort. He rose in 
rank from captain to brigadier general, fought in seventy-six engagements, was 
wounded three times, and was captured on the retreat to Appomattox. He was 
married to William A. Graham's niece, Eugenia Morrison (1833-1858), daughter of 
Robert Hall and Mary Graham Morrison, and he was the brother-in-law of Stonewall 
Jackson and Daniel H. Hill. After the Civil War, he favored conciliation and espoused 
Republican policies. E. T. Cansler, "Rufus Barringer," in Ashe, Biographical History, 
I, 116-125; "Graham Descendants"; Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 46-47. 

48 James Allen Long (1817-1864), of Greensboro, was a native of Randolph 
County, a graduate of the University of North Carolina, a lawyer, and a journalist. 
Spencer Alumni Project. 

49 James Banks, of Fayetteville, was a party to a scheme by several North Carolina 
Whigs to purchase the Raleigh Register. This letter and the next concern that 
plan. The Register had long been the principal Whig organ in the state, but the 
quality of the paper had declined in the 1850s under the editorship of Seaton 
Gales. John W. Syme, then owner and editor of the Petersburg Intelligencer, bought 
the Register in December, 1856. Syme pledged himself to support Whig- American 
principles and to promote prosperity in the state. An able editor, he improved the 
paper and increased its circulation; however, he soon became embroiled in a bitter 
dispute with the popular Edward J. Hale, editor of the Whig-oriented Fayetteville 
Observer. The two men disagreed in print over the propriety of accepting patent 
medicine advertisements, a practice Hale had discontinued. Syme was so incensed 
that he challenged both Hale and his son Peter to duels. The Hales declined on 
grounds of extreme abhorrence to the practice. By this time, many people wished 
that Syme had remained in Petersburg. The Whig leadership offered him a hand- 
some profit for the Register, but apparently failed to raise the money. Although 
an effort was subsequently made to heal the breach with Syme, the Whigs extended 
their chief support to Hale and the Observer. Robert Neal Elliott, Jr., Raleigh 
Register, 1799-1863 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press [Volume 36 
of the James Sprunt Studies in History and Political Science], 1955), 100-102, herein- 
after cited as Elliott, Raleigh Register. 

116 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From George Little UNC 


September 14th., 1859. 

Mr. Banks has made a contract to day with Mr. Syme for the 
purchase of the Register for $7,000., exclusive of the debts due 
the concern, which he also purchases, but which he is willing to 
shoulder himself at $3,000. We have to provide for the payment 
of the $7,000., of which $5,000. is to be paid at the expiration 
of the thirty days, when the contract is closed or annulled. 

I have written to Mr. Reade 50 on the subject, (and if he is 
still in Hillsboro', hand it to him, if not, forward to his address), 
and proposed, that thirteen gentlemen, including myself, advance 
the money to secure this purchase, which is a very important one 
for our party — the sum to be advanced by each one would be $500., 
to be divided hereafter or made up as soon as practicable among 
our friends. I have therefore, addressed letters today to Thos. G. 
Holton, 51 Haywood Guion, 52 Chalmers Glenn, 53 Gov. Morehead, 

50 Edwin Godwin Reade (1812-1894), of Person County, was educated by his 
widowed mother and read law. After having worked as a young man on a farm, 
in a carriage shop, and in a tannery, Reade was admitted to the bar in 1835 and 
established his practice in Roxboro. He became one of the "most notable advocates 
in the history of the state." He wrote a number of important decisions while he was 
an associate justice of the state supreme court, 1868-1879. In politics Reade was 
first a Whig, then a Know-Nothing, and later a Republican. He served one term 
in the House of Representataves, 1855-1857, and was shocked by the attack on 
Senator Charles Sumner. At Seward's request John A. Gilmer approached Reade 
about the possibility of a place in the Lincoln cabinet, but Reade declined to be 
considered. He opposed secession, favored the Holden-sponsored peace movement, 
and approved congressional reconstruction. He presided at the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1865. A superb speaker and energetic fighter, Reade concealed a rather 
cold nature by maintaining a facade of dignified affability. J. G. de Roulhac 
Hamilton, "Edwin Godwin Reade," Dictionary of American Biography, XV, 432. 

51 Thomas Jefferson Holton (1802-1860), of Charlotte, a native of Virginia, was 
the owner and editor of the North Carolina Whig (previously the Charlotte Journal), 
one of the leading newspapers in the area. His paper was published from 1828 to 
1860. LeGette Blythe and Charles Raven Brockmann, Hornet's Nest: The Story of 
Charlotte and Mecklenburg County (Charlotte: Public Library of Charlotte and 
Mecklenburg County, 1961), 188; Weekly Raleigh Register and North Carolina 
Gazette, November 10, 1846, hereinafter cited as Raleigh Register. 

52 Haywood Williams Guion (1814-1876) of New Bern and Charlotte, a graduate of 
the University of North Carolina, was a lawyer devoted to Whig principles. Spencer 
Alumni Project. 

53 Chalmers Glenn, a promising young man of Rockingham County, was later 
captain in the Thirteenth North Carolina Regiment. He was killed at South 
Mountain and buried in an unmarked grave by his faithful servant Mat, who 
allegedly died of a broken heart. Clark, History of the North Carolina Regiments, I, 
653, 655, 695. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 117 

Mr Reade, (enclosed) Robt. B. Gilliam, 54 Lewis Thompson. 55 
John Poole, 56 R. S. Donnell, George Davis, 57 and Gen. Alfred 
Dockery, 58 for each to raise $500., and send me as early as possible, 
which with $1100. on hand, would raise a sufficient am't to pay 
off the entire purchase at once. 

Mr. Banks has made a full and thorough examination of the 
Office, debts due it, clear profits annually, subscription list, etc., 
and is fully satisfied the paper is capable of yielding at present 
a handsome income, which can be greatly increased. I feel very 
solicitous to carry out this project, for I know the salvation of our 
party in N.C. depends on its success. Syme is more irritated than 
ever, and if he remains where he is we will do nothing. The 
paper's fully worth the price he has put on it, and competent 
judges are of that opinion. I hope, therefore, you will aid to the 
extent I suggest. I am satisfied our friends will decide and relieve 

54 Robert B. Gilliam (1805-1870), of Oxford, was a graduate of the University of 
North Carolina, a prominent attorney, and an interested Whig politician. He was 
a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1835, frequently a member of the 
General Assembly (speaker of the Commons in 1848 and 1862), and a superior court 
judge. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1870 but 
died before taking office. He was a trustee of his alma mater for thirty years. Graham 
and Gilliam often corresponded regarding political affairs. Spencer Alumni Project; 
Connor, Man ual, 1913, 449, 472-473, 880. 

55 Lewis Thompson (1808-1867), a planter and old-line Union Whig of Bertie 
County, was graduated by the University of North Carolina in 1827. He was a 
member of the House of Commons (1831, 1832, 1840), the state senate (1844, 1848, 
1852), and the Constitutional Convention of 1865. Spencer Alumni Project; Connor, 
Manual, 1913, 503, 868; North Carolina Standard (Raleigh), October 9, 1861, herein- 
after cited as North Carolina Standard. 

56 John Pool (1826-1884), of Pasquotank County, was a graduate of the University 
of North Carolina, a lawyer, and a politician. He was state senator, 1856-1860 and 
1864-1865, unsuccessful Whig candidate for governor in 1860, delegate to the 
Constitutional Convention of 1865, and United States senator, 1868-1873. After retir- 
ing from the Senate, he practiced law in Washington, D. C. A strong Unionist, Pool 
took no part in the secession movement and opposed the war, gaining election to 
the state senate as a peace candidate. After the Civil War, Pool was associated with 
the Radical Republicans but was never so partisan as others. He was very influential 
in getting national anti-Ku Klux Klan legislation passed. J. G. de Roulhac Hamil- 
ton, "John Pool," Dictionary of American Biography, XV, 64-65. 

57 George Davis (1820-1896), of New Hanover County, was graduated by the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina with highest honors in 1838. By profession he was a learned 
lawyer and eloquent advocate. He was a Union Whig and the "mentor of his party" 
in southeastern North Carolina. A delegate to the Washington Peace Conference in 
1861, Davis sought to promote compromise until secession became a reality. After 
North Carolina left the Union, he supported the state, serving in the Confederate 
senate, 1861-1864, and as Confederate attorney general, 1864-1865. Samuel A. Ashe, 
"George Davis," in Ashe, Biographical History, II, 71-81. 

58 Alfred Dockery (1797-1875), a Richmond County planter, was a member of 
the House of Commons, 1822, state senate, 1836-1844, United States House of 
Representatives, 1845-1847 and 1851-1853, and an unsuccessful Whig candidate 
for governor in 1854. He was the father of Oliver Hart Dockery. Biographical 
Directory of Congress, 817. 

118 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

us to the amount we may ask. But something, you see, must be 
done immediately to secure the requisite sum to be paid within the 
thirty days and the relief to us must come soon after. 

Let me hear from you immediately, and if Mr. Reade is still in 
your place, talk with him on the subject. 

From David L. Swain UNC 

Chapel Hill, 
Sept. 15, 1859. 

When Mr. Waterhouse 59 was here a week ago, he measured the 
main streets, and ascertained the relative distances from the South 
Building and the centre of the village, to the spring below the 
Presbyterian Church; and the two springs in the rear of the Cam- 
pus, and at the close of the examination he %c Mr. Percival mani- 
fested a very decided preference for the Spring in the Botanic 
Garden. I enclose a copy of the Report. 

The Trustees determined on Saturday by a vote of 5 to four 
to subscribe the $100,000 reserved stock in the Bank. Gov. Manly 
was very decided in his opposition to the measure, deprecates 
very seriously the course pursued by the Board in the construction 
of new edifices, and still more the expenditure for Gas. 

I have not merely great respect but great affection for Manly, 
and voted in opposition to his views with great reluctance. The 
vote was Barringer, 60 Bryan, 61 Holden, 62 Moore 63 & Swain for — 

59 Probably George B. Waterhouse of Raleigh, who later, with Michael Bowes, 
formed the Raleigh Powder Mills known as Waterhouse, Bowes & Company. This 
company produced powder under state contracts during the Civil War. Frontis W. 
Johnston (ed.), The Papers of Zebulon Baird Vance (Raleigh: State Department 
of Archives and History [projected multivolume series, 1963 — ]), I, 187n. 

60 Daniel Moreau Barringer (1806-1873) of Cabarrus County, a lawyer, politician, 
and diplomat, was a graduate of the University of North Carolina. He served in 
five sessions of the General Assembly, was a Whig member of the United States 
House of Representatives, 1843-1849, minister to Spain, 1849.1853, and a delegate to 
the futile Washington Peace Conference of 1861. He was a member of the university 
trustees, 1832-1868. Spencer Alumni Project; Concise Dictionary of American Bio- 
graphy, 50. 

61 John H. Bryan. 

62 William W. Holden 

63 Bartholomew F. Moore. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 119 

Bragg, 64 Courts, 65 Hinton 66 Sc Manly 67 against subscription, the 
Gov. having the casting vote. The Bank has agreed to make a 
permanent loan of $100,000 to the University, to pay for the 
same stock at six percent. If our dividends, therefore, shall 
average 6 percent, we cannot lose. We have all made poor invest- 
ments, if, with freedom from taxation, they shall fall below. 
If the Governor's plan of investing our funds in individual loans 
had proceeded, we could by no possibility make 6 per-cent. 
Absolute punctuality cannot be secured in the payment of interest, 
and the ratio of loss in individual loans is not less than the danger 
of defalcation in the management of the Bank. We cannot make 
six per-cent nett, in individual loans, we may reasonably expect 
dividends to a larger amount. We could have sold our stock at 
3 per-cent immediately after the subscription. 

Barringer unites with Manly in regretting the course pursued 
about building, etc., etc. I made many enquiries about Gas and 
found some diversity of opinion. Mr. Bryan apprehends damage 
to the eyes from its use. He says the expense in winter is about 
equal to Candle light, & less in Summer. Prof. Emmons 68 says 
it is the first experiment, he supposes, in the U.S. to introduce it 
into college buildings, but augurs very favourable results. 
K. P. Battle 69 and Mr. Holden, who have it in their houses, 
think it will pay well both in the village and the college. 

64 Thomas Bragg. 

65 Daniel William Courts (1800-1884) of Surry County, was a graduate of the 
University of North Carolina, a lawyer, state legislator, state treasurer, diplomat, 
and a member of the university trustees from 1832 to 1868. Spencer Alumni Project. 

66 Charles Lewis Hinton (1793-1861), a Wake County lawyer who graduated from 
the University of North Carolina in 1814, was deeply involved in the affairs of his 
alma mater. He was a trustee from 1832 to 1860 and was at this time a member of 
the executive committee. Hinton served in the House of Commons, 1820-1821 and 
1832, the state senate, 1827-1830 and 1833, and was state treasurer, 1839-1843 and 
1845-1852. He was a member of the Whig central committee and a power in party 
decisions. He and William A. Graham were political allies and their correspondence, 
prior to this time, was rather frequent. Spencer Alumni Project; Connor, Manual, 

67 Charles Manly. 

68 Ebenezer Emmons (1799-1863), a native of Middlefield, Massachusetts, and 
a graduate of Rensselaer Institute, was a physician, teacher, author, and scientist. 
He was the state geologist from 1851 until his death. George P. Merrill, "Ebenezer 
Emmons," Dictionary of American Biography, VI, 149. 

69 Kemp Plummer Battle (1831-1919), of Franklin County and Chapel Hill, was 
the son of William Horn and Lucy Plummer Battle. He was graduated in 1848 
with honors by the University of North Carolina, where he was subsequently tutor, 
chairman of the board of trustees, president (1876-1891), and professor of history 
(1891-1907). His best known literary work was his History of the University of 
North Carolina in two volumes. In politics Battle was a Union Whig who, as a 
delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1861, opposed secession. Once war came, 

120 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Percival went with me to the Gas Factory, and entered into 
various conferences. He is anxious to proceed at once, and have the 
old buildings lighted up by the beginning of next session. I told 
him that in the first place, Mr. Waterhouse must regard his 
contract as subject to confirmation or rejection, when presented 
to the Committee, and secondly, that I did not think it would 
be proper to proceed by piece meal; that I desired to see minute 
specifications, and have full opportunity to examine them, before 
submitting them to the villagers, and that I did not think it 
advisable to light up the old buildings until the new were ready 
for occupancy. Judge Battle concurs with me in these views, desires 
that they may be communicated to you and Mr. Cameron, 70 
and, if approved, that notice may be given to Mr. Percival. 

From Charles Phillips UNC 

University of North Carolina, 

October 24th., 1859. 

Without any exordium to show why I intrude on you at-all, 
and why I appear in the midst of the festivities which naturally 
demand your entire attention just now, I beg leave to make a few 
suggestions concerning our present economics at the University. 
It is an unusual event that two such vacancies as those now in 
our Faculty should exist at once. And I am anxious, with any well 
wisher of this Institution, that they should be filled, so as to do the 
youth of our land more good than has ever been done here yet. 
Dr. Hooper 71 claimed that the nurselings of former years were all 
lions, although they were few. Perhaps the one characteristic 
was but the result of the other. The teachers in olden times had 
far more numerous opportunities for drilling the pupils here than 
we have now. So that there is now a need for other incentives to 
exertions among "the boys" than those afforded by watchfulness 
over almost every look; and the voice of authority, in times when 
there were only 40 in a class, instead of 40 in a section. 

however, he supported the state and was influential in the election of Zeb Vance as 
governor. A genial, humorous, humane man, Battle was greatly respected and loved 
by the people of North Carolina. Hope S. Chamberlain, "Kemp Plummer Battle," 
Dictionary of American Biography, II, 57-58; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 

70 Paul C. Cameron. 

71 John De Berniere Hooper (1811-1886), a native of Brunswick County, was 
graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1831, where he later was tutor 
and professor of languages, 1838-1848 and 1875-1886. Collier Cobb, "John De Berniere 
Hooper," in Ashe, Biographical History, VII, 251-256. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 121 

I have been proposing and discussing with my colleagues, some 
changes, which seem to meet their approval to some extent, and 
which I would lay before you. Some of them are such as I know 
that years ago you suggested to our Trustees, and which I hope 
you are still inclined to advocate, especially when the time for 
introducing them is so auspicious. The new professors may come 
among us so as to secure some important advantages for all our 

I have been lecturing for several years to the Junior Class 
on Natural Philosophy. I am decidedly of the opinion that its 
members were not fit — by years nor by discipline — to receive 
such instructions regularly. It was also so thoroughly the opinion 
of our Faculty that the Chemistry was out of its place in that year, 
that Prof. Martin 72 has put it back into the Senior year — only he 
takes more time for it than he used to have. 

Now may not more time be given to regular series of lectures 
to the Senior Class — entirely withdrawing them as expected 
exercises from the lower classes. There is one day in each week of 
the Senior year that might be devoted to varied instructions of this 
kind, and, I hope, with marked benefit to our pupils, in not only 
giving them rare and rich information on many important topics, 
but in also giving them new incentives to personal and indepen- 
dent exertions. At our Medical Schools several lectures are given 
each day. Why may not the example be followed here as to the day 
I have mentioned already? By giving four lectures on that day, some 
150 lectures might be given to our Seniors and "Militia," on 
topics now not noticed or but scantily developed. I can of course 
only allude to their subjects here — E. g. Physical Geography — 
Physiology — Ethnography — Philology — Comparative Anatomy — 
Meteorology, etc, Might not Profs. Fetter 73 and Hubbard 74 add 

72 William Joseph Martin (1830-1896), of Virginia, who attended that state's 
university, held the chair of natural sciences at Washington (now Washington and 
Jefferson) College before being elected, in 1858, to the chair of chemistry at the 
University of North Carolina. When the Civil War began, Martin abandoned his 
academic pursuits to become an ideal Confederate officer. After Gettysburg, where 
he was wounded for the first of six times, Martin was colonel of the Eleventh North 
Carolina Regiment, Army of Northern Virginia. He founded Columbia High School, 
Columbia, Tennessee, before accepting the chair of chemistry at Davidson College 
in 1870. He was widely respected as a Christian scholar and challenging teacher. 
Henry Lewis Smith, "William Joseph Martin," Van Noppen Papers. 

^Manual Fetter (b. 1809), a Lancaster, Pennsylvania, native of German descent, 
was professor of ancient languages and bursar at the University of North Carolina 
from 1838 to 1868. Battle, History of the University, I, 451. 

74 Fordyce Mitchell Hubbard (1809-1888), a native of Massachusetts and an Epis- 
copal minister, was professor of Latin languages and literature at the University of 
North Carolina, 1849-1868. He was the author of a book on the life of William R. 
Davie and of various articles and textbooks. Lefler and Wager, Orange County, 332. 

122 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

new interest to their studies in the lower classes by lecturing to 
their Seniors on ancient civilization as manifested in $c developed 
by, the Greek and Roman languages? As a man thinketh, so is he, 
and his language ought to show how he thinks. I would also 
have a course of lectures on English Literature, 8c especially on 
our own most noble tongue. Prof. Smith might well devote some 
time to showing whence our Saxon came, and what is its spirit 
and its capacities, and so give a comparative view of modern 
tongues, which will set them in new lights, and add interest to 
their acquisition. Indeed I think that while facilities for learning 
various modern languages are offering to our students, the Anglo- 
Saxon ought not to be neglected. Certainly Anglo-Saxon idioms 
are as important, at least to the mass of our pupils, as those of the 
Spanish, French or German languages. You will perceive that some 
of the topics that I have suggested are but supplementary to those 
already dwelt on in various departments. Others will be entirely 
novel. But all are of such a nature that instruction by ordinary 
recitation room drilling — by question and answer on definite 
portions of a text book — is out of congruence with them. I once 
tried to teach Physical Geography in this way. But the profit 
to the class was not in proportion to the drudgery required from 
them. To minds prepared to receive his teachings, a lecturer 
can present more in an hour than they can collect so as to recite 
in a day. Maps and other such illustrations should accompany 
such studies. And a room full of students will require no more 
time for acquiring the leading facts connected with Geography — 
Physiology — Ethnology, etc., than will each student alone. 

The great truths contained in the Philosophy of History 
might be taught in the same way, as efficaciously and without 
such a waste of time as is often allowed. 

To another feature of this plan I would call especial attention, 
although I know it is not a novel one to you. It allows the Trustees 
of the University to secure the aid of men eminent in various 
specialties, as lecturers on their topics. For instance, Guyot 75 

75 Arnold Henry Guyot (1807-1884), a Swiss of French Protestant parentage, who 
studied with Humboldt, Hegel, Dove, and Ritter while earning a Ph.D. at the 
University of Berlin, had come to the United States in 1848. He already had an 
international reputation, having formulated the laws of glacial motion. In 1849 he 
published an important work entitled The Earth and Man which reflected the 
influence of Karl Ritter. This work revealed Guyot's deep insight into the relations 
of man and his environment and thrust him to the forefront among American 
geographers. He was professor of physical geography and geology at Princeton from 
1854 to 1884. Guyot Hall on the Princeton campus is a memorial to him. Robert M. 
Brown, "Arnold Henry Guyot," Dictionary of American Biography, VIII, 63-64. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 123 

might come and deliver a dozen lectures on Physical Geography, 
Maury 76 on the routes of Commerce on the Seas. Some eminent 
Physiologist might come and spend a week or so, Sc pour forth the 
treasures he has collected. Agassiz 77 might be induced to use his 
viva voce in stimulating our young men to notice the structures 
of bird and beast as they meet them, & Gray 1 * might teach them to 
appreciate aright the various forces in vegetable life. And all 
this without interfering at all with the routine of teaching in the 
younger classes — without increasing the number of permanent 
instructors — without any great increase of expense to the institu- 
tion and with an increase of dignity to our Senior year. To be a 
Senior, priviledged alone to enjoy such instructions, and to be 
educated by a previous drilling to properly profit by them, will 
then be more coveted than they are now. The plan that is now 
under consideration by which we may receive the brilliant services 
of Dr. Hawkes, 79 is but a quotation from this more extensive 

76 Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873), of Virginia, was a career naval officer 
who served both the United States and Confederate navies. An advocate of administra- 
tive reform, Maury might have been cashiered after a debilitating leg injury, except 
for the intervention of powerful friends. In 1842 he became superintendent of the 
depot of charts and instruments, a department which included the new naval ob- 
servatory and hydrographic office. Maury wrote widely on navigation and winds and 
currents, establishing for him an international reputation. His Physical Geography of 
the Sea was the first textbook on oceanography. While serving the Confederacy, 
Maury experimented with land mines and sought to procure ships from England. 
His attempts after 1865 to interest southerners in migrating to Mexico failed, so he 
returned to England where he wrote two notable geographies. From 1868 to 1873 he 
was a professor at the Virginia Military Institute. Maury's influence on navy secre- 
tary William A. Graham, 1850-1852, was great and inspired Graham to seek ad- 
ministrative reforms. Karl Schuon, U. S. Navy Biographical Dictionary (New York: 
Franklin Watts, 1964), 169-170, hereinafter cited as Schuon, Navy Biographical 

77 Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (1807-1873) was among the most important nine- 
teenth century men of science, who at this time occupied the chair of natural 
history at Harvard College. An internationally known geologist, zoologist, explorer- 
traveler, and author, Agassiz, a native of French Switzerland, attended the College 
of Lausanne and the universities of Zurich, Heidelberg, Erlangen (Ph.D., 1829) and 
Munich (M.D., 1830). Before coming to the United States in 1846, he had estab- 
lished his reputation for his studies of fish fossils and European glacial phenomena. 
He was a leader in the development of American natural history and stimulated 
the growth of the Smithsonian Institution. Among his important works was Con- 
tributions to the Natural History of the United States. David Starr Jordan and 
Jessie Knight Jordan, "Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz," Dictionary of American 
Biography, I, 114-122, passim. 

78 Asa Gray (1810-1888), a native of Oneida County, New York, was at this time 
Fisher Professor of Botany at Harvard College. He enjoyed an international repu- 
tation as botanist, naturalist, traveler, and author. The acknowledged leader of 
American botanists, Gray, a confidant of Charles Darwin, was the foremost American 
advocate of the Darwinian hypothesis. George Harvey Genzmer. "Asa Gray," 
Dictionary of American Biography, VII, 51 1-514. 

79 Francis Lister Hawks. 

124 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

scheme. Only I hope that it will be found that the Faculty now 
here will eagerly supply almost all the lecturing that it will 
require. For one, I will rejoice at an opportunity to expand the 
course of Natural Philosophy that I have had the care of for some 
years past. Where I give 30 lectures, I would like to give 60. 
Several of my colleagues have also expressed a desire to engage in 
this expanded and elastic course of instruction. 

I have been trying, with others, to supply the lack of service in 
Dr. Wheat's department. Its studies have always been favorites 
with me. And most earnestly do I hope that Providence will 
point out to you some capable man who may develop the 
influence of that department aright. It ought to be one of the 
most prominent chairs in the University. To show our Students 
what they may think about, what they have to think with, how 
they ought to think, and how they ought to communicate to 
others what they think, is certainly a most important task, one 
whose proper performance requires rare acquirements. Too 
much of this influence has been always latent here. In arranging 
the duties for Dr. Wheat's successor, might not Mental Philosophy 
be added to what Dr. W. taught? So will the closely related Sciences 
of Metaphysics, Psychology, Logic, and Rhetoric, be taught by 
one man. To compensate our President for the loss of Mental 
Philosophy, might not History be put into his hands? Into abler, 
or more cordial care you cannot commit that subject. And its 
connections with International and Constitutional Law and with 
Political and Social Economics, are most intimate — far more so 
than with Mental Philosophy. Moral Philosophy, as belonging to 
practical philosophy will also be a fitting companion to Law and 
History. This change will save to the University the expense of 
one Professor, as the Faculty has been constituted of late. Even if 
the present negociations with Dr. Hawkes succeed, still he comes 
to us only as a lecturer. Gov'r Swain may find it greatly to the 
advantage of the principal teachings of his department to afford 
his pupils special Historical instructions which may not fall within 
the scope of what Dr. Hawkes must attend to. 

I make these suggestions with deference to the views of others, 
who scan a wider horizon than I can, and whose experience is older 
and more varied than I can pretend to. Money has poured on us 
from our fellow citizens, who thus express their satisfaction 
with your management of the University. Investment of that 
money in bricks and mortar are making what we hope will 
enable the teachers here to teach under better auspices than ever 

The Papers of William A. Graham 125 

before. Ought not the teachings themselves be so improved that 
their brilliancy may correspond to the impressive externalities 
that surround them? If an expenditure of some $8,000. or $10,000 
to introduce material light on the books of our pupils is justifi- 
able, should we not bestir ourselves to intensify that which is 
intended for the retina of their mental eyesight? 

I confess, Sir, that I am more interested in the latter than in the 
former — better satisfied that its securing will be at a less outlay, 
and bring in a better revenue — and be more generally used by our 
pupils, both while here, and after they shall have left the training 
halls of the University. I very much fear that your expenditure 
for gas-light will never be repaid, even for a while — and that ere 
long the works will all be abandoned. 

From a Philadelphia Committee UNC 


November 9th., 1859. 

We beg leave, most earnestly but respectfully, to call your 
attention, not only to the importance but necessity, of an united 
opposition to the Democracy in the Presidential Contest of 1860, — 
a consummation, which, we feel persuaded, can now be brought 
about, if the proper efforts be made by those whose duty it is to 
lead off in the matter. 

In our own State, we are no longer divided, but harmoniously 
united in one common organization known as the People's 
Party. The same state of things, we believe, could be produced 
in other States, at least so far as the Presidential contest is con- 
cerned, if the Whig, American, and Republican Committees, 
appointed by their respective National conventions, were to have 
a conference, which, we are persuaded, would only be necessary, 
to come to an agreement upon a call for a National Convention 
that would be satisfactory to all, and enable all the various 
elements, into which the opposition to the Democracy are divided, 
to be fairly represented. 

We understand that the National Republican Committee will 
meet on the 22nd. of December, in New York City; and we address 
you now to invoke your active efforts to induce the Whig 

126 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Committee, of which you are a member, to have a meeting at the 
same time and place. 

Respectfully yours 
Isaac Hazelhurst 
Henry M. Fuller 
Henry D. Moore 
Charles C. Lathrop 
William C. Kerne 
Charles M. Neal 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Kentucky 
Nov. 25, 1859. 

I apprised you that in response to the mandamas [sic] , the 
Council had returned to the court that a levy had been made of 
three per cent to meet the interest due upon the bonds, and an 
ordinance passed requiring that same to be collected. It appears 
now that they exacted of the Collector a bond of $75,000, which I 
do not believe is yet given, and consequently no collections have 
been made. I very much apprehend that the exaction of so large 
a bond was a mere ruse to evade the execution of the mandate 
of the court. The proceedings were retained on the docket, and 
will be until the money is paid to the bondholders; but the court 
will not be in session again until April, and in the meantime a 
corrupt council may be satisfied to make a mere show of obeying 
the order of the court, when in truth they designed by a mean arti- 
fice in effect to evade that duty. I hope I may be mistaken in 
this suspicion of mine, and the collector may yet give the bond 
and proceed with the collections. 

I have recently seen a copy of a circular sent by some of our 
citizens to the bondholders proposing a compromise, which perhaps 
you too have seen. The gentlemen who make the proposition are 
men of character and worth and amply able to comply with the 
engagement they propose to make. They profess to believe that 
the City is unable to pay the whole of the debt, and state their 
willingness to raise enough money to buy in the bonds for the 
City at 30 cts on the dollar; or to take up the old bonds and 

The Papers of William A. Graham 127 

issue the bonds of the City at 50 cts on the dollar, payable in fifteen 
years, the punctual payment of the interest semi-annually to be 
guaranteed. The arrangement whichever way it may be made to 
be for the benefit of the City. 

I think these gentlemen in stating the liabilities and resources 
of the City somewhat exagerate [sic] the former and underrate 
the latter. They have probably not done so intentionally; or, at 
least, I do not wish to be understood as imputing to them any 
designed misrepresentation of the condition of the City. If the 
community were willing to pay, it could no doubt do better than 

You suggested in one of your former letters that you would 
make a visit to Maysville and confer with our citizens if it were 
thought advisable to do so. I do not know but your presence here 
might be useful and if entirely convenient for you to come, I would 
advise you to do so. In January a new council will be sworn in, 
and if that month is not too cold for such a trip, I would suggest 
then as the time. It is more certain that I shall be at home in Jan- 
uary than in December, as I have to attend the Court of Appeals 
in December. 

I regret I have not been able to communicate more cheering 

From Ralph Randolph Gurley UNC 

Office of the Col'n Society, 
Dec'r2nd. 1859. 

I had the honor, some years since, in the name of the Executive 
Committee of the American Col'n Society, to invite you to address 
the Annual Meeting of that Society. While circumstances com- 
pelled you to decline the invitation, you were pleased to express 
a deep interest in the prosperity of our Institution. Our Committee 
now desire me to renew the invitation, and to express the 
pleasure it will give them, should you be able to address the Gen- 
eral Meeting of the Society, on the 17th. of next month, the Third 

We greatly need, at this time, the best counsels of our best and 
ablest friends. 

128 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From David L. Swain UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

Dec. 13th., 1859. 

I have just written a second Chapter of the War of the Regula- 
tion which I would like, if opportunity were to present itself, to 
show you in advance of publication. A third Chapter will con- 
tinue my narrative, to the close, with the Battle of King's 

From J. G. McPheeters UNC 

St. Louis, 

Dec. 20th., 1859. 

It is not my habit to take an active part in politics, either local 
or national, but I think the time is at hand when every loyal 
citizen should put forth his strength, whether it be little or much, 
and exert his influence, whether weak or powerful, for the peace 
and tranquility of our bleeding country. 

I have long been fully persuaded that this wanted peace and 
tranquility can never be restored under the unwise counsels 
and bitter denunciations of the present Democratic dynasty, 
much less under the fanatical, rabid, disorganizing principles of 
the powerful opposing sectional party. 

If the Union can be preserved at all, it must then be through 
the combined influence, patriotism, and exertions, of the conser- 
vative men of all parties, in all sections of the country. 

Trusting in the over-ruling providence of God, I believe there 
is yet sufficient conservative power and principle in the nation to 
tryumph over faction and discord, and avert the fatal results 
which demagogues and wicked men, South as well as North, seem 
laboring to accomplish. 

With this hopeful view of the subject, the inquiry naturally 
suggests itself, where can we find the Patriot and Statesman who 
combines the requisite qualifications, and can command the 
confidence and support of the conservative, Union loving men of 
all parties, in all sections of the Confederacy. While there are 

The Papers of William A. Graham 129 

many such, I trust, there are indications, significant and powerful, 
which seem to point to the Hon. Edward Bates, 80 of this State, 
as the man peculiarly fitted to bear aloft the banner of Union and 
Nationality in the approaching Presidential contest. 

Judge Bates is now 65 years old, and has always been a Whig of 
the Clay and Webster school. He has no political acts or sins 
to atone for, his abilities are acknowledged by all, his honesty and 
purity of life questioned by none. With habits of laborious industry, 
he has Roman firmness and fearless independence. Through all 
this vast Valley, he enjoys great popularity, and I am informed that 
his name is already placed at the head of some 15 or 20 leading 
papers. In regard to his position on the vexed and absorbing 
question of the day, those who know him best have no fears but 
that the constitutional right of the South would be safe and sacred 
in his keeping, while at the same time, he would sanction no 
encroachments of any kind, on the vested rights of the free States. 
One thing is certain, if elected President, he would defend the 
Constitution and execute the laws of the land, if there be strength 
and power sufficient in Navy and Army of the government to 
do so. 

Now do we not, in the present aspect of our political affairs, 
want such a man at the helm of State? 

But whether you sympathise with me or not, in these views, 
I should like to have your counsel and opinion on the subject, 
and my apology for thus addressing you, if one be necessary, is 
a duty which / feel incumbent on true men in different sections 
of our Country, communing together, and if possible, calming 
the angry storm which threatens to blight, if not blast, forever, our 
national power and grandeur. 

80 Edward Bates (1793-1869), a native of Virginia, moved in 1814 to St. Louis 
where he practiced law and was active in politics. In the late 1850s there was a 
ground swell of Bates-for-president sentiment. It was hoped that Bates, a former 
Free Soil Whig who had come late to the Republican party, might capitalize on his 
border state background to avert secession. The decision to hold the Republican 
convention of 1860 in Chicago instead of St. Louis may have been decisive in aborting 
the Bates movement. Bates was Lincoln's attorney general and had the distinction 
of being the first trans- Mississippi cabinet officer. His influence with Lincoln waned 
after he filed a brief contending that statehood for West Virginia was unconstitutional. 
In his last years Bates opposed the rising power of radicalism in Missouri. Thomas 
M. Marshall, "Edward Bates," Dictionary of American Biography, II, 48-49. 

130 N.C. Department of Archives and History 


From an Overseer 1 UNC 

Hendrson plantation 
January 3rd., 1860. 

Dier Sir 

I have the Chanc of sinding you A few lines this morning the 
sno has Bin so that that not much Chance of sending any leter 
the sno comenst on satrday last very heavy all day and is som 
6 or 8 inches deep 8cc I have got my corne up sum 1 3 loads of 
sound and 1 of rotin corn I wood had the Big Crib fool if 
gethered Erly as usal sumthing more than laste year the Cotin 
is very sory I have it Jind tho not all pact I have 8 Bags 
pact out and som 4 to pack not more than one thirde of what it 
orte to have maid tho it is as good as any of the nabers Cotin did 
not open Mr Collwell sais tha he that he wood have maid ner 
30 Bags and now sais he will have som 1 at home plac (I will get 
Mr Colwells Cotin to Jin and Mr Blacks As sune as tha can get 
it her) I have cild 15 hogs Before Crismus tha Averged 137V2 
pounds 10 more that I will cill as sune as I can get sack out the 
larde vesals I sent to Mr Cristen Bery and he cold not get one 
maid I then went to Chariot and trid to get som wooden vesals 
But Cod not and had to get tin. 

I have the old hous all tore down it was very rotin nerly all 
the logs Broke up Mr. Cashon has put up a good fraime for 
grainery and lumber hous tho the wether has Bin so Bad that it 
is not got the rouf on it yet 

I got 4 Bushels of ry from Mr Cristenbery and sowed tho the 
wether has Bin so wet that I have not soin the the spring 
wheat that I did wish to so tho I will soe it in febuary if the wether 
will omit Mr S Davison sais that he will so then and thinks it 
Jest as good as any time for that kind of wheat I will not have 
roping anaught it will tak another Coile I will rite to Mr Henry 
Williams to send me one Coile By Mr Browns wagon I will have 
to make som rails for the seder field fence and Stincon plac tho I 
will go after a load of lime as soon as the wether Braks I wood like 
to have a carte to hall mud or ritch durte from the ditches to 

1 James Hastings, identified by handwriting. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 131 

mak those compose heaps (Mr Cristenbery has Brote some 3 loads 
of Cotin her 4760 lbs the stock ceeps up pretty well tho the Dogs 
has cild 2 of my sheep) nothing of intrese only Bad wether all well 
Except Coles 

Mr Mores 3 daughter was maried laste week I have forgoten 
his name 

From John A. Gilmer UNC 

House of Reps., 
January 4th., 1860. 

We are still without a Speaker and there seems to be no prospect 
of electing one soon. 

The anti Lecompton democrats to the number of 8 refuse to 
vote for any Lecompton democrats. The democrats can not get 
on to any candidate a sufficient number of votes to enable us to 
elect with our 23 votes. The members from N.Y, Pa., Sc N.J., 
elected as the people's candidates have offered and are now ready 
to vote for me, if the South will unite with them, and our 23. At 
this the Northern Democrats kick up. Unless 70 democratic 
votes can be secured the 23 South Americans, and 13 Northern 
conservatives cannot elect. 

Day after day is consumed by Southern gentlemen making 
agitation speeches on Helper, 2 old Brown, 3 etc. 

2 In 1857 Hinton Rowan Helper (1829-1909) of Rowan (now Davie) County, 
published a significant indictment of the southern slavery system entitled The 
Impending Crisis in the South. A product of lower socio-economic white society, 
Helper, though a Negrophobe, blamed southern backwardness on the slave system, 
attacked the slaveholding class, and justified servile insurrection. His influential 
book was widely denounced but seldom read in the South. The Republican party 
circulated the book as an 1860 campaign document. After serving as consul to 
Buenos Aires from 1861 to 1866, Helper authored several books denouncing the 
Negro as a threat to white labor, while devoting himself to writing "the negro out 
of America . . . and out of existence." In later life he was obsessed by the futile 
idea of a railroad from Hudson Bay to the Straits of Magellan. Despite a keen 
intellect and a gerlius akin to madness, Helper was impoverished in his later years. 
He committed suicide and was buried by strangers in Washington. Few remembered 
that this man had in the 1850s provoked an emotional furor which contributed to 
sectional uneasiness and the coming of war. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "Hinton 
Rowan Helper," Dictionary of American Biography, VIII, 517-518. 

3 John Brown (1800-1859), of good New England stock but with the taint of 
insanity, was one of the most controversial figures of the troubled 1850s. He was a 

132 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

I do wish you would write me a long letter giving me your views 
and advice. 

I feel much indebted to your kindness in the past. 

Appointment to the National Union UNC 

Executive Central Committee* 

375 Pennsylvania Avenue, 
Washington, D.C., 

January 16th., 1860. 


At a meeting of the National Union Executive Central Com- 
mittee, held at their rooms, in this city, on the 12th. instant, you 
were proposed as a member of said Committee, to represent 
therein, with Hon. Geo. E. Badger, 5 your State — at large. 

The Committee will be gratified to learn from you, at your 
earliest convenience, your willingness to accept this position, in 
order that they may elect you thereto, and secure your active 
co-operation in the prosecution of the work before them. 

By order of the Committee, 

F. Wm. Walker, 

dedicated abolitionist whose mind became obsessed with the idea of freeing the 
slaves by force. After gaining a reputation for bloody vengeance in Kansas, he led 
an attack on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in October, 1859, in hopes of 
fomenting a slave revolt. Brown was captured, tried, and hanged with little delay. He 
maintained throughout his ordeal that he was the instrument of Providence come 
to free the slaves. This inflammatory episode fanned the fires of extremism in the 
North and the South. Brown was hailed both as a noble martyr and as a common 
assassin. The yawning gulf of sectional misunderstanding and distrust was widened, 
to the detriment of the Union. Allen Johnson, "John Brown," Dictionary of American 
Biography, III, 131-134. 

4 Late in 1859 an effort was made by old-line Whigs and members of the American 
party to form a new party devoted to preserving the Union, and this letter concerns 
efforts to organize such a faction. The movement resulted in the nomination in 
1860 of John Bell and Edward Everett as the candidates of the Constitutional 
Union party. Graham's involvement in the movement reflects his devotion to the 
Union. Concise Dictionary of American History, 248. 

5 George Edmund Badger (1795-1866) was born and educated a Federalist, joined 
the Jacksonians about 1828, but was a Whig by 1836. He was briefly secretary of 
the navy prior to the dissolution of the Harrison cabinet and was a United States 
senator from 1846 to 1855. In the Senate, Badger supported southern rights while 
maintaining a nationalist posture. He opposed Polk's war policies and the Wilmot 

The Papers of William A. Graham 133 

P.S. Each State's representatives in the National Union 
Executive Committee form, for their own State, for all the pur- 
poses of preliminary State organization, a State Union Executive 
Central Committee, with the Senior representative of the State at 
large, as Chairman thereof. 


From F. Wm. Walker 

Rooms of the National Union 
Executive Central Committee. 

375 Pennsylvania Avenue, 

December 31st., 1859 

Sir: Members of the various political parties into which the 
American people are divided, Senators and Representatives in 
Congress, and others, from the various States of the Union, met in 
this city on the 19th. instant. 

The meeting was organized by the appointment of the HON. 
JOHN J. CRITTENDEN, 6 of Kentucky, as Chairman. 

Proviso, although he upheld the constitutionality of Congress limiting slavery in 
the territories. He favored all the 1850 compromise measures except the one abolish- 
ing the slave trade in Washington. He refused to accept the doctrine of popular 
sovereignty but voted for the Kansas-Nebraska bill — a vote which he lamented as 
the biggest mistake of his political life. A firm Unionist, Badger was a founder of 
and elector on the Constitutional Union ticket. As a delegate to the North Carolina 
secession convention he opposed secession and proposed a declaration of southern 
independence as the proper expedient. Badger supported the war without enthusiasm 
until his health broke in 1863. By profession he was a lawyer, and his practice was 
wide and successful. He frequently argued cases before the United States Supreme 
Court and ranked with Webster, Crittenden, Berrien, and Cushing as one of the 
ablest advocates of the day. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "George Edmund Badger," 
Dictionary of American Biography, I, 485-486. 

6 John Jordan Crittenden (1787-1863), Kentucky lawyer and statesman, was a 
moving spirit in efforts to compromise sectional disputes so that the Union might be 
preserved. He was an important national figure from the time of his election to the 
United States Senate in 1835 until his death. For twenty-five years he was a close 
personal friend and political ally of Henry Clay. Although he hoped slavery would 
die a natural death, he never embraced abolitionism. Crittenden feared the Kansas- 
Nebraska imbroglio and subsequently supported any measures which might result 
in compromise of the slavery question. After the Whig decline, he was a member of 
the American party and a founder of the Constitutional Union party. After the 
election of Lincoln, Crittenden sought compromise, but to no avail; however, he 

134 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

A resolution was adopted, providing for the appointment of a 
Committee, to consider and report a plan of general organi- 
zation, by which the entire conservative union vote of the country 
may be concentrated for the Presidential contest of 1860. 

The resolution, (offered by Mr. Harris, 7 of Maryland,) was 
as follows: 

That a Committee of ten be appointed by the Chair, which 
shall be empowered to confer with the Executive Committees 
of the American and Whig parties, and such other persons as 
are favorable to a formation of a national party, on the basis of 
"the Union, the Constitution, and the enforcement of the 
laws;" and to report some plan for the formation of such a move- 
ment to a subsequent meeting to be called by the Chair; and 
that the Chairman of this meeting shall be the Chairman of said 

The Committee was constituted, in accordance with this 
resolution, of which you already have information; and before 
adjournment, the powers of the meeting were, by resolution, 
vested therein, and it was constituted a National Union Executive 
Central Committee, with authority to increase its numbers and to 
fill vacancies. 

At a meeting of this Committee, held on the 23rd. instant, 
a resolution was adopted, to this effect: That the Chairman be 
empowered and requested, in conjunction with the Chairmen of 
the National Whig and American Committees, to call a National 
Union Convention, for the nomination of candidates for the 
Presidency and Vice Presidency of the United States, and if 
deemed expedient, to issue an address to the American people, 
suggesting the mode of electing delegates to said Convention, and 
setting forth the reasons which render the Union party movement 
indispensable to the perpetuity of this government. 

A delegation from the National American Committee were 
present at this meeting, and fully concurred and agreed to co- 

successfully led the fight to keep Kentucky in the union. He and William A. Graham 
were friends and political colleagues. Their association began when Graham was a 
young senator (1840-1843) and grew closer when both men were members of the 
Fillmore cabinet. E. Merton Coulter, "John Jordan Crittenden," Dictionary of 
American Biography, IV, 546-549. 

7 Presumably, this is James Morrison Harris (1817-1888) of Maryland, who, after 
attending Lafayette College, became a lawyer. He was an American (Know-Nothing) 
congressman, 1855-1861. Biographical Directory of Congress, 1012. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 135 

operate in the plan of action proposed. A communication was, 
at the same time, received from the National Whig Committee, 
cordially seconding the programme for the new party, and ap- 
proving of the proceedings had and proposed, in respect to it. 

On the 30th. instant, the Committee again met, when measures 
were discussed and agreed upon for rendering the formation of 
a Union Party general and effective, by co-operating State Organi- 
zations, and the formation of Union Clubs in wards of cities, and 
in towns and election districts throughout the country. 

A resolution was adopted, providing for the enlargement of the 
Committee, by members from each State, not to exceed in 
number that of the Senators and Representatives therefrom, 
in the Congress of the United States; and the desire of the Com- 
mittee, as well with a view thereto, as with reference to other and 
general purposes, for a free correspondence with them from all 
parts of the country, was expressed. 

The proceedings thus detailed, disclose their object. The move- 
ment they indicate has been commenced in no spirit of presump- 
tion. The exigencies of the country seemed to require the formation 
of a new party, founded upon national and conservative principles. 
There is reason to believe that such is the conviction of a great 
and patriotic portion of our fellow citizens, including very many 
members of the present dominant and contending parties, who 
have been made sensible of the dangerous and disturbing conse- 
quences likely to result from the further pursuit of their party 
controversies, and whom it is in the highest desirable to draw to- 
gether into fraternal union and efficient political co-operation. In 
answer, therefore, to an apparent demand, the movement for an 
"Union Party" has been inaugurated. It is submitted to your 
judgment, and that of our patriotic fellow-citizens, for approval, 
and that co-operation may be secured to carry it forward to success. 

The formation of Union State Organizations, and of Union 
Clubs in wards of cities, and in towns and election districts 
throughout the country, is urged as of immediate and prime 
importance; and a general and free correspondence with the 
National Union Executive Central Committee is earnestly invited. 

By order of the Committee, 
F. Wm. Walker, Secretary. 

136 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Samuel Smith Nicholas UNC 

Louisville, [Kentucky] 
January 26th., 1860. 

The receipt of your letter has afforded me great pleasure. I am 
also recently in the receipt of a similar one from the Hon. W. C. 
Rives 8 of Va., containing a most decided approval of the "plan." 

The making of any such radical, important change, is highly 
problematical, but from frequent conversations concerning it, 
during the last thirty years, with men of all classes & grades of 
intelligence, the two principal difficulties in the way of its success 
are — first, the getting the nation to take the subject into serious 
consideration — and second, the instinctive timidity of politicians 
in commiting [sic] themselves to anything about which they 
have no guide as to popular sentiment. With a view to the first, 
I have endeavored to obtain for publication the opinions of some 
of our prominent Statesmen, of advanced age, and long political 
experience, not actively engaged in party politics, but am sorry to 
say, that even among the few to whom my limited acquaintance 
permitted application, I have discovered the influence of the 
timidity refered [sic] to. For instance, among such men as 
Judge McLean 9 &. Mr. Edw'd Everett, who plead want of time to 
mature an opinion. 

^ William Cabell Rives (1793-1868) was a Virginia political leader and diplomat. A 
graduate of William and Mary, he was schooled in law and politics by Thomas 
Jefferson. He was twice ambassador to France, 1839-1832 and 1849-1853; a congress- 
man, 1823-1829; and a United States senator, 1832-1834 and 1836-1845. Originally a 
Jacksonian Democrat, he broke with Van Buren over the sub-treasury scheme and 
supported Tyler in his struggle with Clay. By 1844 he had become a full-fledged 
Whig, but maintained his states rights predilections. Rives opposed secession but 
advised Virginia to join the Confederacy under the irritant of federal coercion. He 
was a member of the Confederate Congress. Thomas P. Abernethy, "William Cabell 
Rives," Dictionary of American Biography, XV, 635-637. 

9 John McLean (1785-1861) was a native of New Jersey who migrated west as a 
youth and settled in Ohio. He read law with the eminent Arthur St. Clair of 
Cincinnati in preparation for a long career as journalist, lawyer, cabinet member, 
and jurist. He was a War Democrat in Congress, 1812-1816; judge of the Ohio 
Supreme Court, 1816-1822; postmaster general in the Monroe and John Quincey 
Adams administrations; and associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, 
1829-1861. He dissented in the Dred Scott decision contending that slavery had its 
origin in force, was sustained only by local law, and was morally wrong. He was 
frequently considered a presidential candidate, the last time being in 1860 at the 
age of seventy-five. Reginald C. McGrane, "John McLean," Dictionary of American 
Biography, XII, 127-128. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 137 

With a view to the second difficulty, a gentleman at Cincinnati 
has adopted the plan of obtaining signatures to memorials to 
Congress in favor of some such Constitutional amendment, $c with 
express view to supercede the next presidential election, with all 
its attendant hazards to the Union. If he should meet the success 
he confidently expects, it will encourage similar efforts else- 
where, Sc in this way the subject will be forced on the attention of 
Congress & the nation. From the few, or rather, no objections urged 
in private conversation, I believe that is all that is necessary to 
ultimate success. 

You are kind enough to ask my thinking as to the complexion 
of our national affairs. This reminded me of the warning I gave 
you in Baltimore, against the disunionists. If you chanced to 
remember that warning, it must have given me with you, some 
little claim as a political soothsayer, when you afterwards found 
your Senator Clingman and Gov. Wise 10 publicly avowing a 
conspiracy to dissolve the Union, part of the modus operandi 
being to turn the Union men of your State over to the tender 
mercies "of vigilance committees." This reminder is given as an 
apology for another warning. The political horizon is so cloudy, 
that in my opinion, you cannot be too much on your guard towards 
preventing the disunion question being settled in your State, "by 
the swift attention" of Mr. Clingman's "vigilance committees." 
Encourage your young men to organize and equip themselves in 
volunteer militia companies, under the command of reliable 
men. The fixed conservatism and union sentiment of Ky — Tenn 
— Missou — Maryl'd — %c Del. cannot be overcome but by the sudden 
impulse of some strong sympathetic passion. This, the disunionists 
know, and will act on the knowledge. If a Republican is elected 
President, their first maneuver will be to bring about an 

10 Henry Alexander Wise (1806-1876) of Virginia, a graduate of Washington (now 
Washington and Jefferson) College, was led early to states' rights by his mentor in 
the law, Henry St. George Tucker. A Tyler Whig, by the 1850s Wise was a tactless 
and aggressive defender of slavery. Perhaps he was best known for his excited reaction 
to John Brown's raid. Wise, governor of Virginia in 1856-1860, insisted on Brown's 
execution despite considerable evidence that he was insane. He favored "fighting in 
the union" for southern rights but embraced secession and became a fiery 
defender of the Confederacy. As a Confederate general he was active as a defender 
of Roanoke Island, the South Carolina coast, and, late in the war, Petersburg and 
Richmond. His spirit undisturbed by defeat, Wise resumed his legal practice in 
Richmond. He did not really approve the course of conservatives or radicals in 
postwar Virginia politics. He never requested amnesty but encouraged the young 
men of Virginia to accept defeat and look to the future. Robert Douthat Meade, 
"Henry Alexander Wise," Dictionary of American Biography, XX, 423-425; Boatner, 
Civil War Dictionary, 944. 

138 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

effusion of blood in some collision with the Federal authorities. 
The result of that upon the exciteable young men of Ky. 8c Tenn. 
no man can foretell. 

We have just had here a most successful effort at a counter 
irritant at a festival given to the Legislatures of Ky. $c Tenn. 
It all went off beautifully, 8c if the Union loving, with which 
we caused them to cram each other, does not evaporate too soon, 
the result must be beneficial. According to my theorising, those 
two States, with a view to disunion on the slave line, constitute 
together the true key-stone of the Federal arch. 

If the fever is high with you, it seems to me the safest part you 
can take is to insist upon a previous consultation in Convention, 
with all the slave States. That will give time for cooling and reflect- 
ing Sc give you the benefit of the influence of the five Union 

[P.S.] I have caused a reprint of my essays of 1840 and requested 
our friend Crittenden to send you a copy, — if he has not done so 
let me know, Sc I will send it to you. I look upon the election of a 
Republican as President to be almost certain. I have no faith in 
the project of a new Union party. Men will not desert their parties 
in considerable numbers in the midst of a fight. 

From George E. Badger A&H 

Feb. 7th. 1860. 

I received today the enclosed telegraphic communication from 
Crittenden. You must obey of course. 

From John J. Crittenden to George E. Badger 

Feb. 1st. 1860. 

Communicate to Hon. W. A. Graham to come at once. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 139 

From William A. Graham, Jr. UNC 


February 18th., 1860. 

The snow is now 1 3 inches deep, and it is still snowing, %c there 
has been snow on the ground ever since last session. There has 
been a great deal of sleigh-riding, I contemplate taking one 
this evening, if the snow stops. I write to get your advice about 
going into business in New York after I graduate. Mr. Dickey 
will not come on to New York for some time yet, and as he is 
rather a stiff Yankee, I would prefer not asking him for a place. 
I think Dr. Evans 11 would be a good person to write to on the 
subject, and if you think it worth while, I will write to him on the 
subject. I believe October is the time of commencing in N.Y. I 
wish to go into a "Banking House," & would not be willing to 
go into a dry good store for less than $600.00. I would like to have 
your advice on the subject, whether it would be better to go to 
planting or no. 

I spent last Saturday evening at Mrs. Potter's, with three Misses 
Polk. Two of them daughters of Bishop of La., 12 & one a sister 
of Mrs. Robin Jones. I believe they were all in Hillsboro' last 
spring. Dr. Jos. Addison Alexander, 13 of the Theological Seminary 

11 Presumably this is Dr. Augustus C. Evans, who was a maternal kinsman. Clark, 
"Washington Descendants." 

12 This reference is to Leonidas Polk (1806-1864), a North Carolina kinsman of 
James K. Polk who came from the same sturdy Scotch-Irish stock. Before graduating 
from the United States Military Academy in 1827, Polk was converted by the West 
Point chaplain, and his life was dramatically changed. He resigned his commission, 
graduated from the Virginia Theological Seminary, and entered the Episcopal 
ministry. As missionary bishop of the southwest, Polk traveled 5,000 miles in his 
first six months service. In 1841 he was named bishop of Louisiana. He tried vainly 
to be both a successful bishop and sugar planter, but his plantation was a financial 
failure. He was, at one time, the enlightened master of four hundred slaves. When 
the Civil War erupted, Polk believed that the South's cause was sacred, and he of- 
fered his services to President Jefferson Davis, a former West Point contemporary. 
His appointment as a general officer was made partly for its psychological and moral 
effect; but, although his service in the West was controversial, Polk was an effective 
corps commander, considering his limited experience. He was killed in Pine Moun- 
tain, near Marietta, Georgia, in June, 1864. Robert Douthat Meade, "Leonidas Polk," 
Dictionary of American Biography, XV, 39-40; Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 657-658. 

13 The Reverend Joseph Addison Alexander (1809-1860) of New Jersey, a native 
of Pennsylvania, was an Orientalist, theologian, and a graduate of Princeton and 
professor in the theological seminary, 1834-1860. He was editor of the Biblical 
Repertory and the author of several Biblical commentaries. Concise Dictionary of 
American Biography, 15. 

140 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

died a few days before I arrived. He was the first man in his line 
on Earth. He spoke every language between America & India, 
and his place can not be so well filled by any man on Earth. His 
death will doubtless injure the Seminary very much. There is a 
great deal of talk about Dr. McLeans 14 resigning next commence- 
ment, but if he does, I think it will be because He has resigned 
his breath. 

Our duties are mostly lectures this Session, &c we have a 
good opportunity to study for final examination, when we have 
to stand on all the studies of the 4 years. 

Please send me the Register, which will contain an account of 
the Convention on the 22nd. inst. 

From John A. Gilmer UNC 

House of Reps., 

February 18th., 1860. 

I consumed some days before I could get a Copy of the Buffalo 
Platform. 15 

I fear the Copy which I send you will not reach you in time for 
the Convention at Raleigh. 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Kentucky 
Feb. 20, 1860 

Ever since the 1st day of January I have been absent from home 
at Frankfurt engaged in the Court of Appeals and before the 
Legislature. Last year I made a new compilation of our Revised 
Statutes, with notes of the decisions of the Court of Appeals, 
of which the Legislature has agreed to take for distribution to the 
state offices 6000 volumes, and the consumation of this arrange- 
ment detained me much longer than I expected. This will explain 
the reason why you have not heard from me before. 

14 This is probably John Maclean who was president of Princeton from 1853 to 

15 The Whig platform of 1848. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 141 

Our city authorities have taken no step to collect the taxes 
since I wrote you, the collector having given no bond. Our 
court does not sit until April, and we can take no action in the 
case except in term time. Even then, I do not see how we can 
reach the collector and force him to execute bond. He may 
resign, and no one be willing to take his place. He is not a party 
to our proceedings and cannot be reached by process of contempt. 
Sustained as he is by public sentiment in the town, he holds us 
at defiance, and the only means left to us will be to obtain 
judgment on the coupons, levy on the city property, sell it subject 
to the mortgages, and appoint a receiver to take charge of it and 
collect that part of the revenues, which at best would pay but a 
small portion of the debt. The truth is, the prospects are very 
gloomy, and there is but little hope of realizing all the debt. 

A large majority of the people contend that they are unable to 
pay the taxes, and for that reason will sustain the council and its 
officers in any illegal course they may pursue, even if violence be 
necessary to resist their collection. The compromise about which 
I wrote you was offered by a few of the good men of the place 
who were willing to take on themselves to guarantee its faithful 
performance, and they are able to comply with what they propose 
to undertake. The proposition was to pay principal and interest 
at 30 cents to the dollar in cash, or issue the bonds of the City 
at 15 years for 50 cents on the dollar, and they guarantee the 
prompt payment of the interest every 6 months. This I believe 
is the very best they are willing to do. I talked with one of the 
gentlemen yesterday upon the subject who is one of our best 
citizens . . . who seemed sincerely impressed with the idea that 
the City was wholly unable to pay more. Real estate cannot be 
sold for any price, no building has been erected for three or four 
years, and that interest is depressed beyond measure. 

I tried while at Frankfurt to have passed a law transferring the 
collection of the Rail Road tax from the City Collector to the 
County Sheriff, but it met with such disfavor from the members 
of the Judiciary Committee, to whom I suggested it, that I had 
to abandon the idea. They were not willing to make such an 
innovation upon the existing laws on the subject of municipal 
corporations, and I could get nothing done. 

I regret exceedingly that I have to write you so discouraging a 
letter. After all the labor we have had to establish the validity of 
the debt, it will be hard if we are compelled to make so great a 
sacrifice to enable us to realize any part of the money. 

If no compromise is made before the court sits, we will exhaust 
every means to force the council to make the collections. 

142 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Samuel Park Weir 16 UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

February 20th., 1860. 

The Editors of the University Magazine desire me to ask if 
you will be so kind as to prepare a Biographical Sketch of the late 
Judge Murphy, 17 by the first of April next; if you can conveniently 
do so, the Biography, with a steel engraving of Judge Murphy, 
will appear in the May number of the Magazine. 

It is also the wish of the relatives of the deceased, that I make 
this request. 

Please to let us know a[s] soon as possible whether you can 
comply with it, which should you do, we would feel under very 
many obligations to you. 

From Alexander H. H. Stuart A&H 


Feby21st, 1860. 

I left this City on Thursday last, on a short visit to my home, 
8c therefore did not receive you letter until this morning. 

I think I may safely say that Virginia will not accede to the 
proposition of S. C. for a Southern Conference. I regard it as a 
dangerous disunion measure, 8c I think this opinion is shared by 
a majority of both houses of the Legislature. I concur with you 
in thinking it would be well to give such an expression of the 
sentiments of our conventions as you indicate in your letter. 

I have not yet seen the address of the Washington Committee, 
but I understand it contains a recommendation which I think 
would be very mischievous. I refer to the suggestion that each 
State should nominate two candidates for the Presidency. This 
would produce much discord, and many heart-burnings among 
the friends of aspirants. There would be feuds in every State Sc 
an internecine strife in the National Convention. As soon as the 

16 Samuel Park Weir (1839-1862), of Greensboro, was graduated by the University 
of North Carolina in 1860. Later a Confederate lieutenant, he was killed at Fredericks- 
burg. Spencer Alumni Project. 

17 Graham wrote the sketch of Murphey, which was published in the University of 
North Carolina Magazine in August, 1860. It is also printed in W. H. Hoyt (ed.), 
The Papers of Archibald D. Murphey. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 143 

nominations were made, the friends of the nominees, would set to 
work, to disparage all rivals 8c thereby relatively to advance 
their peculiar favorite. The Convention would be converted 
into a mere bear garden, & its harmony would be destroyed by 
the angry strifes of the contestants. 

I believe our Convention will express no preference for any 
Candidate, but leave the selection to be made by the general 
Convention, upon a free conference of its members, untrammeled 
by any instruction express or implied. 

I hope your Convention will take the same course. The opposite 
one would, I feel persuaded, do much mischief. 

To John J. Crittenden A&H 

Hillsboro', N.C., 

February 27th., 1860. 

Although you may have seen in the public prints, the report 
of the proceedings of the recent N.C. Convention at Raleigh, 
I deem it proper to advise you, that this report is not at all 
exaggerated. Being informed soon after my arrival of the Com- 
pliment (I am persuaded it will result in nothing more) intended 
to be paid me by my friends, 18 I took no part in the proceedings, 
except to explain in a private meeting, the nature and design of 
the Union movement. The address had just been received, and 
had been read but by few. The proposed organization is most 
cordially received here, and has already enlisted every man of 
the opposition of whom I have heard any expression of opinion; 
some objection was expressed to the recommendation to the 
State Conventions to nominate two persons, and that the National 
Convention should select a candidate from these, (and I hear that 
the same objection was likely to be made in Virginia) but it was 
entertained by but three or four persons in the Convention. The 
movement was hailed as the very measure needed for the exigency 
of the times, and as calculated to enable the conservative elements 
of the country to unite in harmonious cooperation. 

Our friends are greatly elated by the results of their Convention, 
and are fully persuaded that they can %c will carry the election 

18 The state Whig convention had shortly before endorsed Graham for the presi- 
dential nomination of the Constitutional Union party. Raleigh Register, February 25, 

144 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

in this State. Local policy of deep interest will enter into the 
canvass, with the most propitious influences in our favor. 

The Convention was probably the most numerous body of 
the kind that ever assembled in the state, and comprised men 
of the very highest character and talent. 

Happy always to communicate what I am assured will be 
agreeably received. 

I remain, 

Very truly and faithfully Yours, 

From Joseph M. Graham UNC 

Camden [Arkansas] 
Feby28, 1860. 

Many months have elapsed since the reception of your very 
welcome epistle, which ought to have been answered long ere 
this time. Our western country is still growing rapidly and will I 
think soon be one of the leading states in the West. 

The tide of immigrants this year have been of a better class, as 
regards intelligence 8c refinement as well as men of wealth & 
character. Lands too are gradually going up in price. 

I wish you could have visited this Country a few years since 8c 
purchased a plantation. If you had not have been pleased with 
it, you could have realized double the amt invested for it. Lands 
however have risen in price so much during the last few years in 
the old States that most persons moving here think the lands 
low enough. 

Camden also continues to grow. The few unimproved lots that 
are in the business portions of the town are held at from 50 to 70 
dollars per front foot. Desirable situations for residences within 
a mile of the Court Square sells readily at 500.00 per acre. There 
will be about 50,000 Bales of cotton shipped from this point this 
year. And trade of all kinds has increased astonishingly. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 145 

My crop of cotton turned out quite handsomely last year. I 
finished picking and ginning first 3 weeks since & have made & 
shipped 248 Bales that will average over Five hundred pounds 
each Sc have made plenty of Bacon, Corn, Sc wheat to answer 
the current year that I have made on the plantation. Have recently 
turned my attention to stock raising & have on my farm a very fine 
Durham Bull which I purchased at Lexington Kentucky. 

I see in the Charlotte Bulletin the card of Jos Graham, M.D. 
We would have been glad to have had Jo come out here 8c practice 
in Camden. Ham writes me that he has joined the Texas Rangers 
at 120 per month Sc rations. His station will be near Fort Belnap. 
Cant you and Aunt Susan pay us a visit this Spring. She can stay 
with Mary 8c I will ride with you Sc look at the Country. Our 
River is navigated by 1st class steamers. And you can have a quick 
trip to Memphis or New Orleans by Rail Road. We have a large 
house &: will be most happy to see you both. 

From Manuel Fetter UNC 

Chapel Hill, 
No. Carolina., 

March 2nd., 1860. 

Enclosed I send you a plan of a Belfry, drawn by Mr. Coates, 19 
which he says can be carried out on the top of the South Building. 
He has examined the 4th. Story, etc., etc., and gives it as his 
opinion that the Bell can be placed there without endangering 
the walls. The cost will be about $1050., while a suitable Belfry 
on the ground, according to his estimate, will cost from $1200 to 
$1300. The Faculty, (with the exception of Gov. Swain) have, 
by vote, recommended that the Bell be placed on the top of the 
S. B. 20 But, as the expenditure for this object exceeds the limits 
contemplated by the Building Committee, when they directed 
that the Bell should be suspended in a proper place in the 
Campus, I have referred the subject to you for instructions. 

19 Thomas H. Coates was the contractor who built New East and New West and 
erected a cupola and belfry on South Building. The work was completed in Septem- 
ber, 1861, at a cost of $54,798.62. Henderson, Campus of the University, 152. 

20 South Building. 

146 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Burgess S. Gaither 21 UNC 


March 9th., 1860. 

My friend, Mr. Caldwell, 22 remarked to me when he returned 
from the Convention, that you had made some enquiry of him as 
to where I stood in politics, and expressed some surprise when 
he informed you that I am now where I have always been, an 
old line Whig. Mr. Caldwell knows, and always has known, my 
true position. I have really been doing nothing and taking no 
interest in political affairs for years, for the reason that I have 
thought it was labor lost, in the absence of a National organization. 
Things have changed now, and the two prominent parties have 
produced a crisis, which demands the active and united services 
of any patriot in the land, to save our Government, and I am 
again upon my feet, with the old harness on, ready for the 
conflict, and ready to devote the present years service to the cause, 
and intend to do more service than any other one man in my 
district, between now and November. 

We have just fixed upon the time for a district convention, 
and will have our delegate in the National Convention at Baltimore 
on the 9th. of May, and I hope every district will do the same. 
If the North Carolina delegation is composed of the right kind of 
material, and will do their duty, in that Convention, and not show 
so much modesty and sheepishness as formerly, they can procure 
the nomination of Convention for yourself. We will have a man 
there who will be for you from first to last. 

I find that the proceedings of our Convention are all satisfactory 
with our people, and if Pool 23 will stand square up to the platform, 
in all parts of the State, 8c play a bold and fair game, we will elect 
him, and carry the Legislature. 

21 Burgess Sidney Gaither (1807-1892), of Asheville, was a leader of the Whig party 
in western North Carolina. He was born in Iredell County, attended the University 
of Georgia, where he was a classmate of Alexander H. Stephens and Robert A. 
Toombs, and was a successful lawyer. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1835, state senator (1840, 1844, 1861), district solicitor, and a Confederate 
congressman, 1862-1865. As a Confederate legislator he sustained the Davis war mea- 
sures, although this course meant breaking with some of his former Whig associates. 
Subsequently, he faced Reconstruction with fortitude and hope. Samuel A. Ashe, 
"Burgess Sidney Gaither," in Ashe, Biographical History, II, 93-98. 

22 Tod R. Caldwell. 

23 John Pool, of Pasquotank, had just been nominated for governor by the Whigs. 
Raleigh Register, February 25, 1860. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 147 

I am thus far on my way to my Circuit, 8c intend that the cam- 
paign shall open next week at Macon, by holding ratification 
meetings in my County in the Circuit, & organize the Union party 
in each county by bringing out our leading men for the Legisla- 
ture. Whether elected or not, it will help Pool. If the democracy 
will take issue upon ad valorum, and stand up to their threat of 
disunion in case of defeat, we will give them a Waterloo defeat in 
the West. Pool, when he gets upon this side of the mountain, will 
meet with some diflculty upon the subject of internal improve- 
ment. I believe that some of the friends of the French Broad road, 
in Henderson, Buncombe 8c Madison, will not support him, unless 
he will endorse their own peculiar South Carolina views. This 
influence he can check-mate most effectually, by advocating the 
extension of our road to Duck town, provided the rout is found 
by the survey to be practicable at reasonable costs, and provided 
further, if the State will adopt the ad valorum principal of taxation, 
so as to raise the means without increasing the taxes. If he will take 
this position boldly, Sc which is right in fact, we will carry 
Buncombe County, and all West to Cherokee, provided Ellis 
takes the opposite view Sc approves the ad valorum principal. I 
do not know Pool personally, or I would write to him. You will 
see him before he comes West, Sc tell him to correspond with his 
Western friends before he takes position on this subject. I intend 
to discuss these questions in the meetings this Circuit, Sc feel the 
public pulse before Pool gets here, Sc he will then be enabled to 
take his position. 

His vote in the last Legislature for a survey of this rout to 
Ducktown will help him, and my opinion is, that the survey will 
develope the fact that a road from here to Ducktown would cost less 
per mile than the road from Salisbury to Morganton, and our 
Company now has the priviledge of determining which rout they 
will take from this place, either to Ducktown, or down the French 
Broad, and will have some fourteen hundred dollars of the four 
Millions appropriated, unexpended, which would take them 
beyond Waynesville. Ducktown is the point, if practicable. We 
then tap the travel at Chattanooga, &: will draw off from the East 
Tennessee and Virginia road Sc the south rout much of the 
Northern travel, and thereby make any stock of the State valuable. 

I will not trouble you, however, any further with my own 
peculiar views upon a subject in which you feel no special interest. 
I shall be at Court now, constantly, commencing next week at 
Macon, ^c will be pleased to hear from you Sc receive any sugges- 
tions, and to hear what is the prospect of the National Union 
party in the Northern States. 

148 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Invitation from the New-York Historical Society a&H 

to Attend a Celebration 

New- York, 

March 9th. 1860. 


The New- York Historical Society will celebrate the next anni- 
versary of the birth-day of Washington Irving, by a Public Address 
on his Life, Character, and Genius, to be delivered by William 
Cullen Bryant, at half past seven o'clock on the evening of Tues- 
day, the third of April next, at the Academy of Music in this City. 

The birth-day of the Patriarch of American Letters, the 
Biographer of Columbus and Washington, may justly be regarded 
as an occasion of general as well as of local interest. It is hoped, 
therefore, that the presence and coroperation of prominent 
friends and representatives of the national literature, from other 
parts of our Country, may grace the occasion, and add dignity to 
the proposed tribute of respect. 

In behalf of the Society, we invite you to be present, and take 
part in the celebration. 

We request the favor of an early reply, indicating the time of 
your probable arrival in the city. 

We have the honor to be 

Your Obedient Servants, 
L. Bruniss 

John Romeyn Brodhead 
Sam'l Osgood 
Geo. Folsom 
Geo: Henry Moore 

Committee of arrangements 

Hon. William A. Graham. 

From William A. Graham, Jr. UNC 


March 10th., [I860.] 

I received your kind letter a few days ago. Enclosed I send you a 
letter from Dr. Evans, which I received tonight. He wishes to know 

The Papers of William A. Graham 149 

what kind of business I wish to go in. I wrote him my first letter, 
a Banking House, or Counting, which I take to be the same. But I 
confess I do not exactly understand the business. I supposed the 
business would be principally writing, $c cashing drafts, etc. 
He offers to take me in his store, yet does not state what he wishes 
me to do; but I suppose it will be writing principally. I wish you 
would advise me which to do, whether to ask him to get me a 
situation in his store, or to accept his kind offer. What I wish to 
accomplish is to be familiar with accounts, or what you would call 
a "business man." If I like the business, I may follow that, instead 
of farming. He says nothing about pay, Sc yet while I can not 
expect much the first year, still I don't like to work for nothing. 

Please answer this immediately, as I shall await your letter 
before writing to Dr. E. I [f] you think it advisable I can go over 
to New York on Saturday 8c talk with him about it, & return that 

Nine weeks from Monday, Senior vacation commences; if you 
have no objection I would like to go to Niagara &c Montreal in 
June for a few days, as I hardly think it worth while to come home 
for such a short time. Jamie writes something about making some 


From A. C. Evans to William A. Graham, Jr. UNC 

218 Pearl Street, 
New York, 

March 10th., 1860. 

Dear William, 

I this morning reply to yours of 8th. inst. If you will indicate the 
kind of business you prefer, I will endeavour to find a vacancy for 

Or should I not, from want of acquaintance with business houses 
in your selection, I will find something to employ you in my own, 
until you can decide either on its continuance or select some other. 

Should you prefer the study of Law subsequently, it will be a 
great advantage to be a merchant, and familiar with accounts. Our 
best Lawyers are very defective in this respect, and have to get the 
aid of business men (among merchants) . . . often at handsome fees. 

150 N.C. Department op Archives and History 

Our business relations are growing more important every year, 
with Cuba, Mexico, and all the So. Am'n States, and I would advise 
you to learn Spanish by all means, and if you cannot begin there, 
I would do so as soon as you come here, if you so decide. French 
is now a necessity for a cultivated gentleman, which, if you have 
not already acquired, I would also advise. It is time that Latin %c 
Greek had become of secondary importance in our Colleges, as 
they should, in my judgment. But old fogyism has become so 
rooted in them, that all liberal ideas of education, (put liberal 
before education) are concentrated in 8 years of Latin and Greek, 
to be forgotten in a much less time. Whereas, the modern lan- 
guages are almost indispensable in every-day life, here at home. 

You will pardon the suggestions made, and if I can serve you 
it will give me pleasure. 

Shall be glad to hear your decision, and remain very truly, 

From Matthew F. Maury UNC 


March 16th., 1860. 

I was sorry not to see more of you when you were here. I called 
but was so unfortunate as to miss you. 

Mr. Mallory 24 has brought in a bill to increase the pay of all 
the officers in the Navy, except the "Chief of Buro's and the 
sup er in ten dan t of the Observatory ." 

Mr. Mallory, you recollect, was particularly zealous in behalf 
of the Navy Board, and very unfair, to say the least, in his state- 
ments concerning myself. And this proviso is understood, has a 
fling at Co mo. Smith 25 and myself. 

24 Stephen Russell Mallory (1813-1873), born in Trinidad of New England stock, 
was brought as a child to Key West, Florida. He was a lawyer and a Democrat. At 
this time Mallory was a United States senator and chairman of the committee on 
naval affairs. Later he was Confederate secretary of the navy. After the war he prac- 
ticed his profession in Pensacola. Kathleen Bruce, "Stephen Russell Mallory," 
Dictionary of American Biography, XII, 224-226. 

25 Melancton Smith (1810-1893), a native of New York, entered naval service in 
1826 and had a long and notable career. During the Civil War he participated in the 
New Orleans expedition, served on Albemarle Sound, where his command of six 
wooden gunboats succeeded in driving the Confederate ram Albemarle up the Roa- 
noke River, and took part in the Federal assault on Fort Fisher. He became a rear 
admiral in 1870. Allan Westcott, "Melancton Smith," Dictionary of American 
Biography, XVIII, 320-321. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 151 

'Envy, hatred, & malice' are ignoble passions, but the arrows 
which they shoot out distract the mind, & interfere sadly with 
it's proper labors. 

This is a slur that is attempted to be cast upon me. It is in a 
way which is not likely to attract the notice of my friends until 
after the thing has been done. I therefore advise you of it. And in 
doing so, I feel assured that it will afford you real satisfaction to 
serve me in such a cause. 

I do not wish to oppose the bill, or to stand in the way of its 
passage, for that would be ungenerous to my brother officers, all 
of whom would be benefitted by it. Indeed, their pay has become 
altogether insufficient. 

I submit to my friends the propriety of introducing an amend- 
ment to this slur, providing that the pay of the "Superintendant 
of the Observatory should be that of Captain in Command." 

As a sort of commentary upon this move in the Committee of 
the Senate, I enclose a copy of a letter received yesterday. 

Pray excuse the liberty, if it be so that I have made too free, 
and believe me, 

My dear Sir, 

Very truly yours. 

[Enclosure: A Translation] 

From A. Mathieu To Matthew F. Maury 

Paris, France. 

February 24th., 1860. 

Imperial Marine. 
Director General 
of the Depot of 
Charts and Plans. 

Sir, and highly honored Colleague: 

Independently of the Gold Medal, which the Government of 
the Emperor has decreed you as a mark of esteem, for the eminent 
services which you have rendered to navigation, Admiral 
Hamelin, 26 Minister of Marine, has determined to give you an 

26 Ferdinand Alphonse Hamelin (1796-1864) was at this time an admiral in the 
French navy and minister of marine. His service dated back to the Napoleonic 

152 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

especial mark of his gratitude for the communications, so important 
and so numerous, which you have addressed to the Depot, either 
directly in your own name, or from the Government of the Union. 
On all which occasions, I have held it my duty to indicate your 
merit to his Excellency. 

In consequence, Admiral Hamelin has instructed me to send 
two complete collections, bound, of our Charts and Nautical 
Instructions; the one intended for the Observatory at Washington, 
the other, for yourself personally. 

The copy for the Observatory bears on the side of the binding 
the following words: 

"His Excellency, Admiral Hamelin, Minister of Marine, to 
the Observatory of Washington" 

And the one which is destined for you: 

"His Excellency , Admiral Hamelin, Minister of Marine, to 
Lieutenant Maury." 

In conformity with the orders of the Minister, these two 
collections have been completed, — the classification and binding 
of which has occupied some little time, — and have just been sent 
to his Excellency, who will transmit them to you through the 
Legation of the United States, at Paris. 

I am fortunate, Sir, that the Depot which I direct, has been 
employed to give you, my honorable Colleague, such a gratifying 
proof of the high appreciation which the Marine of my Country 
has of your long continued and scientific labors, which have been 
so useful to the navigation of the entire world. 

I pray you to receive my sincere congratulations, and to be 
assured of the devoted and affectionate sentiments, and of the high 
consideration with which you will ever be regarded by, 

Your very humble and 
Obedient Servant, 

Contre- Admiral and Director General. 

P.S. Our meteorological service, under the active and experienced 
direction of Engineer De la Marche, is now organized. As soon as 
we shall have collected sufficient data, we will communicate them 
to you. 

period when he went to sea in 1806 as a cabin boy. As minister of marine his most 
significant accomplishment was in the development of naval armor. Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [Eleventh Edition], 28 volumes 
and index, 1924), XII, 876. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 153 

From Leonidas C. Edwards UNC 

Oxford, N.C., 
April 6th., 1860. 

Mr. Robert Gilliam requested me yesterday to write you 8c ask 
you what was the present amount of our State debt; and also what 
was the amount for which the State would be liable, when the 
projected improvements, for which the credit of the State is 
hypothecated, is completed. Or, as he expressed it, the amount of 
the funded debt, and the amount of the prospective debt. His 
reason for troubling you is, that he has been unable to lay his 
hands upon any document which shews these facts; and your 
uniform and universal acquaintance with the fiscal condition of 
the State, warrants him in the conclusion that you can furnish 
him with the necessary information without trouble or inconven- 
ience to yourself. 

I have heard, and I hope it is true, that he designs making some 
speeches this summer; for you very well know that his influence 
here, and wherever he is known, is justly very great. I entertain 
very strong convictions that we shall carry this County in the 
coming elections. 

From Joseph Graham UNC 


April 10, 1860. 

Since you left, we have two new Doctors located here .... The 
practising physicians now number 1 3. I dont know who it is that 
[is] going to starve, but surely all of us cant live on this small 
place. For one I find practice comes very slowly so far. I booked 
a little more than $50.00 last month, all good enough pay. But all 
that comes from relatives. And there seems but little probability 
of my practice extending beyond them soon. This is a very dear 
place to live in, and it is spend, spend from morning till night. 
I hope I shall get fixed after awhile and expenses will become 

154 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Sion H. Rogers 27 and Kemp P. Battle UNC 


April 12th., 1860. 

We enclose you a copy of the Address of the Ex. Committee of 
the Democratic party. We know of no one better qualified to 
answer this paper than yourself, and you will confer a great favor 
on our Committee, as well as forward the cause for which we are 
contending, by making, at your leisure, any observations, to be 
published by us and distributed throughout the State, which in 
your judgment may be proper. 

From F. William Walker UNC 


April 13th., 1860. 

It is some time since I heard from you, and it is long since I 
allowed you to hear from me. In the interval that has elapsed, the 
organization of our new party has actively and extensively 
progressed throughout the country. Our Committee's correspon- 
dence in my hand evinces that the hopes of the country are at 
this time largely centered in this new party. The people are 
obviously looking to it with intensest interest. Our position is 
peculiar, but if the party shall meet its responsibilities patrioti- 
cally, I have no doubt it will determine the result of the coming 
Presidential contest in such a way as shall be for the best interests 
of the country. 

I enclose you herewith a notice, which I hope you will regard. 

27 Sion Hart Rogers (1825-1874), of Wake County, was a graduate of the University 
of North Carolina; colonel of the Forty-seventh North Carolina Regiment; state 
attorney general, 1863-1866; and a member of the United States House of Representa- 
tives, serving as a Whig member, 1853-1855, and as a Democratic member, 1871-1873. 
Biographical Directory of Congress, 1537; Spencer Alumni Project. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 155 


Rooms of the National Executive Central Committee 
of the Constitutional Union Party 

375 Pennsylvania Avenue, 
Washington, D.C. 
April 13th., 1860. 

Dear Sir: 

At a recent meeting of the National Executive Central Com- 
mittee of the Constitutional Union Party, it was unanimously 
resolved that the entire National Committee be convened at 
Baltimore, simultaneously with the meeting of the nominating 
Convention, to wit: May 9th., to receive from the Convention 
its nominations, ratify the same, and take such action as may be 
necessary for rendering them effective; and it was made my duty, 
on behalf of that Committee, to address each member of the 
National Committee, and specially and urgently request his 
attendance at the time and place mentioned. 

Although the business of the National Committee is distinct 
and separate from that of the Convention, it is considered quite 
important that both should be assembled on the same day, in 
order, chiefly, that the Committee may, at once, adopt the best 
and most efficient measures for promoting the success of the 
nominations made by the Convention. The presence of both these 
bodies, it is hoped, will not fail to give a favorable impulse to the 
Party, to manifest its character and strength, and to show their own 
honest and patriotic devotion to its support. 

In such a cause — a cause that appeals to the country's good, and 
rests alone on the disinterested patriotism of its supporters — it is 
believed that no word of argument or persuasion is required to 
insure your co-operation and punctual attendance on the Com- 
mittee at the time and place stated. 

Each member of the Committee will be similarly addressed, 
and a general attendance is confidently expected. 

The Executive Committee will be gratified to learn from you, 
at your earliest convenience, that you will be present. 

By order of the Committee. 

Yours, respectfully, 
F. Wm. Walker, 


156 N.C. Department op Archives and History 

From Kemp P. Battle UNC 

April 16th., 1860. 

Mr. Pool has been here, and on consultation we have concluded, 
(mainly at his suggestion) not to issue at present, if ever, any 
explanation of our platform. Of course we intend to circulate 
documents in abundance, containing facts and arguments, but 
nothing like a new platform by authority of the Committee, which 
might be considered binding on the party. The H. C. Jones 28 
production, which I mentioned to you when in Raleigh, will be 
of benefit to us, but will not be issued in solido. This determination 
relieves my mind very much. We propose to publish any observa- 
tions you may send us on the subject, and circulate them largely, 
knowing they will be of incalculable advantage to the candidates 
in the Counties and to our cause. 

Mr. Pool is very sanguine. Will carry his own district by at 
least 1000, he thinks. Mr. Barnes, 29 (of Northampton) writes me 
that our candidate gained a decided triumph over Gov. Ellis 30 at 

The "Dem. Press" states this evening, (and I believe the state- 
ment is true) that Mr. Rayner 31 has written to Mr. Donnell that 

28 Hamilton Chamberlain Jones (1798-1868) graduated from the University of 
North Carolina in 1818, read law with the eminent William Gaston and practiced 
in Salisbury, and was founder and owner of the Carolina Watchman (Salisbury) 
from 1828 to 1840. He was an early political opponent of Andrew Jackson and moved 
easily into the Whig party. He was a member of the House of Commons during 
several sessions, was a state solicitor, was reporter of the North Carolina Supreme 
Court, and was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1861. McCormick, 
Convention Personnel, 50; Charles W. Tillett, "Hamilton Chamberlain Jones," in 
Ashe, Biographical History, VII, 268-273. 

29 David Alexander Barnes (1819-1892), of Northampton County, was a graduate 
of the University of North Carolina, read law with William Gaston, and enjoyed a 
successful practice. A Whig in politics, Barnes was a member of the House of Com- 
mons in 1844, 1846, and 1850, and a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 
1861. He was an aide to Governor Vance during the Civil War, an appointment 
which probably was procured with Graham's aid. (See the letter from David 
Barnes to William A. Graham, August 26, 1862, in this volume.) Afterward he was a 
superior court judge, 1865-1868. He was an elector on the Scott-Graham ticket in 
1852. Spencer Alumni Project; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 16. 

30 John Willis Ellis (1820-1861) was first elected North Carolina governor in 1858 
and won reelection in the 1860 campaign, defeating the Whig hopeful John Pool. 
Ellis, a Democrat, favored secession and defied Lincoln's call for troops while prepar- 
ing the state for war. Concise Dictionary of American Biography , 270. 

31 Kenneth Rayner (1808-1884) attended the Tarborough Academy and read law with 
Thomas Ruffin in preparation for a career as a lawyer, politician, and bureaucrat. A 
man of great talents, though sometimes unstable, he attracted favorable attention as 

The Papers of William A. Graham 157 

he has declined going to Baltimore, intending to support the 
Charleston nominee! If this be true, it is the most extraordinary 
summerset in history. 

From Robert Hall Morrison 22 UNC 

Cottage Home, [Lincoln County] 
April 17 th., 1860. 

Your last letter was rec'd in due time, but I could not have a 
meeting of our Com. until the regular Sessions of Presbytery, as 
they live remote from each other. 

At Pres last week we had a meeting, & ordered the payment of 
one thousand Doll's to you, which you charge for y'r Services. 33 

the youngest member of the Constitutional Convention of 1835. He was a member 
of the House of Commons from Hertford County in 1835, 1836, 1838, 1846, 1848, and 
1850, the state senate in 1854, and the United States House of Representatives, 1839- 
1845. He was successively a Jacksonian Democrat, a Calhoun Democrat, a Whig, an 
American (Know-Nothing), a Conservative, and a Republican. As a member of the 
Convention of 1861 Rayner was a secessionist; but later, due to his opposition to 
the Davis administration, he was secretly a supporter of William W. Holden's peace 
movement. Following the war, Rayner failed as a Mississippi planter and was a 
federal officeholder. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "Kenneth Rayner," Dictionary of 
American Biography, XV, 416-417; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 68; Connor, 
Manual, 1913,655, 930-931. 

32 Robert Hall Morrison (1798-1889) was the husband of William A. Graham's 
sister Mary. A native of Cabarrus County and of Scottish descent, he tied James K. 
Polk for first honors in the University of North Carolina's 1818 graduating class. 
Morrison was a devout Presbyterian minister and the first president of Davidson 
College, which he helped found in 1838. He resigned in 1840 at the height of his 
promise, broken in health and spirit, and took up residence at "Cottage Home" in 
Lincoln County. Although visitors were welcomed, he seldom left his home for the 
next fifty years, except to preach at the local Unity, Castamea, and Machpelah Pres- 
byterian churches. Three of his sons-in-law — Stonewall Jackson, Daniel H. Hill, and 
Rufus Barringer — were Confederate generals. Spencer Alumni Project; W. A. Withers, 
"Robert Hall Morrison," Van Noppen Papers. 

33 This letter concerns the bequest of Maxwell Chambers, a Salisbury merchant, 
to Davidson College and the ensuing legal transactions. When Chambers died in 
1855, he willed Davidson over $200,000, mostly in real estate. However, a proviso in 
the 1838 Davidson College charter set a $200,000 limit on the amount of land which 
could be owned by the institution at any given time. The result was a lawsuit which 
eventually was settled by the state supreme court. James W. Osborne, Harvey Wilson, 
and William A. Graham represented the Davidson trustees, while A. D. Davis was 
one of the executors of the estate. R. I. McDowell was for a long time treasurer of 
Davidson College. After the court ruled invalid an act by the 1856 legislature waiving 
the earlier limitation, Davidson College received approximately $150,000 from the 
Chambers bequest. Shaw, Davidson College, 88-95. 

158 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Enclosed you will find a note to our Treas'r, which I presume 
he will honor by a prompt payment. Or, if you be passing thro' 
Salisbury I presume Mr. Davis, one of the Executors, will pay it 
in Mr. McDowell's behalf. 

I saw Mr. Wilson after you left 8c laid the matter before him. 
With great generosity he declined any further Compensation 
than the $500. he had rec'd. 

I have not seen Mr. Osborne yet, but I presume he will be 
fully as generous as Mr. Wilson. 

From Alfred Moore Waddell 34 UNC 

Wilmington, N.C, 
April 27th., 1860. 

The receipt of the speech delivered by you on the amendment 
of the Constitution in 1854, and the instruction, and delight which 
its perusal has afforded me, will, I trust, constitute some ground 
of defence for the assault I am about to make upon your time and 
patience, or will, at any rate, diminish the surprise of the attack, 
to some extent. 

I have, heretofore, wisely, (as I supposed) and studiously 
avoided any active participation in politics; indeed, since the 
attainment of my majority, there has existed no party with which 
I could entirely sympathize, but, without any undue profession of 
patriotism, or any penetrating sense of the imperative duty of 
"saving the Country," I am conscious of the existence, at present, 
of an organization to the support of which, both inclination and 
duty strongly incline me. 

I live, as you are well aware, in a County hopelessly Demo- 
cratic, one in which party drill is rigidly practiced, and any 
revolution of sentiment "potentia remotissima" at best. Notwith- 
standing, with true "grit" our friends here are disposed to make 

34 Alfred Moore Waddell (1834-1912) of Wilmington, a native of Hillsborough, a 
son of Hugh Waddell, and a graduate of the University of North Carolina, was a 
lawyer, journalist, and politician. As a Whig he supported the Bell-Everett ticket in 
1860. He was for a time during the Civil War lieutenant colonel of the Forty-first 
North Carolina Regiment. After the war, Waddell was a Democratic member of 
Congress, 1871-1879, and mayor of Wilmington, 1898-1904. Spencer Alumni Project; 
Biographical Directory of Congress, 1758. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 159 

an effort to reduce the majority against us, and although they do 
not contemplate running a ticket in the County, they have ap- 
pointed Sub-Electors, an Executive Committee, etc., in both 
which capacities I am employed. I have, also, the honor of being 
Mr. Russell's 35 alternate to the Baltimore Convention. So you see 
how deeply involved I am at the first step on the political boards, 
and now, in this letter, I seat myself at the feet of Gamaliel, to 
receive the benefit of a portion of his wisdom and experience. 

The Charleston Convention will have made its nomination, 
probably, before you reply to this, and if so, your suggestions as 
to the proper conduct of the canvass would be most acceptable 
to me. 

At present, Douglas seems to be almost certain of success, and 
his nomination would, I imagine, afford unfeigned delight to our 
party. Such is the hope, and the prevailing sentiment here. 

In regard to Ad Valorem 36 we are in very high spirits, and 
confidently anticipate Mr. Pool's election. A very respectable 
portion of our foreign population, and many Democrats in this, 
and adjoining Counties, will vote for him, while a still larger 
number of them will refuse to vote for Ellis. The Governor has 
made some inexplicable blunders in his Canvass, and the idea 
that he will gain in the East is, we think, very erroneous. Your 
language in the Speech so kindly sent to me, seems singularly 
prophetic, and I feel that Free Suffrage, the nurseling of the North 
Carolina Democracy, will prove to be an adder eventually. Oh! 
that the fangs may be driven deep into its vitality! What a melan- 
choly pleasure it would be to assist at the funeral obsequies! 

35 Daniel L. Russell, a leading Whig in southeastern North Carolina. 

36 Slaves in North Carolina had never been subject to property taxation, only to a 
poll tax which never exceeded fifty cents and was applicable only to the able-bodied 
between the ages of twelve and forty-five. The inequality of such an arrangement 
was obvious, but there was no serious movement for its correction until Moses A. 
Bledsoe, a Wake County Democrat, introduced a bill in the 1858 legislature provid- 
ing for ad valorem taxation. This measure was not adopted, but it attracted wide- 
spread public support. Although many Whigs were strongly opposed, in 1860 they 
seized upon it as their major campaign issue, probably in desperation. Ludicrously 
enough, John Pool, their candidate for governor, had voted against ad valorem 
taxation in the preceeding legislature. Although the Whigs lost the election, Demo- 
cratic majorities were significantly less, and, had the Civil War not intruded, the 
Whigs might have been able to utilize ad valorem taxation, much as the Democrats 
had used the free suffrage issue, to gain votes. Clarence Clifford Norton, The 
Democratic Party in Ante-Bellum North Carolina, 1835-1861 (Chapel Hill: Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press [Volume 21 of the James Sprunt Historical Studies] , 
1930), 199-206, hereinafter cited as Norton, Democratic Party. 

160 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Last Tuesday night, after the adjournment of our District 
Convention, we had a public meeting in the City Hall. It was the 
largest one I ever saw here, (within doors) of any party. I observe 
that whenever ad valorem is announced for discussion, numbers 
of Democrats — among the laboring classes particularly — attend. 
They are certainly anxious to hear it discussed, and unquestionably 
if we will do our duty in the State, and explain it to them, we will 
not remain in the minority long. The Democrats, here at least, 
are evidently very much exercised, and no doubt, heartily curse 
their State Convention for committing the Party against ad 
valorem as unjust. That little word will give them a deal of trouble 
hereafter. But I find myself running away with your time and 
patience, which is aggravating my offence to larceny. I merely 
wrote, Sir, to return my thanks for the Speech, and to say that, 
if the slightest interest in my welfare might induce you to offer 
any suggestions, or advice, upon the political topics of the day, 
they would be highly appreciated, and gratefully received by, 

Your friend, & humble Servant, 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Kentucky 
April 30, 1860. 

Your letter in response to that of Mr. Throop was received a 
few days ago. I had filed an affidavit for a rule against the members 
of the City Council to show cause why they have not obeyed the 
order of the court and collected and paid over the installment 
of interest due you. The rule was granted and made returnable 
to-morrow; but what response they will make, if any, I am unable 
to conjecture. Of this, however, I am well satisfied, the council 
will find some means of evading a compliance with the judgment 
of the court, as it is too manifest they are sustained by the mass 
of the community in their determination not to allow the debt 
to be coerced from them by law. Evidently the council had been 
preparing for some steps against them at the present court, and 
a few weeks ago, the collector who had failed to give the heavy 
bond required of him came in and made a formal refusal to execute 
it. Steps were taken to procure some other person to execute the 
bond and collect the tax; but the whole proceeding is in bad faith 
and intended, I have no doubt, to defeat the order of court and 

The Papers of William A. Graham 161 

baffle the city creditors, as no one else will undertake the collection 
of the taxes who is able to give the bond. And the refusal will be a 
great excuse for their non-compliance with the mandamus and 
a pretext for further delay. You will readily see how powerless the 
court must be when public sentiment sustains the Council in 
such conduct. 

We have no statute against subjecting private property to the 
payment of public . . . debts, but raising the money by taxation 
is a mode prescribed, and I fear our courts would not sustain such 
a proceeding as you refer to. I once examined the question in 
connexion with this case, and my recollection is that all the 
authorities in other states to which I had access were against 
it, unless a case in Mississippi, I think, referred to in the U.S. 
Digest may be regarded as favoring it. But any attempt to sell 
property here for the rail road debt would be resisted by violence, 
I feel well satisfied. 

When I received your letter, I took the liberty of reading a 
portion of its contents to some of those of our citizens who in 
good faith are anxious to compromise the debt and requested 
them to make an effort and see if your bonds could not be taken 
up at your proposition. They informed me after an effort of a day 
or two that it was impossible to get those gentlemen who had 
engaged to advance the money to go beyond the 30 cents they 
had promised, and that their ill success in making the com- 
promise they had endeavored to make had discouraged some of 
them, and they were much inclined to recede from their original 
proposition. The gentlemen, however, with whom I conversed 
were much impressed by the kind and liberal feeling toward the 
City shown by you in your letter, and so different from that enter- 
tained and manifested in some other quarters, that they said they 
would make an effort to raise enough money to take yours for 
40 cents on the principal, or 4800$ for the 12000 J bonds, if you 
would consent to take it. I promised them I would write you on the 
subject and have your wishes. 

You ask me to advise you. It is extremely hard upon you and 
the ladies whom you represent, and under any other circumstances 
I should be very reluctant to council [sic] such a sacrifice, but 
I see no hope at least for the present, and I therefore think the best 
that you can do will btr to close out the matter and take their 
offer. They ought to give you more, but I really believe it cannot 
be had. 

We have not been able to get one cent of our fees out of the 
coupons we have and shall have trouble ever to realize anything 

162 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

from them. If you accept their offer, I will, however, try and make 
them take up enough of the coupons to pay us for your share of 
the fee and let you realize the whole $4800. Write immediately 
and advise me of your will on the subject. 

From Samuel F. Phillips 37 UNC 

Chapel Hill 
May 2, 1860 

We hear of a Secession of eight States at Charleston and the 

nomination of Mr. Douglas. I hope this is the only secession we 
shall hear of before a good frost next Fall. 

From William H. Oliver 38 UNC 


May 2nd., 1860. 

We have sent you by R.R. to Hillsboro', one bag Marl. Will you 
please apply it as a Fertilizer to some crop. It has been said by 
Professor Emmons to be worth two for ten with Peruvian Guano, 
(or at least we have heard he said so.) 

37 Samuel Field Phillips (1824-1903), a native of Harlem, New York, was the 
son of James Phillips, University of North Carolina professor of math, 1826-1867. 
He was the brother of Charles Phillips and Cornelia Phillips Spencer. In 1841 he 
graduated from the university with the highest honors in his class, and he read 
law with both David L. Swain and William Horn Battle prior to opening a Chapel 
Hill practice. He was a state legislator, delegate to the Constitutional Convention 
of 1865, reporter of the North Carolina Supreme Court, commissioner of war claims, 
assistant district attorney in the justice department, and United States solicitor 
general. In politics he was a firm Union Whig, but he opposed the excesses of the 
Democratic party during Reconstruction. By 1870 he was a Republican and was 
that party's unsuccessful candidate for state attorney general. As a federal official 
Phillips prosecuted many Ku Klux Klan cases. He aspired to a seat on the United 
States Supreme Court but was frustrated in this ambition. Van Noppen Papers; 
Spencer Alumni Project. 

38 William H. Oliver (1829-1908), of New Bern, a successful business man who was 
later a captain and quartermaster in the Confederate army, was assigned to purchase 
cotton and ship it through the blockade. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina 
Regiments, 1,24, 32-33. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 163 

There are endless and inexhaustible quantities of it in this 
county, and if it will suit the lands in the West, you will be enabled 
to get a Fertilizer at a mere nominal price. There are thousands 
of acres of Lands in this county in which there are inexhaustible 
quantities of this Marl, which can be purchased at from eight 
to twenty dollars per acre. The marl should be applied at the rate 
of one hundred or one hundred & twenty five bushels pr. acre. 

Can we ask of you the favor to apply it in such a way that you 
can easily notice the effects produced, and from time to time give 
us the results of the same. 

Our R.R. Company will only receive payment of freight to 
Goldsboro', consequently we were only able to pay freight to that 

[P.S.] In regard to the quantity to be used, on consulting some 
of our Farmers, they say on light land fifty or sixty bushels is 
sufficient pr. acre, (too large a quantity will be injurious) in stiff 
land one hundred bushels. The good effects are not as perceptible 
the first as they are the second year. 

From John J. Crittenden A&H 

Washington, [D.C.] 
May 2nd., 1860. 

Your late letter to Mr. Walker, the Secretary of our Central 
Committee, &c. has been shewn to the Committee, apprising us 
that you probably can not attend the meeting of the Baltimore 
Convention on the 9th. Inst: &c recommending the appointment 
of another in your place. This has been done, 8c Governor More- 
head has been appointed, and we hope he will attend. But, my 
dear Sir, we hope that you, too, will be present with us, notwith- 
standing any little inconveniences that you have to overcome. 

The Meeting at Baltimore will be most interesting one. The 
Crisis is important, and fills the public mind with expectation 
and anxiety. It is to be earnestly desired that the character of 
our Convention should be conspicuous Sc equal to the occasion. 
We have good reason to feel assured of the attendance of many of 
the most eminent men of the country, and it is by the great 
weight of the moral 8c public character of its members, that the 
Convention must hope to obtain for its acts or counsels, whatever 
they may be, respect and influence with the people. We can not do 

164 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

without your assistance and name. All the members of the Com- 
mittee who were present when your letter was read, united in 
wishing me to write Sc to urge your coming to the Convention. 
Your absence will be a positive weight against us. 

The importance and responsibility of the Convention is greatly 
enlarged by the circumstances that are now occurring at Charles- 
ton, & others that may become manifest, & will become so, by the 
time of its meeting. The whole field of politics will be open before 
us, and we will be free to chuse our course according to cir- 

We will still hope for your attendance. 

From John M. More head A&H 

May 5th, 1860. 

Your esteemed favor was rec'd on yesterday. 

I had hoped to see you before I went to Baltimore; but having 
to attend the Courts prevented me. 

I leave in the morning at 2 A.M. and pass your town at daylight 
as we have no mail, I shall endeavor to send this to you as I pass. 

The adjournment over of the Democratic Convention, renders 
our Convention more interesting, 8c will require much more in 
circumspection in our action. 

We shall not probably more than organize on Wednesday, so 
that until Thursday evening there will probably be nothing very 
interesting to telegraph, & I couldn't write you earlier anything 
that would interest you, which you could not probably get in time. 

I therefore suggest that you make it convenient to be at 
Raleigh on Thursday evening any hour, that we may keep you 
posted up. 39 

If I write you I will enclose it to Yarboro 40 with a request 
to hand it to you if there; if not there — as there is no mail — that 
he see it is forwarded forthwith. 

39 The North Carolina delegation to the Baltimore convention of the Constitu- 
tional Union party hoped to nominate Graham for president. Graham received 
twenty- two votes on the first ballot — ten from North Carolina, ten from Georgia, 
and two from New York. When it became apparent that Graham could not win, 
John M. Morehead, leader of the North Carolina delegation, switched the state to 
the ultimate winner, John Bell of Tennessee. Fayetteville Observer, May 14, 1860. 

40 This reference is to Edward Marshall Yarborough, part owner and manager of 
the Yarborough House, Raleigh's finest hotel. The hotel opened in 1852 and for 

The Papers of William A. Graham 165 

On this, or any other subject, you may drop me a line, if you 
desire, to Barnum's Hotel. 

From Jones Watson 41 UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

May 14th., 1860. 

I have been in receipt of your letter for some days past, and 
would have answered it before this, as I told my friends there that 
it was impossible for me to run, they desired that my answer 
should be deferred for some days to see if I could not make up my 
Mind to be a candidate. 

My Dear Sir, I feel very much embarrassed under all the cir- 
cumstances; & if my business was of such a nature as to admit of 
my being a candidate, nothing would give me more pleasure than 
to gratify the wishes of my friends, but really I have such a press 
of business on hand, & shall have for the entire year, that I could 
not be a candidate but at so great a sacrafice [sic] to myself 8c 
family, that I find it altogether imposible [sic] to consent to be a 
candidate for the next Legislature. There are other and better 
Men than myself, who I think may be induced to become a candi- 
date. Our party this year must, 8c will succeed. 

From Daniel H. Hill 42 UNC 

Charlotte, N.C., 
May 16th., 1860. 

I have the honor to inform you that the Faculty of this 
Institution have selected you to deliver an address at 1 1 A.M. 

seventy-five years, prior to its burning in 1928, was the center of Raleigh's social 
and political activities. Elizabeth Culbertson Waugh, North Carolina's Capital, 
Raleigh (Raleigh: Junior League of Raleigh, Inc., and the Raleigh Historic Sites 
Commission, Inc., 1967), 91-92. 

41 Jones Watson, a merchant and lawyer of Chapel Hill, was a county commissioner. 
Chapel Hill magistrate and mayor, and a member of the North Carolina House of 
Representatives, 1872-1874. Connor, Manual, 1913, 742; Lefler and Wager. Orange 
County, 193, 196,364. 

42 Daniel Harvey Hill (1821-1889), who married Graham's niece Isabella Sophia 
Morrison, was born in the York District of South Carolina, the son of an ironmaster 

166 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

on the 30th. July next, — the anniversary occasion of laying the 
corner-stone of the Barracks, and also the Commencement day of 
the Institute. 

I earnestly hope that you may find it convenient and practicable 
to comply with our unanimous wishes. 

From John A. Gilmer UNC 

House of Representatives, 
Washington City, 

May 26th., 1860. 

Your friends in your Senatorial District are very anxious that 
you should consent to become a Candidate for the Assembly. The 
pending is a most important Election. I do wish you would 
gratify them. 

From R. H. Stanton UNC 

Maysville, Kentucky 
June 27, 1860 

Your favor of the 20th has just reached me. I had concluded 
the arrangement for the compromise of your claim with the 
City, and was preparing to go down to Cincinnati to procure 
an eastern draft for the amount, as exchange cannot be had here. 

and Revolutionary soldier. He was reared and educated by his devout Presbyterian 
widowed mother. He graduated from West Point in 1842 in a class which fur- 
nished twelve Civil War generals, including Hill. He served with distinction in the 
Mexican War but resigned his commission to teach, first at Washington (now 
Washington and Lee) College and then at Davidson College, 1854-1859. In 1859 he 
became superintendent of the North Carolina Military Institute in Charlotte. During 
the Civil War he was appointed first colonel, then brigadier general, then major 
general, and finally lieutenant general, only to have the last promotion blocked by 
President Davis. He fought well at Bethel, Seven Pines, Seven Days, and South 
Mountain, but his service as Braxton Bragg's subordinate in the western campaigns 
of 1863 was controversial. After Chickamauga he signed, and possibly wrote, the 
petition seeking Bragg's removal for incompetence. Davis, sympathetic to his old 
friend Bragg, relieved Hill of command and blocked his promotion, leaving him in a 
military limbo until Bentonville. After the war Hill edited The Land We Love and 
The Southern Home to vindicate the southern way of life, was president of the 
University of Arkansas, 1877-1884, and headed Middle Georgia Military and Agri- 
cultural College (later Georgia Military College), 1885-1889. Francis P. Gaines, 
"Daniel Harvey Hill," Dictionary of American Biography, IX, 27-28. 

The Paeers of William A. Graham 167 

The parties refused positively to give more than $4800 and 
pay costs of court, and I became satisfied that not another cent 
could be had, and if not settled now probably no arrangement 
whatever could be made with them. The money had to be fur- 
nished by citizens, who advanced it reluctantly. They say that 
they will not buy any of the other bonds at a greater rate than 30 
per cent upon the principal, and they have only bought yours 
at the price of 40 cts. because you have shown more consideration 
and liberality towards the City on account of its distress than any 
other creditor. By this arrangement you will not net more than 
30 per cent upon both principal and interest due you. 

I shall only charge $400 for my trouble, and hope you will not 
consider it too much. I have done what I really believed the very 
best that could be done; and in taking the responsibility of making 
this settlement without hearing from you first, I acted just as 
I believed you would have done had you been personally 
present and acquainted with all the parties and circumstances. 
I shall go to Cincinnati on the first boat and remit you a draft 
on N. York for $4400. Exchange will cost in Cincinnati V2 per 
cent, which amount you can no doubt get for it in Hillsboro'. 

I think it highly probable that the $400 which you pay me will 
be all we shall get for our labor and expense in managing this 
vexatious and protracted suit. The City's property, revenues etc, 
are all mortgaged for its back debts, and the council and populace 
are determined that none of the coupons shall be paid. 

With great regard, 
Your friend, etc. 

From Joseph Graham UNC 


July 9th., 1860. 

You ought to borrow Mr. Norwood's 43 Standard of Saturday and 
read it. Mr. Holden is out at last. 44 Gov. Ellis has gone over to 
the Seceders, whom he before denounced. He declared himself 
last week up in Haywood. 

43 This is probably John Wall Norwood, Graham's Hillsborough neighbor. 

44 See Holden's editorial in the North Carolina Standard, (Raleigh), June 20, 1860. 

168 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

There is a good deal of sickness here, I understand. My 
neighbor, (Hasty) lost a negro woman on Saturday night of Ty- 
phoid fever. I have just gotten a barrel of lime, and intend having 
it sprinkled all over my place. It is very warm here today, notwith- 
standing the two or three cool days just past. I have not felt very 
well since my return, but am in hopes it will soon pass off. 

From Alexander C. Blount* 5 UNC 

July 12th., 1860. 

Will you do me the fav'r to procure for me from the Bell Sc 
Everett Executive Committee, The lives of Douglass, Breck en- 
ridge %c Bell 8c Everett, & such other documents as will serve our 
cause in the present canvass? I am here almost alone, against a 
host of opponents, office holders and others, and want some help 
in the premises. 

Please give this your early attention 8c oblige. 

From Joseph Graham UNC 


July 25th., 1860. 

Mr. Pool was here yesterday, and made a capital speech. I think 
he brought the Davidsons 46 to the right side. Junius Fox 47 at- 

45 Alexander Clement Blount (1816-1912) was a native of New Bern who settled 
permanently in Pensacola, Florida. Blount was married to Susan Washington 
Graham's first cousin, Julia Elizabeth Washington Blount (1824-1888). Clark, "Wash- 
ington Descendants." 

46 This probably refers to Graham's maternal kinsmen, including his uncle John 
Davidson (1779-1870), who was the family patriarch. The Davidsons were very influ- 
ential in Mecklenburg and the surrounding counties. Davidson, Major John David- 
son, 72-74. 

47 Junius Alexander Fox (1826-1865) had attended Davidson College and was a 
Charlotte lawyer. He also practiced in Salisbury and Rome, Georgia. Thomas Wil- 
son Lingle and others (eds.), Alumni Catalogue of Davidson College, Davidson, N.C, 
1837-1924 (Charlotte: Presbyterian Standard Publishing Company, 1924), 50, here- 
inafter cited as Lingle, Davidson Alumni. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 169 

temped a reply by ridicule, but Dr. Speed 48 following, completely 
used him up at his own game, afterwards he made an admirable 
speech in favor of Bell and Everett. 

Gov. Ellis says he will be here next Tuesday, he would not 
meet Mr. Pool. 

The Whigs are very much cheered up at the prospects of a gain 
on the vote for Gov., but we can hardly expect to do more in this 

From Bartholomew F. Moore UNC 

July 26th., 1860. 

I hear good news from many parts of the State; and of you I 
hear that you made at High Point a most unanswerable speech; 
the best, your friends say, you ever made. 49 

I regret very much that our platform had not been simply a 
withdrawal of the restriction on taxation of slaves, accompanied 
with a provision that they should be taxed ad val, and in the 
same degree as land ad val. 

This would have been just the hit itself. And while it would 
have gained thousands of the democrats, it w'd have saved all the 
old conservative Whigs — not a few of whom will be either silent, 
or vote against us. 

I think the Breckenridge ticket will be a dead horse in the 
South. The leaders of the Secession well knew that Breckenridge 

48 Rufus K. Speed (1810-1897), of Pasquotank County, was a native Virginian who 
traced his ancestry back to Pocahontas. He was a state senator, a Bell-Everett elector, 
and a delegate to the Convention of 1861. Originally a staunch opponent of secession, 
he became an ardent Confederate. By profession he was a medical doctor. McCormick, 
Convention Personnel, 77. 

49 Graham was the recipient of many compliments on this speech, but it apparently 
was never published or analyzed in the newspapers. No copy was found in the 
Graham papers. Graham evidently reached his highest point of eloquence in his 
campaign speeches at High Point, Salisbury, and Wilmington. A contemporary com- 
mented thusly on the public figures of the day: "Mr. Miller is an orator, and a very 
considerable one, and so is D. K. McRae, so is M. W. Ransom, also George Davis; 
Gov. Graham hardly, Gov. Morehead scarcely." (Letter from Samuel F. Phillips to 
Edward J. Hale, May 2, 1865, Edward Jones Hale Papers, State Archives, State 
Department of Archives and History, Raleigh.) This estimate as a general one seems 
correct; but in 1860, it is fairly clear, Graham attained full standing with those 
first named, though he was never as "oratorical" as they tended to be. Graham's 
strength as a public speaker lay in his learning, organization, and personal standing. 

170 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

entertained, and had often expressed publicly, the same squatter 
sovereign sentiments as Douglas carried into the Kansas- 
Nebraska Act of 1854. The alleged difference of opinion, there- 
fore, between D. & B. 50 was a mere pretext, shallow, as unprin- 
cipled, and with many traiterous. The spirit of the Douglas 
democracy South is becoming thoroughly aroused, and now 
assumes under its banner, the protection of the Union. It will 
be obliged to make fierce war on disunion, and thus, this wing of 
the democracy will, after the Presidential election, either unite 
with the Whigs, or the Whigs with them; and this schism in the 
South may have the happy effect of creating one still more 
decided than it is now in the North; in which the Union party 
there will fight their opponents on the great question of disunion. 
If this shall happen, the North and South will again become 
united by the dissensions in each section. God save this Union, 
and cut off all who conspire to destroy it, is the prayer of 

Yours truly. 

From the Editors of the "University Magazine" UNC 

Chapel Hill, N.C. 
August 6th., 1860. 

It is the desire of the Editors to have your portrait in our next 
number. (Sept.) 51 

Will you be so kind as to inform us who has the best plate, and 
also whom you would wish to write a short biographical sketch 
of yourself? 

An early answer to this will place us under renewed obligations. 

From Bartholomew F. Moore A&H 


Aug. 12th, 1860. 


I saw Clingman yesterday and asked him a question about the 

50 Stephen A. Douglas and John C. Breckinridge. 

51 Graham's portrait was provided as requested; it appeared in the October issue, 
with a sketch by Samuel F. Phillips. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 


Graham apparently complied with a student request for his portrait. This copy of 
an engraving by J. C. Buttre from a J. H. Whitehurst daguerrotype appeared in the 
(North Carolina) University Magazine, Volume X, Number 3 (October, 1860). Photo- 
graph from the files of the State Department of Archives and History. 

172 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Union. He replied that if Lincoln was elected he thought the 
Union ought to be dissolved; but whether it w'd be better to do 
it right away or wait four years he could not determine. Now, 
Sir, these traitors are to be met at the threshhold [sic] — they cant 
[sic] carry N.C. with them. By my consent they shall never. Let 
them expatriate themselves, rather than expatriate their fellow 
citizens — joy, and a long journey from N.C. go with them. 

I told him that before he could separate us he would open a 
discussion on the subject of slavery as free as was ever heard in 
Massachusetts, and utterly dangerous to the institution; that so 
it w'd be in Maryland and in Va. He said he did not expect Md. 
to unite with us. I asked him what he proposed to do with the 
North? "Trade with it as heretofore" he answered. "What will 
you do with your border on the slave line," I asked; he replied 
"there should be no slaves within 100 miles" — "then," 
said I, "an anti-slavery element is introduced at once into the 
border State which will be in sympathy with emancipation and 
worse than an underground Railroad." "This will distract the 
legislature of the State, and soon drive the slaves out of the 
State." "Well" he said, "it may be so." 

Now, if our liberty and property are to be trusted to such 
apes, what man of sense will long hesitate between a perpetual 
gov't of this kind, and a sober, wise and conservative monarchy 

My dear Sir, when these men hoist the flag of disunion, we 
must hoist the Stars and Stripes; We must appeal to the people. 
I fear not the issue for Union; but I fear the element that will 
be stirred from its foundation. Yet the time for it must come; for 
the hour is being hastened every year by the wretched misrule 
of democracy. They are never satisfied but with some stray 8c 
exciting potion for the dear people. And what is most available, 
they use most freely. 

From Charles Courteney Tew UNC 


August 25th., [I860.] 

A friend of mine 52 desires, if practicable, to open a school here 
next year, for boys often to fourteen years of age. He is a son of the 

52 Ellison Capers (1837-1908), of South Carolina, was a graduate of The Citadel, a 
teacher, and a Confederate soldier who rose from major to brigadier general. Later, 
he entered the Episcopal ministry and was bishop of South Carolina and chancellor 
of the University of the South. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 121-122. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 173 

late Bishop Capers, 53 a graduate of the S.C. Military Academy, and 
a young man equally popular in manner and sterling in character. 
From an intimate knowledge of his antecedents, I can confidently 
recommend him and my object in troubling you with this note, 
is to inquire whether it is probable that he would prove acceptable 
to yourself and other gentlemen of the town, chiefly interested 
in the matter. 

I do not doubt that he could obtain some pupils from a distance; 
at all events, I, on his part, am perfectly willing to take the chance 
of local and other support, and to ask no pledged amount of 

From John Bell 54 UNC 

Nashville, [Tennessee] 
September 6th, 1860. 

Your very interesting and acceptable letter of the 3rd. ult. came 
duly to hand, & an answer postponed only with a hope that I 
might in some reasonable time, find some leisure time that 
would allow me to answer fully, or as much so as possible, as 
to my views of the extent of the danger which impends over our 
country at this time. I can only now write briefly, seeing that I 
shall have no time to devote to any elaborate view of the pending 
difficulties, etc. 

I must acknowledge your kindness in giving me your assurance 
of the support of our ticket in N.C. I have no correspondent in 

53 William Capers (1790-1855) was the most popular Methodist preacher in the 
South, working extensively among the Creek Indians and plantation Negroes. He 
was a Methodist bishop, 1846-1855. Concise Dictionary of American Biography, 142. 

54 John Bell (1797-1869), of Tennessee, was the presidential nominee of the Con- 
stitutional Union party. A graduate of Cumberland College, Bell was an eminent 
member of the Tennessee bar. He began his political career in the House of Repre- 
sentatives (1827-1841) as a Jacksonian Democrat, but broke with Jackson on the 
bank question and became a leading Whig. He was briefly President Harrison's 
secretary of war and served in the United States Senate from 1847 to 1859. A con- 
servative nationally-minded southerner, Bell denounced sectional extremism, sup- 
ported the Compromise of 1850, and parted company with much of the South on the 
Kansas question. After a futile attempt to unite moderate Whigs and Republicans 
under the American (Know-Nothing) banner, Bell joined the Constitutional Union 
movement. In the presidential election of 1860 he carried only Tennessee, Kentucky, 
and Virginia but ran a strong second to Breckinridge in North Carolina. He dis- 
approved of secession but advised Tennessee to join the Confederacy so as to protect 
the right of revolution. His career finished, Bell endured the war years in sad lamen- 
tations for the Union and the South. Philip M. Hamer, "John Bell," Dictionary of 
American Biography, II, 157-159. 

174 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

your State. I rec'd a short letter from Mr. Vance 55 since the date 
of your letter, and another from Gen'l Dockery 56 of Mangum, 
of about same date. These are all I have received from N.C. 
since my nomination, & you may infer how much I felt obliged to 
you for your letter. I shall be under further obligations for a 
repetition of your favor. 

I regard the issue in pending election as substantially of 
Union or disunion. I have ever been of the opinion that the 
Union cannot long survive the election of a sectional President. 

The indications in the South are, that should Lincoln be 
elected, there will be a movement which I do not see how the 
whole South can avoid being drawn into, sooner or later, and 
in the four years of his, (Lincoln's) adm'n, though first only 
seconded by a minority of the States South, and by a minority of 
the people in the States where the disunion sentiment is the 
strongest. I need not explain to you how a talented 8c active 
minority may prompt a majority of the people into measures which 
would not be approved by the majority, if allowed to express their 
opinions directly, at the polls. But I do not mean to go into details 
on this point. 

It is evident, I think, that the contest is now between Lincoln 
and the Union Ticket. I regard it as very doubtful whether 
all the efforts by the conservative men of the great States of New 
York and Penn'a can prevent the success of the Republicans in 
those States, though many of our friends in those States are san- 
guine of a better result. 111. & In'a I consider doubtful States 
also. The State elections, if adverse to us, may rouse a stronger 
conservative sentiment, which may be overwhelming in Nov., — 
that will be our only hope should the State elections go against 
us. If those elections go adversely to the Republicans, we will, 
I think, be safe. 

In this State a campaign is waged against me, but our Ticket 
will benefit handsomely. Alabama & Arkansas, strange as it may 
appear, will be for us. So will Louisiana. In Ga., may not get a 
majority, but may still hope to succeed in the Legislature — so one 
point with us. 

I am interrupted, as usual. I shall be glad to hear from you 
how things look at present in your State. 

Very truly and respectfully, 
Your friend. 

P. S. I have not time to correct this letter before the mail closes. 

55 Zebulon B. Vance. 

56 Alfred Dockery. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 175 

Invitation from the Constitutional Union Party UNC 

to Attend Its National Meeting 

Memphis, Term., 
Sept. 7th., 1860. 

W. A. Graham 
Dear Sir: 

In response to suggestions from the friends of THE UNION, THE 
parts of the Country, the BELL & EVERETT men of the city of 
Memphis, will hold a NATIONAL MASS MEETING, commencing on 
MONDAY, THE 8th. OF OCTOBER, and continuing during the week. 
Every preparation is being made for a demonstration which will 
rebuke Sectionalism, and 'tell' most happily upon the future 
welfare of our whole country. You are earnestly requested to honor 
us with your presence, and aid us with your talents, in promoting 
the great cause in which we are enlisted. 

Moses White, Chairman. 

James T. Leath, Andrew J. Donelson, Solon Borland, W. A. 
Steffey, Claiborne Deloach, Rolfe S. Sanders, J. H. M'Mahon, 
R. F. Looney, J. L. T. Sneed, D. B. Nabers, J. H. Craft, Sam'l 
Hays, W. D. Ferguson, P. T. Scruggs, E. B. Bartlett, T. B. Norment. 

To the Knoxville Committee 
of the Constitutional Union Party 57 

Messrs. John Baxter, Horace Maynard, 
O. P. Temple, Jas. C. Luttrell, W. G. Brownlow, 


Hillsboro', N.C., 

September 22nd., 1860. 


I regret that it is not in my power to accept your polite 
invitation, to a mass meeting of the Constitutional Union Party, 
at Knoxville, on the 27th. inst., having for its object the promotion 

57 This letter was printed in the Hillsborough Recorder, October 24, 1860. 

176 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

of the election of John Bell and Edward Everett to the offices of 
President and Vice President of the United States. With no por- 
tion of the people of America would I more gladly take counsel, 
in relation to the present disturbed and alarming state of the 
country, than with those who shall be assembled on this occasion. 
Whatever the future may reveal to us, I can conceive no possible 
contingency in which the destinies of North Carolina and 
Tennessee will not be one. The ties of lineage and affinity, of a 
common interest, a common history, and a common glory, 
reaching back to the earliest dawn of the spirit of American inde- 
pendence, and maintained in its very battle-field, from the 
Hudson river to Florida, will make their people one people, while 
time shall endure. It is, therefore, with a feeling of peculiar 
satisfaction, that the citizens of North Carolina, in the threatening 
times on which we have fallen, are able to hail, as a favorite can- 
didate for the great office of chief magistrate of the Union, a 
native son of their kindred State, beyond the mountains — a man 
of larger experience and conversancy with public affairs than had 
Jefferson or even Madison when called to the helm of Government, 
but who is yet in vigorous manhood — a man whose conservatism 
and moderation, wisdom, justice and firmness in the discharge of 
duty, give assurance that every section of our widely extended 
country shall feel the beneficient operation of our Constitutional 
Union, as they will be likewise required to fulfill its obligations. 
To whatever trials or experiments we may be doomed under others, 
all candid men feel and acknowledge that, under his Presidency, 
the country in all its interests, both at home and abroad, would 
be safe, the rights of every citizen secured, and his reasonable 
sensibilities respected. 

Why, then, shall he not be elected? Why, at least, shall not all 
patriots in the Southern portion of the Union unite in endeavor- 
ing to elect him? The election of Lincoln would be regarded by 
all men, of every shade of opinion in the South, as a calamity to 
be deprecated. Though few, I trust, would consider it a sufficient 
cause for revolution, or a forcible resistance to Federal authority, 
stil 1 it would arouse the worst suspicions, call for renewed 
vigilance, and new guards in defense of an interest which we shall 
never surrender to menace or force, and weaken loyalty to the 
Union itself. Those who look upon the adoption of the Federal 
Constitution as a mistake, and our glorious experiment under 
it as a failure, or who lightly estimate the countless blessings 
which have flowed from it, to all sections, (and there are persons 

The Papers of William A. Graham 177 

of both descriptions) may regard such consequences with appro- 
bation or indifference. But why cannot all the friends of the Union, 
in the South at least, why cannot our democratic fellow-citizens, 
Union men of conservative sentiments like as our own, co- 
operate with us in our honest endeavors to avert such conse- 
quences, and to save our institutions from such a trial, by uniting 
their suffrages with ours, in favor of the only candidates whose 
nomination is based upon the enlarged idea of loyalty to the 
Union, the preservation of the Constitution, and the enforcement 
of the laws, as a means of executing justice and maintaining 

Is it not perceived that they who have it in their power to avert 
a calamity, without a sacrifice of honor- and conscience, and fail 
to avert it, are not guiltless of having occasioned it? Is it not 
evident that the Democratic party, so long dominant in the nation, 
is rent in twain, and so powerless to prevent the election of Lin- 
coln by the success of any candidate of its own before the people, 
or in the electoral colleges; and that the only hope of either 
of its fragments, consists in calculations, probably delusive, 
of bringing over to its candidate a majority of States, or of 
Senators, after a failure of election by the people? And is it not 
proclaimed by a considerable portion of the adherents of one of 
these fragments, that the election of Lincoln would of itself be a 
cause sufficient for a disruption of the Government, and resist- 
ance to his inauguration, while they indirectly contribute to this 
result, by throwing away their votes upon Mr. Breckenridge 
who, according to any basis of calculation made known to the 
public, has no reasonable prospect of election? These are questions 
of moment, and I fondly hope they will be duly considered by the 
people of the whole country. 

I congratulate you, gentlemen, on the daily improving probabil- 
ity of the success of Bell and Everett, and thereby of dispersing 
the clouds of sectional hatred which now lower upon the 
horizon. There is a feeling of loyalty to the Constitution, and 
attachment to the Union of the States in the breasts of the people, 
before which questions of mere party ascendancy, of "ins" and 
"outs," of the temporary enjoyment of the honors and emoluments 
of office, sink into utter insignificance. We have seen it manifested 
in 1820, in 1833, in 1850, on each of which occasions Clay was its 
chosen leader and expositor, and many of his rivals and adver- 
saries thought it no disparagement to rally under his banner, 
always the banner of the nation, never of a section, and in my 

178 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

opinion, we are destined to witness a like exhibition of loyalty 
and patriotism in 1860. 

I am, gentlemen, with high respect, 

Your obed't serv't, 
Wm. A. Graham. 

From Hugh Waddell UNC 

Pitts bo ro', 
September 25th., 1860. 

I believe I did not ask you if you had any friends or acquaint- 
ances in Memphis to whom you could give me letters of intro- 
duction, 8c I now write to ask if you have such, 8c will do me that 

My present hope is to get off by the middle or by the 20th. 
October. To allude, even, to the ties which have bound me for 
so many years to you, ^c which must be broken by this removal, 
is most painful. 

May God in his mercy bless and prosper you k yours forever. 

Extract from Graham's Salisbury Speech on 
October 12, I860™ 

It will be our duty to prevent a dissolution of the Union and 
the destruction of the Government bequeathed us by our fathers. 
The President of the United States is not a sovereign. He is, in 
the last analysis, but the servant of the people and clothed only 
with powers to do good. If these powers are perverted to our 
injury and oppression we will make resistance with united hearts 
and high hopes of success; but who can prepare a declaration of 
independence, appealing to a candid world for its approbation 

58 From H. M. Wagstaff, "Graham and State Rights," North Carolina Review, a 
regular monthly supplement of the Raleigh News and Observer, February 6, 1910, 
p. 7. Mr. Wagstaff noted that the extract came from a copy of Graham's speech in 
the Raleigh Register, October 17, 1860. This issue of the Register contains an 
account of the meeting, closing with a statement of regret that no copy of the speech 
was available, but expressing the hope that Graham's "partial promise" to reduce 
it to writing would be fulfilled. The published speech has not been located, but cer- 
tainly the extract bears every evidence of Graham's authorship. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 179 

and sympathy upon the ground that we have been out-voted in an 
election in which we took the chances of success — The revolution 
(for by whatever name the change may be called, this is its 
essence) should have been made earlier or must be postponed 
until later. If there has not been sufficient cause for it heretofore, 
the choice of a President according to the provisions of the Con- 
stitution is no cause at all. Let us therefore, not take counsel of 
passion, but await the action of the new President whoever he 
may be, and make resistance only if his acts shall compel it. Let 
us not yield to the advice of those whose sensibilities outrun 
their judgments, and still less by those who seek cause for 
dissolution rather than dissolution for cause. 

To a Washington, N.C., Constitutional 
Union Party Committee™ 

Messrs. John A. Stanly, 60 D. T. Tayloe, 61 and W. J. Ellison, 62 



October 15th., 1860. 


I very sincerely regret that it is out of my power to accept your 
kind invitation to attend and address the people at the mass 
meeting of the Union party at Washington, on the 17th. inst. 
I trust, however, that there will be present others more capable 
of doing justice to our principles, and of demonstrating the 
necessity of electing Bell and Everett, as the only sure means of 
giving peace to a distracted country. We have no reason yet to 
despair of the election of our ticket, provided the people of the 

59 This letter was printed in the Hillsborough Recorder, October 31, 1860. 

60 John A. Stanly was probably the son of Alfred Stanly and the nephew of 
Edward Stanly, who had moved to California. 

61 David Thomas Tayloe, of Washington, North Carolina, was an 1846 graduate 
of the University of North Carolina and a physician who served the Confederate 
states army as surgeon. He was a trustee of the university, 1881-1883. Spencer Alumni 

62 William John Ellison (1813-1862), of Beaufort County, a Whig who supported 
the Bell-Everett ticket, became a secessionist after the election of Lincoln. He was a 
delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1861. McCormick, Convention Per- 
sonnel, 34. 

180 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Southern States can be induced to overcome a little of party 
pride and old prejudice, and vote for this ticket as the most prob- 
able method of defeating the Black Republican candidate. The 
recent elections in Pennsylvania and other States, although result- 
ing in favor of Republicanism, have but shown our friends there 
the proper points for attack, and armed them for a more deter- 
mined effort in the contest for the Presidencey. 

But if it shall please Providence to afflict the country with the 
election of Lincoln, while we shall regard it as a calamity deeply 
to be deplored, and shall increase our vigilance over the rights of 
our section, and be at any moment prepared to defend them, it 
will be our duty to prevent a dissolution of the Union, and 
the destruction of the Government bequeathed to us by our 
Fathers, for that cause alone. The President of the United States 
is not a sovereign, we are not his subjects. Our Government is 
not an elective monarchy, but a representative republic. High as 
this office may be supposed to exalt the man, he is at last 
but the servant of the people, and clothed only with powers to do 
good. If these powers are perverted to our injury, and oppression, 
resistance will be made with united hearts, and with the hope 
of success; but who can prepare a declaration of independence, 
appealing to a candid world for its approbation and sympathy, 
upon the ground that we have been out-voted in an election, 
in which we took the chances of success, and a candidate has been 
elected, who, however obnoxious, we did not deem unworthy to 
compete with us for votes? The revolution, (for by whatever name 
the change may be called, this is its effect) should have been made 
earlier, or must be postponed later. If there has been sufficient 
cause for it heretofore, the choice of a President, made according 
to the provisions of the Constitution, is no cause at all. By his 
fruits he shall be known and tried, not by the hands which im- 
planted him in office. Let us not injure a cause capable of the 
best defences, and admitted to be in peril, by taking counsel of 
passion, not of wisdom. Let us wait the action of the new Presi- 
dent, no matter who he shall be, make resistance to acts, if 
they shall demand it; but let us not prostrate in the dust the fairest 
fabric of Government ever devised by the wisdom of man, by 
yielding to the advices of those whose sensiblities outrun their 
judgments, and still less of those who, there is reason to believe, 
seek causes for dissolution, rather than dissolution for any cause. 

I am, gentlemen, 

With high respect, 
Yours, etc., 

The Papers of William A. Graham 181 

From Winfield Scott 63 to John B. Floyd UNC 

October 30th., 1860. 

Lieut. General Scott's respects to the Secretary of War, to say — 

That a copy of his "Views, etc.," was despatched to the President 
yesterday, in great haste; but the copy intended for the Secretary, 
better transcribed, (herewith) was not in time for the mail. 
General S. would be happy if the latter could be substituted for the 

It will be seen that the "views" only apply to a case of secession 
that makes a gap in the present Union. The falling off, (say) of 
Texas, or of all the Atlantic States, from the Potomac South, was 
not within the scope of Gen'l S's provisional remedies. 

It is his opinion that instructions should be given at once, 
to the commander of the Barrancas, Forts Moultrie, and Monroe, 
to be on their guard against surprises, &c coups de main. As to 
regular approaches, nothing can be said, or done, at this time, 
without volunteers. 

There is one (regular) company at Boston, one here (at the 
Narrows) one at Plattsburg, one at Augusta, Ga., & one at Baton 
Rouge, in all five companies, only, within reach, to garrison or 
re-info rce the Forts mentioned in the "Views." 

General Scott is all solicitude for the safety of the Union. He 
is, however, not without hope that all dangers and difficulties 
will pass away without leaving a scar, or painful recollection, 

The Secretary's most obedient servant, 


For the Hon. Wm. A. Graham, 
with the kindest regards of, etc. 

63 Winfield Scott (1786-1866), of Virginia, was at this time a veteran of over fifty 
years' army service. The gallant hero of two wars, he was lieutenant general and 
commander of the army. Foreseeing the Civil War, in October and December, 1860, 
Scott had vainly urged President Buchanan to reinforce southern forts and armories 
against seizure. Beginning in January, 1861, he oversaw the recruiting and training 
of troops to defend Washington. He personally supervised Lincoln's bodyguard at 
the inauguration. His plans for curtailing the war ignored, Scott retired in November, 
1861. Scott's friendship for Graham dated from the North Carolinian's tenure as 
secretary of the navy. In 1852 Scott was the unsuccessful presidential candidate of 
the Whig party with Graham as his running mate. William A. Ganoe, "Winfield 
Scott," Dictionary of American Biography, XVI, 505-511. 

182 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

A copy sent to each of the following persons: The President, 64 
The Sec. of War, 65 John Bell, J. C. Breckenridge, 66 the Gov'r of 
Virginia, 67 Wm. C. Rives, Wm. H. Macfarland, 68 Wyndham 
Roberson, 69 Sc a great number of other Virginians — believing that, 
if Virginia could be held back from secession, she might hold 
back many other States. 

I did not advert, within, to the legislative and practical 
resistance to the fugitive Slave law in some five or six of the 
non-slave-holding States — constituting, by far, the most serious 
ground of complaint, on the part of the South. 1st, because the 
subject did not directly fall within the scope of my views, %c 2ndly., 
because Mr. Lincoln, was known to be in favour of an efficient 
Slave law. 


64 President James Buchanan. 

65 John Buchanan Floyd (1806-1863), of Virginia, was a graduate of the College of 
South Carolina and a lawyer, politician, and Civil War soldier. He served in the 
Virginia assembly, was the states' rights but antisecession Virginia governor, 1849- 
1852, and was secretary of war in the Buchanan administration, 1857-December 29, 
1860. He resigned as secretary of war when the president refused to abandon Fort 
Sumter. His judgment and loyalty were brought into question when it was made 
public that he had probably secretly been transferring excessive arms from northern 
to southern arsenals. After Virginia seceded, he commanded a volunteer brigade for 
the Confederacy, but was dismissed by President Jefferson Davis for abandoning his 
post at Fort Donelson in 1862. The Virginia assembly promoted him to major 
general of state troops the year before he died. Concise Dictionary of American 
History, 301; Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 286. 

66 John Cabell Breckinridge (1821-1875) was born near Lexington, Kentucky, and 
graduated from Centre College in 1839. After continuing his studies at Princeton and 
Transylvania colleges, he established a legal practice in Lexington. In 1849 he was 
elected to the state legislature and in 1851 began two terms as a Democratic con- 
gressman. His election to Congress in Clay country marked him as one of his state's 
most popular men. He proved his ability as Buchanan's vice-president; and when the 
Charleston convention floundered, he accepted the nomination of the rump Balti- 
more convention. Although running on a platform which reaffirmed the extreme 
southern view of slavery, Breckinridge denied that he was encouraging disunion. 
He gained seventy- two votes in the electoral college, but lost his own state to John 
Bell. As a lame duck vice-president he advocated the Crittenden compromise, but 
counseled that the Constitution gave no power to coerce the states. He returned to 
Kentucky, only to flee south when the state abandoned its original neutral posture 
and welcomed Union troops. He rose to Confederate major general and served ably 
in numerous battles despite a lack of experience. After Lee's surrender he fled the 
country and remained abroad until 1869, when he was allowed to resume his Lex- 
ington law practice. He took a prominent part in railroad building in Kentucky, but 
declined political opportunities. E. Merton Coulter, "John Cabell Breckinridge," 
Dictionary of American Biography," III, 7-10. 

67 John Letcher. 

68 William H. McFarland, of Richmond, was a prominent lawyer and financier. 
He was a member of the Confederate provisional congress. Lyon Gardiner Tyler 
(ed.), Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing 
Company, 5 volumes, 1915), III, 42, hereinafter cited as Tyler, Virginia Biography. 

69 Wyndham Robertson (1803-1888), of Richmond, became a lawyer and planter 

The Papers of William A. Graham 183 


Suggested by the imminent danger, (Oct. 29, 1860) of a disrup- 
tion of the Union by the secession of one or more of the Southern 

To save time, the right of secession may be conceded, and 
instantly balanced by the correlative right, on the part of the 
Federal Government — against an interior State, or States — to 
re-establish, by force, its former continuity of territory — Paley's 
Moral and Political Philosophy (last chapter.) 

But break this glorious Union by whatever line, or lines, that 
political madness may contrive, %c there would be no hope of 
re-uniting the fragments, except by the laceration and despotism 
of the sword. To effect such result, the intestine wars of our 
Mexican neighbors would, in comparison with our struggles, 
sink into mere child's play. 

A smaller evil would be to allow the fragments of the great 
republic to form themselves into new confederacies — probably 

All the lines of demarcation between the new Unions cannot 
be accurately drawn in advance, but many of them may. Thus 
looking to natural boundaries, and commercial affinities, some 
of the following frontiers, after many waverings & conflicts, might 
perhaps become acknowledged and fixed: 

1. The Potomac river & the Chesapeake Bay to the Atlantic; 

2. From Maryland, along the crest of the Alleghany, (perhaps 
the Blue Ridge) range of mountains, to some point in the coast 
of Florida; 

3. The line from, (say) the head of the Potomac to the West, 
or North West, which it will be most difficult to settle, & 

4. The crest of the Rocky Mountains. 

after attending William and Mary College. He was a Whig state legislator and 
governor. A Unionist, he opposed both secession and the coersion of seceded states. 
Thomas P. Abernethy, "Wyndham Robertson," Dictionary of American Biography, 
XVI, 30-31. 

184 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

The South-East confederacy would, in all human probability, 
in less than five years after the rupture, find itself bounded by 
the first and second lines, indicated above; the Atlantic & the 
Gulf of Mexico, with its capital at, (say) Columbia, S.C. The 
country between the second, third, and fourth of those lines 
would, beyond a doubt, constitute another confederacy, with 
its capital at, probably, Alton or Quincy, 111. The boundaries 
of the Pacific Union are the most definite of all, and the remaining 
States would constitute the North-East confederacy with its capital 
at Albany. 

It, at the first thought, will be considered strange that seven 
slave-holding States & parts of Virginia 8c Florida should be placed, 
(above) in a new confederacy with Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, etc. 
But when the overwhelming weight of the great North-West 
is taken in connection with the laws of trade, contiguity of 
territory, 8c the comparative indifference to free soil doctrines 
on the part of Western Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee &: Missouri, 
it is evident that but little, if any, co-ercion, beyond moral force, 
would be needed to embrace them, Sc I have omitted the tempta- 
tion of the unwasted public lands, which would fall, entire, 
to this confederacy — an appanage, (well husbanded) sufficient 
for many generations. As to Missouri, Arkansas, ^c Mississippi, they 
would not stand out a month. Louisiana would coalesce without 
much solicitation, &: Alabama, with West Florida, would be, if 
necessary, conquered the first winter, from the absolute need of 
Pensacola for a naval depot. 

If I might presume to address the South, &: particularly dear 
Virginia — being "native here, &: to the manner born," I would 
affectionately ask — will not your slaves be less secure, Sc their 
labor less profitable, under the new order of things, than under 
the old? Could you employ, profitable, two hundred slaves in all 
Nebraska, or five hundred in all New Mexico? The right, then, 
to take them there, would be a barren right. And is it not 
wise to 

"rather bear the ills we have, 

Than fly to others that we know not of?" 

The Declaration of Independence proclaims &: consecrates the 
same maxim: 

"Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long 
established should not be changed for light and transient causes." 
And Paley, too, lays down as a fundamental maxim of statesman- 
ship — "never to pursue national honor, as distinct from national 
interest;" but adds — "This rule acknowledges that it is often 

The Papers of William A. GrAham 185 

necessary to assert the honor of a nation for the sake of its interest." 
The excitement that threatens secession is caused by the near 
prospect of a Republican's election to the Presidency. From a 
sense of propriety, as a soldier, I have taken no part in the pending 
canvass &, as always heretofore, mean to stay away from the polls. 
My sympathies, however, are with the Bell 8c Everett ticket. 
With Mr. Lincoln, I have had no communication whatever, direct 
or indirect, & have no recollection of ever having seen his person; 
but cannot believe any unconstitutional violence, or breach of 
law, is to be apprehended from his administration of the federal 

From a knowledge of our Southern population, it is my solemn 
conviction that there is some danger of an early act of rashness 
preliminary to secession, viz: the seizure of some, or all, of the 
following posts: Forts Jackson 8c St. Philip on the Mississippi, 
below New Orleans — both without garrisons; Fort Morgan, below 
Mobile, without a garrison; Forts Pickens and McRae, Pensacola 
Harbor, with an insufficient garrison for one; Fort Pulaski, 
below Savannah, without a garrison; Forts Moultrie and Sumter, 
Charleston Harbor, the former with an insufficient garrison, and 
the latter without any; and Fort Monroe, Hampton Roads, without 
a sufficient garrison. In my opinion, all these works should be 
immediately so garrisoned as to make any attempt to take any 
one of them by surprise, or coup de main, ridiculous. 

With the Army faithful to its allegiance, and the Navy probably 
equally so; Sc with a federal Executive, for the next twelve-month, 
of firmness and moderation — which the country has a right to 
expect — moderation being an element of power not less than 
firmness — there is good reason to hope that the danger of secession 
may be made to pass away without one conflict of arms, one 
execution, or one arrest for treason. In the meantime, it is 
suggested that exports should remain as free as at present; all 
duties, however, on imports collected, (outside of the cities*) 
as such receipts would be needed for the national debt, invalid 
pensions, etc., and only articles contraband of war be refused 
admittance. But even this refusal would be unnecessary, as the 
foregoing views eschew the idea of invading a seceded State. 

Winfield Scott. 
Oct'r29th., 1860. 


In forts, or on board ships of War. 

186 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Edwin G. Reade A&H 

Evening Nov. 6th. 1860. 

Polls closed. Bell's majority 151 vs about that as the usual 
majority on the other side, making gain for Bell at this place of 
nearly 300!!! It is thought the county has gone for Bell. I hardly 
think so. The gain here is set down in part to our meeting last 
Saturday, 8c that influence would not be so much felt at the country 
precincts. 100 democrats must have voted for Bell here. If the same 
gain every where, what a triumph of the Union! 70 

In haste yours 

(Douglass 2 votes.) 

From Samuel F. Phillips UNC 

Chapel Hill 

November 10, 1860 

I am sorry that I cannot congratulate you upon a more auspi- 
cious result of your recent labors for the Country .... I am sorry 
that our State has voted for Breckinridge but do not see any facts 
to justify the claims of a considerable majority put forth in some 
Papers. The wet day injured our cause, as Whigs always were to 
a large extent "either sugar or salt." 

From A. M. Wallace UNC 

York Destrict, S.C. 
November 14, 1860 

I received a letter from Charlott from your son William state- 
ing that you wished mee to Jin out a load of cottin and sell Before 
the elecktion i had the cottin redy But the river was up and wee 

70 Breckinridge carried North Carolina by a majority of 848, receiving 48,539 votes 
to 44,990 for Bell and 2,701 for Douglas. Not surprisingly, Bell and Douglas ran 
strongest in the old Whig counties. Joseph Carlyle Sitterson, The Secession Move- 
ment in North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press [Volume 
23 of the James Sprunt Studies in History and Political Science], 1939), 175-176, 
hereinafter cited as Sitterson, Secession Movement. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 187 

got no mule for two weeks when i got the newes I Took 8 Bales 
over to Charlott and the peopel was in such a up rore on the 
elecktion that they would hardley look at cottin and I thot Best 
to let it remain for afew dayes I left it on the Plat form The 
Docktor 71 said he would atend to it 7 cents was all i was Bid on 
it i think i could a got 8 But i thot Best to not sell yet wee have 
6 Bales more redy the fall has Been so wet and our cottin grew 
so near the ground that most of it is Badly injered 

you wish to no they amount Bot at charlott the Dockter 
was present when i Bot all i will send you a true state ment of all 
that i went in dept Bot ... 67 yrds of shirting at 9 cents per yrd 
dito for coats 29 yrds 41 cents per yrd to cottin Baging 120 yrds 
16 cents per yrd to 2 coiles of ropeng 18 lbs 10 cts per lb 
. . . for one hand saw $2 dolars When last at Charlott 30 yrds 
of Baging 15 cents per yrd ... to Smith for shoes 19 Pair 
at $1.40 cents apair dito 4 Pair $120 cents apair 23 pair in all 

From Sandy Harris 72 UNC 


November 15th., 1860. 

Once only, I think, since I used to enjoy your acquaintance in 
North Carolina, I have taken the liberty to write you. That was 
for my personal benefit. I now write you for a much more impor- 
tant purpose. The newspapers have alluded to your name in 
connection with Mr. Lincoln's Cabinet. Under all the circum- 
stances, it would be natural for you to hesitate, if a Secretaryship 
should be tendered you, but let me urge you, by all we hold dear, 
personally, and patriotically, not to pause a single moment. The 
feelings, fears, and interests of this entire community are now 

71 Joseph Graham. 

72 Sandy Harris was a native of Granville County, which he represented in the 
House of Commons in 1834. About this time Harris, a staunch Jacksonian Democrat, 
quarreled with Willie P. Mangum, even to the point of challenging him. Harris 
was frustrated in his political aspirations and left the state. He was a customs offi- 
cial in Philadelphia, apparently a Polk appointee, when Senator Mangum generously 
intervened to prevent his dismissal after Taylor's election. It is difficult to imagine 
how Harris gained any influence with Lincoln except, perhaps, through William D. 
Lewis; a search of Lincoln's official correspondence failed to turn up any reference to 
either Harris or Lewis. Connor, Manual, 1913, 623; Henry Thomas Shanks (ed.), The 
Paper of Willie Person Mangum (Raleigh: State Department of Archives and 
History, 5 volumes, 1950-1956), II, 37, 1 17-1 18, 177-178, 295; V, 205-207. 

188 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

on the cast of a die; every despatch from the South seems to limit 
the chances of a favourable issue. Your acceptance of a post of 
influence under an Administration which so many profess to 
fear, would come like a message of safety and peace. You voted for 
Bell, I take for granted, but the acceptance referred to would 
not be so inconsistant as the fire eaters would have you suppose. 
The Bell party were that portion of the old Whigs who refused, 
and always had refused, to affiliate with the Abolitionists; the 
Republican party is that portion of the old Whig party in the 
North who were willing, and always have been willing, to make 
terms with the Abolitionists. Of this latter combination, Aboli- 
tionism is the subordinate element. As a whole, it is nothing more 
nor less, than Whig. I know what I say to be true. I have always 
acted with the Democratic party, I did, and do yet, and I know 
the men here with whom we have fought; and whatever others 
may say, I sacredly assure you, they are as far from being Aboli- 
tionists as I am myself. And they form four fifths of the new 
organization. They erred in coalescing with the Abolitionists, 
but it was done to carry their own point, and not that of their 
coadjutors. They wished to defeat the Democratic party, you wished 
to do that too, where then, would be the inconsistency in your 
taking a post under them? Besides, if the tendency of their 
policy should be to consiliate or please the Abolitionists, would 
it not be the best service you could render your old party friends, 
as well as your country, to place yourself where you could be a 
check upon such tendency? Take a post by all manner of means, 
if it should be tendered you. It would be hailed with unmingled 
joy here, and by all classes. The old Collector of the Port here, 
William D. Lewis, 73 your friend as well as mine, has been spending 
some time at Springfield, is he an Abolitionist, or an enemy of 
the South? With you in the Cabinet, we could keep the public 
offices here, in the hands of as good Union men as ever breathed. 

73 William David Lewis (1792-1881), a native of Delaware, was private secretary to 
Henry Clay, 1814-1815, accompanying him to Ghent. For ten years he resided in 
Russia, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits. He mastered the Russian lan- 
guage and was later a noted translator. He was customs collector of the Philadelphia 
port, 1849-1853, and was evidently a Whig. In later life he was engaged in railroad- 
ing and banking, was a trustee of various benevolent institutions, and was, at one 
time, president of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Harris apparently thought 
Lewis had Lincoln's ear. James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (eds.), Appleton's 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 6 
volumes, 1887-1889), III, 707, hereinafter cited as Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Ameri- 
can Biography. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 189 

This has been written in haste, and I hope you will receive it 
kindly, and with allowances. 
I have the honor to be, 

Your Obedient Servant. 

From Isaac Newton 74 UNC 


Delaware County, [Pennsylvania] 
11th. Mo. 15th., 1860. 

Respected Friend 

I have intended to write to thee Some time past, Previous to 
our State Eelction, and give thee My opinion of what I Supposed 
would be the Result in our State. I saw plainly before our 
State Election that Abraham Lincoln would be Elected. I said 
to many of my Friends before the Election that if Lincoln Should 
be Elected, my desire was he should elect James A. Graham [sic] 
of North Carolina for one of his Cabinets. Previous to our State 
Election, I Received a Pleasant letter from Abraham Lincoln. I 
answered it, and gave him my views of what would be the Result 
of the Election, he found my Predictions verrified, the Correspon- 
dence is kept up between us. Let me say to thee in Confidence, 
I should be pleased to know thy mind on this Subject as Early as 
Possible. The Regard I have for thee I may be Able to be of 
Service to thee in my Plain, Simple way of doing. 

I remain Thy Sincere Friend. 

[P.S.] Direct the Letter to me Chesnut St., Opposite the State 
House, Philadelphia. 


74 Isaac Newton was a native of New Jersey. After a common school education and 
marriage, he settled in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, where he established a 
model farm and became interested in scientific agriculture. He lobbied for the 
creation of a department of agriculture with Presidents Harrison, Taylor, Fillmore, 
Buchanan, and Lincoln. When the agriculture bureau was established in 1862, he 
was appointed the first commissioner of agriculture. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography, IV, 508. 

190 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Jones Watson UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

November 17th., 1860. 

I am glad to learn that Mr. Lincon has offered you a Seat in 
his Cabinette to be formed next March, if my humble opinion is 
worth any thing, I would say by all means, if you can with any 
Justice to yourself and family, accept, 8c thereby lend your 
tallent and influence to heal the present distractions of the country, 
for we are in a wretched and deplorable condition; all our mone- 
tary institutions are in a distracted state, and there is no telling 
what must be the financial embarrassments of the country in a 
short time, if things go on as they have started. I think I can 
venture the prediction that property will, in a short time, if it has 
not allready, diminish one fourth, & some species at least one half. 

I am glad, my Dear Sir, that we have Men of ability 8c conserva- 
tive Men that we can rely on with confidence at times like the 
present, Sc it is for this reason, among others, that I would 
urge upon you to accept a Seat in Mr. Lincon's Cabinette. I 
hope that the Evils that hang over us at this time may be averted 
^c driven back, k there is no chance for it to be done but for 
Such Men as yourself Sc others of the same stamp, to take hold in 
times like these, Sc pour Oil on the troubled waters, Sc bring about 
a better state of feeling. 

I want no political Office in the gift of the Government; but 
only desire as a good citizen to lend all the influence and strength 
I have, to put a stop to the present course of things, which I am 
afraid has a tendency to Anarchy, Bloodshed, and the destruction 
of the fairest and Brightest hopes of the World. I hope I may be 
excused for presuming to advise with you upon a matter 
that is so much above my humble self; but it does really seem to 
me that the hopes of the country are dependent upon such Men 
as yourself Sc others of a highly convervative character. 

I perhaps have said too much already, so I will close. If you 
should think I have erred in droping [sic] you these lines upon a 
subject of such momentous importance, please attribute it to an 
Error in the Head and not of the Heart. 

From H. C. Douglass A&H 

Smyrna, Del. 

Nov. 20th., 1860. 

During the late exciting Canvass I was pleased to receive an 

The Papers of William A. Graham 191 

answer to a letter which I addressed to you, and to learn that you, 
like myself, was a firm supporter of those true and tried patriots, 
John Bell and Edward Everett; and I deeply regret, as it seems 
to me every true patriot should, that they had not friends 
enough in the Country to elevate them to the offices for which they 
were candidates. Had such been the case, in my opinion, Secession 
would not now be heard of. On the contrary the whole Country 
would to-day be quiet, and the people of every Section of the 
Republic would be satisfied in their minds that the government 
in such hands would be administered with a just regard to the 
rights of all the Citizens and the States. 

But Mr. Lincoln has been constitutionally elected to the 
Presidency, and however much we may regret the success of 
a Sectional party, is it not the duty of all good citizens to submit 
to the popular will, unless an overt act be committed by that 

The people of Delaware, ever true to the Constitution, will 
continue to occupy a conservative position, and frown upon the 
first dawning of any attempt to alienate one portion of our glorious 
country from another. 

It would give me great pleasure to hear something of the senti- 
ment of the old North State. 

Very truly yours 

P.S. If it would not be objectionable to you, I would like very 
much to publish the letter which I rec'd from you in Sept. and 
also your reply to this. 

From John Church Hamilton 75 UNC 

New York, 

November 20th., 1860. 

I presume you will have received a paper, "Views" 76 which was 
to be forwarded to you today. The interest the writer feels in the 

75 John Church Hamilton, (1792-1882), of New York, was a son of Alexander 
Hamilton. He graduated from Columbia and practiced law in New York City. He 
spent many years preparing his father's memoirs and papers for publication. Apple- 
ton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 111,60. 

76 Presumably this reference is to the paper of General Winfield Scott, Graham's 
1852 Whig presidential running mate, dated October 29, 1860, and included in this 

192 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

welfare of our country, is such as his whole patriotic life would 
naturally beget. He said he would confine himself to a mere 
transmission of the paper. I go a little further. In the alarming 
crisis which exists, the great influence the policy of your State 
will exert in determining the result, is it not of extreme importance 
that the prudence and character and wisdom of your State should 
be present at the meeting of your Legislature to advise and induce 
temperate counsels. You and I have common ground in the Rev- 
olutionary services of our fathers, of deepest interest in all that 
concerns the honor and welfare of our common country, & in the 
preservation of its community of glory and of interests. Is it possible 
that this is to take place without some manly effort to check the 
tide of passion that swells so high in you neighbor State? It has 
been my habit to regard N. Carolina with respect and affection, 
as the great stay of the South. Is the day past when her Statesmen 
will rouse their energies and stifle the treason that threatens 
the dissolution of our Republic? I think not. I think you will be 
the foremost and the most heard in year clear voice, for the preser- 
vation of the Union. Little can be done here to quiet the Southern 
States. An effort will be made, (& I trust with success) to repeal 
the law which offends Southern feeling, as to the recapture of 
fugitives — a law, it is true, which merely declares that our gaols 
and our Sheriffs shall not be employed in the execution of an act 
of Congress, & which the Supreme Court of the U.S. has declared 
the National Government has no right to employ — but then, a 
law which is as obnoxious to your people, ought never to have 
been passed. The President elect will recommend a policy that 
ought to satisfy the South. Ought not then, time be given to retrace 
false steps here — or is a disunion to be precipitated on North 
Carolina by South Carolina — that the latter may be enriched, as 
she vainly supposes, in her sea port becoming the New York of 
the South? Already very bad feelings are being engendered here 
by the menaces of South Carolina — feelings that will end, if a 
disunion should take place, in a vile piracy on the slaves of your 
coast, & in acts which will demoralize our navigating interests & 
render a part of our country a den of thieves. The consequences of 
a disunion I can not dare to dwell upon. Private distress will be 
as nothing — our institutions will all be changed, and the cause 
of civil liberty, as my father predicted, be sacrificed to temporary 
motives and discontents. 

Might you not do great good by hastening immediately to your 
seat of government, and doing there what the times demand, and 

The Papers of William A. Graham 193 

what the weight and force of your high character would do 
much in effecting? 

My information as to Georgia is today very unfavourable — 
so much so, that I am induced to ask your pardon in addressing 
you this note, in the belief of the great urgency that North Carolina 
should take an early stand. Be assured that the better men of our 
region will regain their ascendancy, if the cause of fanaticism and 
illicit ambition here is not aided by great errors elsewhere. 

With highest respect & true regard, 

I have the honor to be, Dear Sir, 
Your most obed't f d 8c serv't, 

From Hugh B. Guthrie 77 UNC 

Raleigh, N.C., 

November 23rd., 1860. 

I wish to council [sic] with you from a sense of Duty, for I wish 
to do right if I know what is right, & I would not act unadvisedly. 

I see there is a secession spirit in our Legislature, and you 
know, Sir, that I have always been, and still [am] a Union man, 
but I confess that things look gloomy, and I hardly know what 
course to take, to vote for secession I cannot, but I do not want 
to do anything that would be reproachful to my constituents. 

You have no doubt seen the Message of the Governor, and I 
wish you to give me your views of that Document, what you 
think a proper course should be for me to pursue in regard to the 
standing army, or Volunteers, proposed by the Message. There 
have been several resolutions proposed in our House, and I will 
say to you confidentially, in our Caucus I find several inclined to 
secession, and in fact, I find one that is a Lieutenant in a Company 
of Minute men. I will send you a copy of the Press, and in that I 
will mark the names of some three men of our party that I fear 
will go off with the disunionist. If you will give me your notion 
of the Message, and what you think would be a proper course for 
me to pursue, you will confer a great favor. 

77 Hugh B. Guthrie (1814-1881), Chapel Hill hotelkeeper, was a native of Chatham 
County. He served Orange County as a Whig member of Commons, 1860-1862; 
sheriff, 1865-1867; magistrate of police, 1869-1872; and was twice postmaster, 1874- 
1877. Lefler and Wager, Orange County, 88, 107, 355, 364, 366; Battle, History of the 
University, 1,612,673. 

194 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From David W. Siler 78 UNC 


November 23rd., 1860. 

Col. Guthrie 79 is my room mate. Entertaining the same politi- 
cal views we naturally look to the same source for council when it 
is much needed. And you will please allow a word of explanation 
as to the immediate circumstances surrounding us. Resolutions 
were preposed in Caucus simply stating our attachment to the 
Union, and determination to vote for no man in favor of 
secession. It seemed to me that at the present time, to pass such 
resolutions would imply an admission that we yield to the North 
State laws that conflict with the Constitution and laws of the 
United States. My idea is that in a conflict between Northern 
fanatics and those at the South who have gone to an extreme, our 
State in condoning the one, ought not to excuse the other. And 
that we should avoid the very appearance of doing so. I acted 
yesterday with those of our party who opposed precipitating the 
discussion, and who depricate the thought of bringing this 
matter under party influences. 

Allow me, with great defference, to submit a thought and 
an enquiry. Would it be wise in this legislature to set forth the 
grounds and origin of existing difficulties, fairly and impartially, 
followed by resolve that it is our duty for the present to take no 
action but wait the developments of the times and return to our 
constituents for council. 

We will only ask the trouble on your part of writing one letter. 
Col. Guthrie will give me the benefit of any thing you may address 
to him. 

From Thomas K. Thomas 80 UNC 


November 25th., 1860. 
For 20 years and more, you have been regarded in North 

78 David Weimar Siler (1822-1884), a farmer of Macon County, was a Whig and 
American (Know-Nothing) in politics. He was a member of the House of Commons 
in 1850, 1856, and 1860. Connor, Manual, 1913, 688; Leona Bryson Porter, The 
Family of Weimar Siler, 1755-1831 (Franklin, N.C: Committee Appointed at the 
100th Meeting of the Family, 1951), 68. 

79 Hugh B. Guthrie. 

80 Thomas K. Thomas, of Franklin County, was a substantial planter and a 
stockholder and director of the Louisburg Female College. Edward Hill Davis, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 195 

Carolina, and out of it, as the representative man, or exponent, 
of the Whig, or opposition, party, and for one, I have been at all 
times ready to follow when you were in the lead. There are 
many other eminent men in our State in whose wisdom, fore- 
sight, firmness, patriotism, 8c prudence, I have not felt the same 
confidence and acquiescence. 

On Saturday night I read in the Register the Gov. Message, 
and the various strings of political resolutions submitted to the 
legislature. I thought much of the matter in reference to the great 
question that so threatens our country, was poorly and imperfect- 
ly brought to public view. It seems to me that the gentlemen of 
our party who have introduced resolutions have utterly failed 
in giving dignity and imporatnce to the questions at issue. I 
am no secessionist, but when our party makes the issue, if we 
would give strength to our cause, they ought to array in strong 
language the aggressions of the North. We ought to require the 
"personal liberty Bills" to be repealed, and for the North to treat 
us with equality and justice. I read with pleasure and entire 
approval, your letters to the Tennessee and Newbern Com- 
mittees, and I am confident that you fully conceive and appreciate 
all the surroundings of the great issue before the Country. 

I am, as you know, an humble and private citizen, and seek 
no position out of the ranks of the great opposition Army, and the 
only excuse or apology I can offer you for troubling you with 
this communication is that I fear the leaders in the legislature. 
I think they will damage the reputation of the Whig party in the 
State, and that the reputation of yourself and others who may and 
will be thought to give countenance to the positions assumed. 

I have spent recently a good deal of time at the North, by a firm 
course on the part of our party at the South, I think we might 
cause the North to repeal their offensive legislation, and at the 
same time we can check-mate South Carolina and her secession 

I think some of the leaders of our party in the legislature are 
vain men, yet I am confident that if you would go down to Raleigh, 
and seek to meet them, and elaborate your views fully to them, 
that their proceedings and resolutions would be marked with 

Historical Sketches of Franklin County (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Co., 1948), 

196 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

wisdom, judgment, patriotism from that time, and we all could 
take pleasure in defending the acts of our party. 

It is with the hope that you may embrace this suggestion that 
I write you this note. If a public meeting were to be gotten up in 
Hillsborough, and you introduce resolutions in meeting, I have 
no doubt your action would be endorsed by our party through- 
out the State. By this means, consistency and uniformity of 
sentiment would be given to our party. 

The Georgia platform 81 and A. H. Stephens' 82 views in his great 
speech strike me as about the correct position for the whole 
South. Let every effort be made to preserve the Union, but if 
our party in the Legislature countenance force by the Gen'l 
Government, half of our army will join the Secessionists. 

I wish the public could have the benefit of your able counsels 
in this emergency, and I am confident that if a public meeting 
were held in your place, and you give character to the proceedings, 
it would do much good, and harmonize the party very much. Out 
of the State, or in it, much is expected from you. 

81 Following the enactment of the Compromise of 1850, Georgia responded by 
acknowledging the historical American tradition of compromise and agreeing to 
accept the 1850 legislation as the final solution to the slavery question. However, 
the Georgia statement, which gained wide acceptance in the South as a statement 
of principles, warned that no further compromise was possible and that the future of 
the Union was dependent on the faithful execution of these laws, especially the 
fugitive slave law. E. Merton Coulter, A Short History of Georgia (Chapel Hill: Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press, 1933), 290. 

82 Alexander Hamilton Stephens (1812-1883), of Georgia, was one of the most 
influential men in the South. After long service in the Georgia legislature, he began 
his national career as a states' rights Whig congressman, 1843-1859; but his concern 
for southern rights took him into the Democratic party about 1856. He was a bitter 
opponent of the Wilmot Proviso, but counseled acceptance of the Compromise of 
1850 and was largely responsible for the Georgia Platform. By the late 1850s he had 
begun to defend slavery as a positive good. He mistakenly believed that the South's 
place in the Union was safe at the time of his retirement from Congress in 1859. 
Following the election of Lincoln, Stephens succeeded in preventing Georgia's early 
rush to secession by a powerful speech delivered November 14, 1860, in which he advo- 
cated watchful waiting and acting only after the infringement of southern rights. His 
speech attracted national attention, as this letter suggests, and opened the way for 
a significant exchange of letters between Lincoln and Stephens. Lincoln was con- 
ciliatory, but declined to give specific assurances. When the Georgia secession con- 
vention met in January, Stephens spoke only briefly, recommending that a southern 
convention be called. He was elected vice president of the Confederacy but exer- 
cised little influence as he became increasingly disgruntled with the Davis ad- 
ministration for what he considered encroachments upon the rights of the Confeder- 
ate states. His plans for gaining independence by negotiation proved futile at the 
Hampton Roads Conference. A supporter of presidential reconstruction, Stephens 
was elected to the United States Senate in 1865 but was barred. Although he op- 
posed congressional reconstruction, he advised acceptance. He returned to the 

The Papers of William A. Graham 197 

From [James} Alexander Hamilton** to John A. Gilmer UNC 

New York, 

December 4th., 1860. 

I send you two copies of the World, containing a letter form 
addressed to the electors of New York and Pennsylvania, which 
may turn to some account, should there be any violent demon- 
stration made in Washington today, showing that nothing but 
extreme conservative measures can prove of any use, then and 
then only, may we hope for any independent action among our 
Northern politicians. 

I wish you would forward a copy to Governor Graham, 
with my respects — expressing the full confidence I have that 
election of Mr. Guthrie or himself, would be honorable to the 

If the delegates from N.Y. & P. should endorse my recommen- 
dation as an ultimatum, they have time, through the use of the 
telegraph to advise, especially, if they send in advance a 
premonition to postpone the election to the afternoon of tomorrow, 
say until four, this would afford ample time for consultation. 

If Mr. Lincoln should be elected, then I shall endeavor to 
urge confidence in his administration, in conformity to the 
sentiment throughout in the letter — confident if he be not pressed 
to the wall, the interests of the South will be by him fully 
secured, in defiance of his political associates. 

If the Union convention, held in Baltimore, had nominated 
either Davis 84 or Guthrie, 85 with a good second, their candidate 

House of Representatives for ten years and was elected governor of Georgia a few 
months before his death. His Constitutional View of the Late War Between the 
States (published in two volumes, 1868-1870) is a valuable statement of the states' 
rights philosophy. Ulrich B. Phillips, "Alexander Hamilton Stephens,'' Dictionary 
of American Biography, XVII, 569-575. 

83 James Alexander Hamilton. See footnote 15, p. 19. 

84 Garret Davis (1801-1872), a Kentuckian, Whig, and great friend of Henry Clay, 
was a lawyer, state legislator, congressman, 1839-1847, and United States senator, 1861- 
1872. He declined the presidential nomination of the American party in 1856, sup- 
ported the Bell-Everett ticket in 1860, and was influential in keeping Kentucky in 
the Union. By 1864 and subsequently, he was astonishingly critical of the Lincoln 
administration and the Radical Republicans. E. Merton Coulter, "Garret Davis," 
Dictionary of American Biography, V, 113-114; Biographical Directory of Congress, 

85 James Guthrie (1792-1869), of Kentucky, was a lawyer, politician, and immensely 
successful railroad promoter and businessman. He was a state legislator, president of 

198 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

would have [been] triumphant, they however, exhibited a clear 
want of brains, they were sadly behind the times. 

The choice of Presidential candidates, at the time I referred 
[to], when Pinckney was cheated, 86 was anterior to the contested 
election of 1801 between Jefferson 8c Burr, which led to the 
constitutional change requiring the designation of the office, 
President and Vice President. 

Have we any hope that the Union may be saved? 

Yours with high respect, 

The heading to my letter is editorial, an apology for giving 
it publicity. 


James Alexander Hamilton's Letter 

in the 

"New York World" 

December 4, 1860. 

To the Electors of the States of New York and Pennsylvania. 

You have yet time to save the Union and without any violation 
of your partisan predilections. Placed in a situation of 
such extraordinary delicacy and responsibility, as presidential 
electors, may we not hope that you have sufficient independence 
to throw your votes in favor of some gentleman who will be more 
likely to bring a renewed confidence in the permanency of our 

the Kentucky Constitutional Convention of 1849, United States secretary of the 
treasury, 1853-1857, member of the Washington Peace Conference of 1861, president 
of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, president of the University of Louisville, 
and a Democratic United States senator, 1865-1868. He supported the Johnson plan 
of reconstruction and attended the National Union ("Arm-in-Arm") Convention of 
1866. Robert Spencer Cotterill, "James Guthrie," Dictionary of American Biography, 
VIII, 60-62; Biographical Directory of Congress, 983-984. 

86 Thomas Pinckney (1750-1828), of South Carolina, was educated in England, 
but returned to Charleston in 1774 to practice law. He was a Revolutionary officer, 
state legislator, South Carolina governor, 1787-1789, president of the convention of 
1788, minister to Great Britain, envoy to Spain, Federalist candidate for vice-presi- 
dent in 1796, and a Federalist congressman, 1797-1801. This reference is to the at- 
tempt of Alexander Hamilton to defeat John Adams in 1796 by electing Pinckney 
president. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "Thomas Pinckney," Dictionary of American 
Biography, XIV, 617-620. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 199 

Republic. It is not to Mr. Lincoln I object. He would no doubt 
administer the government with firmness and intelligence, and, 
had not the excited course of the South exhibited itself in such 
uncompromising hostility to that distinguished gentleman, it is 
easy to forsee that his election would be found of all others the 
most conservative, inasmuch as with his sentiments in regard to 
southern interests, he could carry his republican appeals further 
in the adoption of a protective legislation than a democrat of 
the best and most sterling character. 

The time is now too big with danger to justify any obstinate 
determination to conform strictly to the terms of your election, 
the more especially as, in the exercise of a great conservative dis- 
cretion, you will be sure to save the confederation, and at the 
same time, act in the spirit of your constituents, voting character, 
against whom neither envy nor prejudice could find cause for 
detraction or dissatisfaction. 

If you cast your vote for the late Governor of North Carolina, 
the Hon. Mr. Graham, you will be the means of saving our 
country from disunion, while in so doing you will preserve to your 
party as much of the national patronage as would be consistent 
with the general welfare. Mr. Graham belongs to the South, but 
with him no fears could be entertained that southern rights and 
institutions would be imperilled; and in this sectional confidence 
ample time would be afforded for the exercise of a spirit of 
moderation necessary to the consummation of some scheme 
whereby the difficulties in which we are involved may be brought 
to a fair and reliable settlement. 

The right to change the electoral vote is not without its 
precedent, and in the East, where it was practised, no exception 
could be taken, it being an historical fact that in the presidential 
election of 1798, when General Charles C. Pinckney of South 
Carolina and John Adams were the federal candidates, the former 
lost by a change of formal votes, not only sufficient to place Gen. 
Pinckney below Mr. Adams, but to elect Mr. Jefferson as Vice 
President, a democratic nominee. 

If Mr. Graham should be voted for, the election would go 
to the House of Representatives, when the choice would termi- 
nate in favor of the whig candidate you have so honorable and 
disinterestedly presented in support of the best, the vital cardinal 
interests of the whole country. 

Why look to Washington for the settlement of our difficulties? 
Why not place yourself in the gap, like Leonidas in the Straits 
of Thermopylae, and in thus taking these responsibilities, cover 

200 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

yourselves with honor, and with the certainty of having done your 
duty, meriting the thanks and the prayers of your fellow citizens. 

Alexander Hamilton. 

From John A. Gilmer UNC 

House of Reps., 

December 5th., 1860. 

Clingman has led off in the Senate. 87 It seems to be the purpose 
of Southern Senators to increase the excitement by discussion here, 
& to force disunion. Our Union Conservative friends, irrespective 
of party, should at once begin 8c hold their meetings throughout 
N.C, and the South generally, wherever they can be at once. 

The anxiety here from all quarters, (except the Southern fire 
eatefs) to preserve the Union, is intense. 

In fact the North seems inclined to yield every thing to preserve 
the Union. 

All is in doubt. But I shall hope that something will be done to 
quiet the Country & to save the Union. 

Resolutions of a Hillsborough Mass Meeting^ 8 A&H 

December 26, 1860 

In pursuance to an adjourned meeting, a large portion of the 
citizens of Orange County met at the Court House in this place, 
and the meeting was called to order by the Chairman, Wm. H. 
Brown, 89 who in a few patriotic remarks explained the object 
which called us together for the second time. 

The Secretary read the proceedings of the meeting of the 15th. 

87 Clingman's speech was bitterly defiant and full of secession threats. Crittenden 
replied to him, expressing regret that such a speech had been made and pleading for 
wisdom and calmness, both of which Clingman lacked. Albert D. Kirwan, John J. 
Crittenden, The Struggle for the Union (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 
1962), 373-374. 

88 This account is taken from a printed broadside. 

89 William H. Brown, of Hillsborough, was active in local and county affairs. 
Blackwelder, Age of Orange, 145; Lefler and Wager, Orange County, 368. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 201 

inst., and the Chairman, the Hon. Wm. A. Graham, of the Com- 
mittee of ten, reported the following resolutions: 

The excited condition of the public mind, occasioned by the 
result of the recent Presidential election, requiring in the opinion 
of the citizens of Orange here assembled, a declaration of the 
sentiments of the people in relation to the course proper to be 
pursued in the present critical condition of our National affairs, 
it is therefore: 

1. Resolved, That the measures in the course of adoption in 
certain States of the Union, since the election of Abraham Lincoln 
to the office of President of the United States, presents for the 
determination of the people of North Carolina the grave question, 
whether, so far as they are concerned, the Government established 
by the Constitution of the United States shall be permitted to 
continue in operation, or whether it shall be overthrown and 
annulled, leaving to an uncertain future, the provision of new 
guards for all the great interests that Government was designed to 

2. Resolved, That while regretting the decision made in this 
election, in common with the people of all the Southern States, 
because of the sectional, and towards us, hostile spirit of the 
political organization which nominated and elected the successful 
candidate; and whilst we shall vigilantly observe his course of 
administration, and shall be prompt to make resistance to en- 
croachments, if any shall be attempted by him, on the rights and 
interests of slavery as an established institution of the Southern 
States, protected by the Constitution of the Union, we perceive in 
the fact of his election no sufficient cause for the subversion and 
abandonment of the Government of our Fathers, under which, in 
but two generations of men, the country has obtained a prosperity 
and power unsurpassed among the nations of the earth. 

3. Resolved, That we are not insensible to the encouragement 
given to the hostile feeling of the North against slavery in the 
Southern States, by the result of this election, but it must not be 
forgotten that the Government of the United States is a practical 
Government, of but limited powers; that the President is not the 
Sovereign but the servant of the Republic, with authorities defined 
and restricted by the Constitution and laws, liable to be checked 
and restrained within his legitimate powers by Congress and by 
the Judiciary; that Mr. Lincoln was elected by but a plurality of 
votes, in consequence of divisions among the conservative voters 
arrayed against him — the majority against him in the whole popu- 
lar vote being nearly nine hundred thousand. And when we add 

202 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

to this that he will enter into office with a majority of both Houses 
of Congress opposed to him, and will not be able to appoint even 
his Cabinet counsellors without the aid of a conservative Senate, 
there is but a remote probability of a successful encroachment on 
our rights during the limited period of his administration, if there 
shall be the disposition to attempt it. 

4. Resolved, That the enactment of laws in many of the non- 
slaveholding States, intended to obstruct the execution of the 
law of Congress, for the arrest and surrender of fugitive slaves, is 
in plain and palpable violation of the Constitution of the United 
States, and the repeal of those laws is demanded as a duty of justice 
and submission to the Constitution on the part of those States, 
and as indispensable to future Union. 

5. Resolved, That waiving the Constitutional question of the 
power of a State to secede from the Union, such act of secession, 
if effected peaceably, is not an appropriate and adequate remedy 
for the injuries under which the Southern States are now laboring. 
To depart from the Union, leaving behind in the hands of her 
supposed enemies all her interests in the national accumulations of 
eighty years, in which she had proportional rights, would be a 
sacrifice on the part of a State, except under the pressure of over- 
ruling necessity, as incompatible with her dignity as her interests. 

6. Resolved, That we recognize in its full extent the right of 
resistance by force, to unauthorized injustice and oppression, and 
if the incoming administration shall pervert the powers of the 
Government to destroy or otherwise interfere with the rights of 
slavery, none will be more ready than ourselves to recur to this 
extreme remedy; but in adopting measures on a subject of such 
vital interest to fifteen states of the Confederacy, we should but 
deem it but just and wise to act if possible, in concert, and after 
consultation with the other slaveholding States, and more espe- 
cially with the frontier States of Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky 
and Missouri, which are the greatest sufferers from existing 
grievances, and stand as a barrier between the rest of the Southern 
States, and the enemies of their peace and safety beyond that 

7. Resolved, That reasonable time should be allowed, and all 
remedies consistent with the continuance of the Union, should be 
exhausted before an abandonment of that Constitution established 
by Washington and his compatriots, which, in its general operation 
has been the source of blessings innumerable to the American 

The Papers of William A. Graham 203 

8. Resolved, That it is recommended to the Legislature to 
make appropriations for the purchase of such supplies of arms as 
may be necessary as a preparation for any emergency that may arise. 

9. Resolved, That the foregoing resolutions be published in 
the Hillsborough papers, and transmitted to the representatives 
from this county, to be laid before the General Assembly. 

John W. Norwood, Esq., offered the following as an amendment: 

Resolved, that we recommend to the present Legislature to 
provide for calling a Convention of the people, to take into consid- 
eration the alarming state of public affairs, and determine for 
North Carolina the time, mode and measure of redress for existing 

The question being taken upon Mr. Norwood's resolution, it 
was rejected. 

The resolutions as reported by the committee were passed by a 
large majority. 

Wm. H. Brown, Chairman 

Dennis Heart 90 ) 

C. E. Parish 91 

From Henry W. Miller UNC 



December 29th., 1860. 

Pardon me for troubling you. The anxiety and alarm of good 
and patriotic men, about the condition of the Country, are becom- 

90 Dennis Heartt (1783-1870), a native of Connecticut, edited the Hillsborough 
Recorder with distinction from 1820 to 1869. He was a staunch Whig and firm 
Unionist, and a friend and admirer of William A. Graham. William W. Holden was 
apprenticed to Heartt for about seven years, beginning in 1828, and although the 
two differed politically, Holden always held his mentor in great respect. Although 
Graham and Holden seldom agreed on anything, they collaborated in securing the 
appointment of Heartt as Hillsborough postmaster after the war. In Orange County 
it was proverbial to say: "As honest as Dennis Heartt and as truthful as the 
Recorder . . . ." Frank Nash, "Dennis Heartt," Van Noppen Papers. 

91 Calvin E. Parish, a Hillsborough lawyer, was an active politician, but not a very 
successful one. He was a Democratic state senator, 1874-1876 and 1881-1883, and a 
member of the lower house, 1876-1879. Connor, Manual, 1913, 742-743. 

204 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

ing more and more intense every day that passes, and it really seems 
to me that, as the dangers which threaten us approach, the arms of 
those who are bent on the destruction of the government, are 
nerved, and their hearts emboldened, whilst those of the conserva- 
tive men, who would exhaust all Constitutional means to secure 
our rights in the Union, are comparatively paralyzed and 

With all respect and deference, I think there are scores of men 
in this State, whose opinions would have great weight, who should 
have spoken out before this. Every effort is being made by the 
ultraists, to connect our State to the action and destinies of South 
Carolina, and, unless the Conservative men arouse themselves, 
they will accomplish their purpose. 

They are now determined, it is said, to force the Convention 
Bill thro' by a bare majority, 8c insist on the Constitutionality of 
the act, or assume the position before the people, that the neces- 
sities of the Crisis are above all Constitutional restraint. This of 
itself is revolution. Now, I see in the assembling of a Convention 
at this time, nothing but danger. Where is the necessity? The 
Legislature can do all that a Convention could rightfully do, 
except the suicidal act of secession, for existing causes. And, my 
conviction is, that should a Convention be called, in the midst of 
the excitement produced by the action of Alabama, Miss., Florida, 
Georgia, etc., the same game will be played, and the same imposi- 
tion practised on the people, that they, (the secessionists) played 
and practised in the last Presidential Election. When the leaders 
were charged with being in favor of revolution, or secession, 
should Lincoln be elected, they denied it lustily, and pronounced 
it a slander. But few, if any, of them, were candid or bold enough 
to declare, that they regarded the election of Lincoln a just cause 
for secession. But when the election was over, and it was known 
that the State had voted for Breck Sc Lane, the shout was raised 
that the people of the State are for secession! 

If the Union is to be broken up, I confess my judgment forces 
me to the conclusion, that it is not for the interest or safety of our 
State to unite with South Carolina. Her Free trade, and African 
Slave Trade Doctrines, would be ruinous to us. I should wish 
things so arranged as to preserve the "United States of America," 
as a Nation — to preserve the present National Capitol — to preserve 
our Navy, etc., in other words, to perpetuate our Nationality as it 
now is. 

I think the Northern Slave States with the Southern free States, 
by united action, can secure all this, and I am gratified to see that 

The Papers of William A. Graham 205 

they are about to act in Concert. A Confederacy composed entirely 
of Slave States will be disastrous to slavery itself. There never 
could be peace between the North & South then, and all hopes of 
ever re-uniting all the States, under the same Constituion of 
Government, would be gone. If Maryland, Virginia, No. Carolina, 
Tennessee, Kentucky, and Missouri will stand firm, I think the 
Union — our Nationality — the Constitution — our peace — our 
rights — can all be preserved and maintained, dispite [sic] the 
rash action of the Cotton States. 

When I commenced this, my only purpose was to beg you, 
(and this is the wish of all your friends here) to speak out, on the 
crisis of our affairs. Your voice would be of great influence for 
good throughout the Country, and especially in this State. 

I do hope you will avail yourself of the earliest opportunity to 
be heard. The State of the Country demands it. We all wish it 
most earnestly. 

206 N.C. Department of Archives and History 


From John D. Barry 1 UNC 

Wilmington, N.C. 
January 2nd., 1861. 

I have recently had a controversy with a gentleman of this town 
concerning the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, 2 of Boston notoriety, 
the dispute turning upon the point "under whose administration" 
he was returned to his lawful owner. I have maintained that it was 
during the Presidency of Mr. Fillmore, 3 being under the impres- 
sion that you made an allusion to that effect in your speech in 
this town on the 26th. October last. 

I trust I will be pardoned for the liberty I have taken in address- 
ing you this note. I was very anxious to have the question settled, 
and knew of no man in the State whose decision would have more 
weight than your own, for the very high position you occupied as 
a Constitutional adviser of Mr. F. 

1 John Decatur Barry (1839-1867), of Wilmington, who attended the University of 
North Carolina, rose from private to temporary brigadier general in the Confederate 
army, serving in every battle of the Army of Northern Virginia from Hanover Court- 
house to Appomattox. His regiment was the Eighteenth North Carolina. After the 
war he was editor of the Wilmington Dispatch. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 47; 
James Sprunt, Chronicles of the Cape Fear River, Being Some Account of Historic 
Events on the Cape Fear River (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Printing Company, 
1914), 261, 524-525. 

2 Anthony Burns was returned to slavery, from Boston, in 1854 in one of the 
three famous fugitive slave cases arising in that city. The South considered Burns s 
return just, under provisions of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, but the resulting 
furor suggested that New England abolitionists were determined to nullify what 
they believed to be an unjust law. This and similar episodes revealed the widening 
breach between the sections where slavery was involved. A group of wealthy Bos- 
tonians purchased Burns for $1,300 early in 1855, returning him to freedom. Concise 
Dictionary of American History, 122. 

3 Millard Fillmore (1800-1874), of New York, was the thirteenth president of the 
United States, succeeding from the vice- presidency to that office upon the death, in 
1850, of Zachary Taylor. He was a compromise Whig and constituted his cabinet, 
which included William A. Graham as secretary of the navy, to reflect this bias. He 
was an enthusiastic advocate of the Compromise of 1850 and received the support 
of southern Whigs for the presidential nomination in 1852, although the prize went 
to Winfield Scott. In 1856 Fillmore was the presidential nominee of the American 
(Know-Nothing) party. He emphasized the importance of the Union and warned 
against the divisive nature of the slavery question. An opponent of the Lincoln 
administration, Fillmore backed McClellan in 1864 and supported the Johnson re- 
construction plan. He was the first chancellor of the University of Buffalo and a 
founder and first president of the Buffalo Historical Society, where his papers are 
deposited. Dictionary of American Biography, VI, 380-382. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 207 

By favoring me with a line or two on the subject, you will 
greatly oblige. 

From John A. Gilmer UNC 

House of Representatives, 
Washington City, 

January 2nd., 1860 [1861]. 

I have gathered from what I conceive reliable sources, that a 
majority of the Committee of 33 4 will report, and the Republicans 
vote for the following, to wit: 

First, a respectful request to all the States to revise their laws 8c 
repeal all such as in any way obstruct the enforcement of the laws 
of the United States. 

Second, the fugitive Slave law as it is, with an amendment making 
it the duty of the Commissioners, on affidavit filed making a 
probable case, that the negro is free, to hand the fugitive over to 
the Marshal of the district in which the Master resides, to have the 
issue of freedom then passed on by a jury. 

Third, an amendment to the Constitution, never to be changed, 
forbidding Congress to interfere with or abolish Slavery in any 
State without the consent of each and all the Slave States now or 
hereafter existing in the Union. 

Fourth, an act authorizing all the territory now known as New 
Mexico, Arizona, to form a constitution, and come into the Union 
on equal footing with the original States, with or without slavery, 
agreeably to the 7th. Sec. of the Compromise of 1850, organizing 
the territory of New Mexico, with the privilege of subdividing 
into two States hereafter, when population and wealth shall be 

4 In December, 1860, the House of Representatives appointed a committee, with 
one member from each of the thirty-three states, to attempt to frame a compromise 
acceptable to all sections. All attempts at compromise failed because of the opposition 
of southern and northern extremists. At one crucial stage Lincoln refused to sanc- 
tion any compromise which did not include the Wilmot Proviso, which was clearly 
unacceptable to the South. Apparently Lincoln felt he could not abandon the 
Republican free soil posture without doing irreparable damage to his party. 

The Senate appointed an able Committee of Thirteen, including such men as 
Crittenden of Kentucky, Seward of New York, Toombs of Ceorgia, Douglas of Illi- 
nois, Davis of Mississippi, and Wade of Ohio; but its efforts at compromise also 
proved futile. J. G. Randall and David Donald, The Civil War and Reconstruction 
(Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, Second Edition, 1961), 148-151, hereinafter 
cited as Randall and Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction. 

208 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Fifth, a strong penal statute against the invasion by armed 
force, of any State, and conspiracies to that end in any State, giving 
jurisdiction to the U.S. Courts to try and punish all offenders 
under such a law. 

Resolutions declaring that the Constitution does recognize the 
relation of Master and Servant, as established by the laws of the 
States in which that relation does now, or hereafter may, exist, and 
the federal power, (legislative, executive, & judicial) is bound to 
protect it. And also that the Constitution, giving Congress the 
power to regulate commerce amongst the several States, does not 
permit Congress to interfere with the sale and transfer of Slaves 
from one Slave State to another Slave State in the Union, also 
against the expediency of abolishing Slavery in the District of 
Columbia, or prohibiting the employment of Slaves in the Arse- 
nals, Dockyards, etc., in Slave holding territory. 

I write in haste. Please say to me whether we should accept of 
these now, and advise the South to remain in the Union? 

This leaves all the Northern territories to the general operation 
of the Dred Scott decision. The Republicans do not wish to do 
anything with the territory North of 36 30, except to organize 
therein as the necessity of the people may demand, — leaving 
them to be formed into States as their population, &c other con- 
siderations proper to be taken into view, may require, in the 

I know I ask much of you, but do, please, advise me. 

From Edward Cantwell 5 UNC 

Ho. Corns., [Raleigh] 
January 7th., 1861. 

I am favored with your two letters. The return of the Commons 
of S.C. has precipitated matters very much. It remains now for S.C. 
to say whether we are to have peace or war. A single shot fired at 
her, will unite us all in her cause, and may God bless, protect and 

5 Edward Cantwell, formerly a Wilmington editor, was clerk of the state House 
of Commons at the time of this letter. A Know-Nothing who later became a secession 
Democrat, he was elected lieutenant colonel of the Twelfth North Carolina Regi- 
ment, was appointed military governor of Norfolk by President Davis early in 1862, 
and served in the Fifty-ninth North Carolina Regiment. He represented New Han- 
over County in the state senate in 1874. Connor, Manual, 1913, 473, 725; Clark, 
Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, III, 456; North Carolina Standard, 
March 6, 1861, March 29 and April 5, 1862. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 209 

defend her! It is now too late to talk of saving the Union as at 
present, before February we will go out — all of us. We may, 
perhaps, get together again. He only, knows. Our legislature has 
returned, I think the Bill to arm the State for the inevitable 
conflict will pass tomorrow. I shall apply for a Commission, and I 
regard the cause of Charleston now as the cause of all. The day of 
compromises, and the day of hope, is gone, — I fear forever, — %c 
with it the noblest government the world ever saw. An appeal to 
arms is all that is left us. 

You know I have ever been a Union man, I think yet something 
may be done — not to save the country from disunion, but a greater 
calamaty [sic] than even that, but when I hear these threats of 
coercion, I think even that impossible. 

8th. January. 

The Bill to prepare the State for war passed today by 47 major- 
ity. It is now a law. We intend to follow up this action, North 
Carolina is roused at last, and will not go backward. Nor will she 
join any Central Confederacy. Her interests are with the South, for 
weal, or for wo. 

9th. January. 

Constant engagements as Clerk have prevented the mailing of 
this letter. We heard yesterday that Mr. Buchanan had ordered 
troops South. The Military Committee will report, in a day or 
two, a Bill to raise 10,000 men. The Clerk is now reading the 
Convention Bill in this House. My present impression is that it 
will not command 80 votes, which is 2/3ds. 

Since writing the above, an amendment has been offered, calling 
for an open, unrestricted Convention, Sc striking out the clause 
requiring an oath that the members will submit the ordinance of 
secession to the popular ratification. I am much mistaken if this 
will not pass. I think 3/4ths of the members are for it. 

North Carolina is slow, but steady and sure. We will go with 
So. Ca. 

Since writing the above, have received intelligence that Fort 
Caswell was taken by the people of Brunswick today. 

I expect to hear that Fort Macon is also in good hands. 

The North had better retract and retrace. Exert your acknowl- 
edged 8c just influence to bring them to reason. Even after a fight 
at Charleston we may make up, but the prospect is not encour- 

210 N.C. Department of Archives and History 


From Edward Cantwell to Charles Wilkes* UNC 

A Plan of Adjustment 

through the Treaty Making Power of 

the President and Senate 

House of Commons, 

December 31st., 1860. 

I am obliged by the receipt of your kind and friendly letter of 
the 18th. December. The matter of business referred to is of course 
adjourned by the absence of our legislature, but I have no doubt 
they will gladly grant you the facilities you require in Mecklen- 
burg county. I have submitted the charter you require to the 
Senator and members, and with some slight amendments they 
approve of the Bill, and will recommend its passage. 

I wish I could speak in equally satisfactory terms to the remain- 
der of your letter, for although charged with being a disunionist 
per se, you are already sufficiently familiar with my sentiments to 
know that the charge is equally baseless with that which you notice 
in your letter, as having been already triumphantly refuted. 

I believe in the right of secession, and unless the Northern 
people, through their representatives in Congress and their State 
legislatures shall not immediately grant us of North Carolina the 
justice and the guaranties we demand, I am in favour of immediate 
secession on the part of this State and the other Southern States. 

The newspapers of the day do not give us any assurance that we 
can obtain these without bloodshed, but you who occupy a promi- 
nent position at the Capital, and may therefore be better informed 
than they, think otherwise, and you ask me to state what, in my 
opinion, will restore peace, and prevent a further disruption of 
the Union. 

6 Charles Wilkes (1798-1877), a native of New York, was a naval officer, explorer, 
and writer who entered the navy in 1818. His interests were largely scientific. He 
was prominent in the depot of charts and instruments out of which grew the naval 
observatory and hydrographic office. Beginning in 1838 and continuing for several 
years, Wilkes commanded a six-ship squadron of scientific explorers to Antarctica. 
Early in the Civil War he became a national hero when, while commanding the 
San Jacinto, he stopped the British steamer Trent and removed the Confederate 
commissioners Mason and Slidell. In 1862 he was promoted to commodore and in 
1866 was named admiral on the retired list. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 925. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 211 

I am of the opinion that it is not too late to save the present 
American Union, and to prevent civil strife in North Carolina, 
and elsewhere, by the adoption of a wise and bold statesmanship, 
and that the means of doing so are within the control of Mr. 
Buchanan, and may at once be instituted by him, without any new 
step on his part, or sacrifice of his published opinions, and without 
any surrender or further compromise of principle on the part of 
the South. 

If you will turn to the letter of Mr. Webster to the Chevalier 
Halseman, in the care of our Minister Ward, and on the recogni- 
tion of Hungarian independence, and to the instructions given 
our Minister in Mexico, etc., you will perceive that the federal 
government has been for many years committed under different 
administrations to the doctrine that a government de facto, quietly 
possessed of all the powers of the State, and peacefully engaged in 
their unlimited exercise, however originated, and composed of one 
man or many, is to all intents and purposes a government de jure, 
and entitled to be recognized and regarded as such by all other 

Whatever may be the opinions of Mr. Buchanan upon the 
subject of secession, it is a fact beyond dispute, I apprehend, that 
the South Carolina Convention now in session at Charleston, & 
whose delegates are in your city demanding recognition as the 
ambassadors of a foreign State, are de facto possessed of all the 
powers of the State of South Carolina, and are this day publicly, 
openly, and notoriously engaged in the exercise of every function 
which belongs to the government of the State, and that, right or 
wrong, they are fully prepared to maintain their independence by 
force of arms wherever required. Permit me to remark it is no 
light thing to encounter the rage and despair of 65,000 fighting 
men, whose backs no enemy has ever seen. If South Carolina there 
stood alone, her independence should be immediately and 
promptly recognized, upon the same principles which have 
governed our intercourse for years past, with all the nations of the 
world other than our own, and upon the same principles which 
have also, during the same period, governed Great Britain, in the 
case of the Spanish provinces in South America, and the revolted 
State of Texas, within the recollection of most of those who are 
now called upon to deal with a similar revolution in our midst. I 
would like to know, even though we did not acknowledge the 
right of secession, how can we offer South Carolina a different 
treatment than that which Texas and Mexico received from Great 
Britain and the United States? The case becomes stronger, when 
the federal authority with us has announced that the Constitution 

212 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

does not warrant the employment of force, or a declaration of war 
against a seceding, or if you please, a revolted State. 

You may object that Mr. Buchanan has also however, denied 
the right of secession. Well, what of that? Let him call it what he 
pleases, under the laws of nations as we understand them, and 
England understands them, South Carolina is today a free, sover- 
eign, and independent State, and should be so treated with, and 
considered. This point being admitted, the work of conciliation 
and union may at once begin. Not by sending the treaty the Com- 
missioners offer to the House, who have no jurisdiction over 
treaties, but to the Senate only, who have the requisite jurisdiction, 
who can consider the matter in secret session, and ratify the treaty, 
and withdraw the federal troops and provide for a settlement of 
accounts in a straightforward and manly way, without resort to 
arms by either party. 

The effect of this adjustment will evidently strengthen the hands 
of the true lovers of the Union, everywhere, they will see that to 
save the other States of the South, it will only be necessary to make 
similar treaties with them, as the conventions of each assemble, 
and thus the union itself can be immediately preserved, and 
strengthened, by a simple, plain and extraordinary exercise of the 
treaty making power adequate to the emergency, equally obliga- 
tory and conclusive upon all the States with any proposed amend- 
ment of the Constitution, and more rapidly accomplished than by 
that, or any other method. A general convention of all the States 
could then be called, and time gained for perfecting the full adjust- 
ment which, it is to be hoped, all desire. 

The effect of such a treaty with South Carolina would unques- 
tionably legalize her secession, and that of the other States who are 
about to secede, and suggests the apprehension that these separa- 
tions or secessions would become chronic, to which I reply that 
after a formal withdrawal comes to be regarded as warranted by a 
correct construction of the powers of the federal government, 
those who happen to succeed to its functions will hardly ever again 
seriously embarrass the country with the same apprehensions of 
their exercise to the ruin of any section which happens to be in the 
minority, and the experience of all the Southern States, except 
South Carolina, which exhibits a unanimity unparalleled in 
History, and never again likely to occur, does not justify the opin- 
ion that a proposal to separate will encounter no opposition at any 
future time, from a large and powerful party — in each State — 
whenever the question is presented. 

My idea then, is that the President should send the treaty 
proposed by South Carolina, with his objections, if any, as Mr. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 213 

Polk did the "Trist affair in Mexico," to the Senate for their advice, 
and throw on them the responsibility of rejecting it, and plunging 
the country in Civil War. If accepted, no further secession will be 
necessary. If rejected, it will be time enough for South Carolina to 
assault Fort Sumter 8c summon the aid of the whole South, which 
will, I am assured, be rendered with an energy and a unanimity of 
which the people of the North have, I fear, no adequate concep- 
tion. Troops from Georgia, Alabama and Florida are already 
pouring in to South Carolina. They will doubtless increase the 
excitement, if it is not arrested, as I propose, until men of cool 
heads will be put down by a clamor for "action," and the continent 
inflamed and set afire by an immediate and precipitate expulsion 
of Anderson, 8c his little party, with a fearful sacrifice of life. The 
revolution then, can not be stayed, and you and I will have, under 
the orders of our respective States, to bid our families farewell, 
and hasten to the scene of action. The safest place will be the 
nearest to actual danger. In time of Civil War like that which, 
unless prevented at once, I see approaching, no man can be neutral. 
For me, I have served under the flag of the federal government. 
The same hand which writes these lines once planted the "stripes 
and stars" amidst storm and battle, upon the heights of the 
National Bridge. The precious trophy I had hoped to transmit 
with pride to my children, but it shall be torn to pieces when it 
becomes the emblem of tyranny, and the stars departure, one by 
one, leave them and me the stripes only. 

Edward Cantwell. 

Dear Captain. 

If you think the above suggestions worth anything, please have 
them inserted for me in the "Constitution." I will have them widely 

Your friend and serv't, 
Edward C. 

From Sandy Harris UNC 


January 10th., 1860. [1861] 

I should not write you so very soon, if I had not received a shock 

214 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

from a Telegram, to the effect that you had declined a place in Mr. 
Lincoln's Cabinet. 

The same day I received your letter, I received one from my 
Nephew, Capt. Addison Mangum, 7 of your County, averring that 
you would take a place in the Cabinet of Mr. Lincoln. As much, or 
more, from that than from your letter, I communicated at once, 
in my way, with Mr. L., and stated that you were, by all means, the 
man of all others, that an offering of peace should be made to, if 
made at all. I added that you "would not oppose his Administra- 
tion," as a matter of course, "that you even prepared to support it," 
and that "you were advising the people of N.C. to give him a fair 

Now, if this has, or should with other reasons, lead to a tender of 
the honor referred to, I hope I have not gone out of the record, and 
I sincerely hope that honor will not be declined. I said before, it 
would be natural for you to decline it, or to think of doing so at 
once, I say so still, — if it comes, pause, reflect — It will never be 
tendered to you for the purpose of bringing you to Abolitionism; 
would not the tender be substantially a renunciation of that ism? 

Accept it then, do it for your Country. If something hints to 
your mind that your position of popularity will be injuriously 
affected by it, say, like Napoleon when a bold stroke was to be 
given, I will do it, and trust to Wm. A. Graham to get me out of 
any difficulty that it may get me into. Further, slavery will not be 
left for the Cabinet of Mr. Lincoln to settle. 

It may seem a little strange to you that I, an old Democrat, 
should be interfering in these matters. I have held my office for 
twenty years, under all parties, not as a Democrat, but as a gentle- 
man, a patriot, and a liberal partisan. I have written much, and 
have had no little to do with Cabinets, and Administrations, and 
I have betrayed no one, injured no one, and have served many. 
Accept that honor if it should be tendered to you, and save the 
Union, and rely upon Wm. A. Graham to fight you through — I 
will help him. 

I have the honor to be, 

Your humble Servant, 

7 Addison Mangum was a distant relative of Willie P. Mangum and a native of 
Orange County. Henry Thomas Shanks, The Papers of Willie Person Mangum 
(Raleigh: State Department of Archives and History, 5 volumes, 1950-1956), V, 53n, 
hereinafter cited as Shanks, Mangum Papers. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 215 

From Joseph Graham UNC 


January 11, [1861]. 

The Bulletin of today has your name copied from "Tribune" 
N.Y. as Sec. of Interior in Mr. Lincoln's cabinet. After having 
stated two days ago that he had information from Washington City 
saying you had written there that you had declined the office. I 
told him that both statements were false. 

To Sandy Harris UNC 


January 17th., 1861. 

Your letter of the date of 10th. inst. has been forwarded to me, 
from Hillsboro' to Raleigh, where I have been for some days, in 
attendance on the Supreme Court. 

My former letter to you, I thought, was sufficiently explicit, to 
convey my views on the topic to which you had referred in yours 
of prior date. I did not understand then, nor do I now, that you 
had any authority to tender me a place in the new administration, 
and I stated that it was perhaps unnecessary to declare what my 
action would be in an event never likely to happen. But, to avoid 
misconception, I further said, that if such a place were offered, it 
would be declined, and very briefly assigned reasons for this con- 
clusion. I wrote a similar letter to another gentleman about the 
same date, who had written me on this subject. I have had no 
other correspondence pertaining to it, with any person whatever. 

When spoken to by my friends in regard to the newspaper 
publications connecting my name with the Cabinet of Mr. Lincoln, 
I have uniformly replied, that I had no acquaintance with him, 
and had never had any correspondence either with him, or any 
person authorized to speak for him. And to those entitled to such 
confidence, I have declared, as I did to you, that I would decline 
the offer, if made. In this purpose I have never wavered, and I 
adhere to it still. I deem it unnecessary to defend it with any 
argument, other than I have already given you. I must remark, 

216 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

however, that you are greatly mistaken if you suppose that any 
apprehension of a loss of popularity influences this determination. 

I remain, Very Respectfully, 

Your Obed't Serv't, 

[The following sentence, at the end of the letter, was crossed out 
in Governor Graham's retained copy, and, presumably, was not 
included in the letter sent: 

"That would be a cheap sacrifice for a sense of usefulness to the 
nation and the union."] 

From Sandy Harris UNC 


January 20th., 1860 [1861]. 

I cannot resist the painful impression that something in my 
last letter gave you displeasure. When I said in that letter that 
"the same day I received your letter I received one from my 
Nephew, averring that you would," etc., I meant that his letter, 
written some days after yours, led me to believe, or rather hope, 
that some new information or change of circumstances, had caused 
you to reconsider the determination plainly expressed to me. 

As to the allusion to your popularity, I beg you to consider it 
as having been written without any intention of eliciting a 
moments thought, much less a serious reply. 

After having been complimented with a kind and prompt reply 
to my first letter, I would not have written you an offensive letter 
for the best house and lot in Philadelphia. 

I have the honor to be, 

Y'r Ob't Servant, 

From Alfred Dockery UNC 

Senate Chamber, [Raleigh] 
January 21st., 1861. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 217 

Having shown the letter of Dr. Powell, 8 herewith enclosed, to 
Gov. Morehead, Col. Outlaw, 9 and Mr. Worth, 10 They request me 
to send the letter to you, and to invite you to visit Raleigh as soon 
as it may suit your convenience, to confer with and address our 
friends, — and further, that you decline, for the present at least, a 
refusal to accept a Seat in the incoming Cabinet. It may be in your 
Power to render almost invaluable service, by acceptance, to our 
Country. Those gentlemen are not of opinion you should, without 
due reflection, accept, but that the question is of vast importance 
to the South, deserving consideration. I will go a little further, and 
give it as my individual opinion that you might, with great 
propriety, accept, upon proper conditions, and under certain 
other conditions withdraw. Such a course might subject you to 
invidious anamadversions [sic] at the start, but surely would 
result most creditable in the end. 

8 This letter has not been found, and there is nothing to indicate the identity of 
the writer. It is possible, though not probable, that it was Dr. R. J. Powell, a North 
Carolinian holding a government position in Washington, whom William W. 
Holden, in 1865, made state agent. 

9 David Outlaw (1806-1868), of Bertie County, graduated from the University of 
North Carolina in Graham's class (1824), practiced law in Windsor, was a progressive 
delegate in the Constitutional Convention of 1835, state commoner, state solicitor, 
colonel of the Bertie militia, Whig congressman, 1847-1853, and a state senator, 1860 
and 1866. At times, particularly while Outlaw was in Congress, he and Graham were 
close political allies. Both men were advocates of the Compromise of 1850. Biographi- 
cal Directory of Congress, 1414-1415. 

10 Jonathan Worth (1802-1869), a native of Guilford County, represented Ran- 
dolph County in the state senate in the 1860-1861 session. After reading law with 
Archibald D. Murphey, Worth practiced his profession in Ashebofo. He also en- 
gaged in various agricultural pursuits and fostered the building of railroads and 
plank roads. A partisan Whig, Worth opposed nullification and all Jacksonian 
policies. As a member of the state senate, 1858 and 1860, he opposed secession and 
military preparations. Nevertheless, he supported the Confederacy with vigor and 
sincerity. He was state treasurer, 1862-1865, where he displayed financial capacity of 
the first order. Although he welcomed peace, Worth did not support Holden's 
peace movement. In the fall of 1865 he defeated Holden, then provisional governor, 
in a gubernatorial campaign in which he carried the banner of the former union 
men, including Graham, who distrusted Holden. He served until his removal from 
office in 1868 by military order. He performed ably the difficult task of reconciling 
hostile state factions, reassuring a suspicious Johnson administration, and satisfying 
hostile northern opinion. Because of Worth's efforts, North Carolina was spared 
some of the worst features of military rule. He favored ratification of the Consti- 
tution of 1866, but balked at approval of the Fourteenth Amendment. While he 
lacked brilliance, Worth had integrity, common sense and good judgment, and a 
genius for taking good advice. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "Jonathan Worth," 
Dictionary of American Biography, XX, 536. 

218 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Alfred Dockery UNC 

Senate Chamber, [Raleigh] 
January 24th., 1861. 

Our friends concur in the opinion that the convention question 
has been discussed as long as necessary, but would be glad to see 
you in Raleigh this week, or early next, as may suit your conven- 

From James Gordon and Company UNC 


Janury 24th, 1861. 

Your favor of the 21st inst. informing us that you had ordered 
about 50 bales cotton to be consigned to us from Chariot is this 
moment to hand. The cotton shall have our best attention when it 
arrives and when sold separate [accounts] of sales of the different 
lots rendered. 

Our market up to about a week ago was very active and all good 
cotton sold readily at 12^4 cts and from that down to lO 1 /^ as to 
quality. Since then the demand has given way everywhere and the 
best cotton is now selling for 1 1 */2 cts and from that down to 10£ 
as to quality. The decline is owing to heavy receipts at the South, 
together with a dull market in Liverpool. Our last advices from 
New York quote our best North Carolina cotton at 12 l /s to 12 V4 
and from that down to lO 1 /^ as to quality. 

We are much obliged ... to you for the consignment of cotton. 
We will keep you advised from time to time of the state of our 

From A. M. Wallace UNC 

York Destrict, S. C. 

January 31st., 1861. 

Your letter was re ceived Satturday last and i have got the 
monney for the check witch i am obblige to you for it I Deliver- 
ed the last of your cottin in charlott last satterday and tooke a 
receipt for 32 Balis your son takeing the Receipt to en close in a 

The Papers of William A. Graham 219 

letter to you wee had a bad time to hall it the river and creekes 
were high all last week and the Rodes Bad i left one team in 
charlott to hall wood for the dockter our wheat lookes very well 
our stock standes the winter verry well I have not asertainend 
what the Taxes of our state is yet and I dont no when they will 
Bee round to collect them i will let you no in time their is 
great talk of war in our state their is call for 400 hundred men out 
of this Destrict their has Been a company of 84 volenteers 
raised in our neigh Ber hood redy for service at any time they are 
called for Carline had a child Born last Sunday morning and ann 
one on monday night and is doing very well yours etc., 

Notes for a Speech Given as A&H 

a Candidate for the Secession Convention 

February 1861. 

Secession is not advisable because: 

1st. if slavery is concerned, if we fail, it will certainly be 

2. If we succeed the line will be between Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania. A negro escaping from Virginia will be free and cannot 
be recovered. Slavery, therefore, will be too precarious to be 
continued and Virginia will become a free state and necessarily 
go to the North, then the line will be between Virginia and North 
Carolina, and the same thing repeated until the whole South 
becomes free territory. 

3. You cannot cut off the South and transport it elsewhere. 
It must remain attached to the North, and necessarily the two 
nations for their own protection would have to be on friendly 
terms. Therefore, one nation is better than two. 

4. Lincoln failed by five hundred thousand votes of having 
a majority of the people vote for him. He was elected because 
his opponents were divided. This would not occur again, and in 
the meantime, we have a majority of the votes in each House of 
Congress, and a unanimous Supreme Court on our side. As long 
as we can retain the Senators of two Northern states, we will 
control the Senate and it will be impossible for Mr. Lincoln to 
appoint to office objectionable men. 

5. The idea that there will be no war because the Northern 
people will not fight is absurd. The North Western men are bone 
of our bone and flesh of our flesh, their ancestors in many cases 
having gone from the old Southern States, and in all our wars 
have proved themselves worthy soldiers. 

220 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From R. F. Chris ten bury 11 UNC 

February the 1, 1861 

Der ser i againe rite yo a few lines to ine forme yo how whe 
air gitine alone ate this time Whe air ine comen health ate 
this time I have bine imploide for tha paste month Makine 
bordes ane repairine fence ane gitine hous loges ane ploine some 
litle I loste my Crope of tobaco ane hous bi acidente ite toke 
fir and bernte done ine spite of all thate code be done to prevente 
ite which i was very sory for Tha amounte of porke I Cilde 
31 hoges tha maide fortey nine hundarde ane 12 pound 4912 
pounes neate porke I sente yo 30 hames ane lete your sone have 
20 which leaves yo 10 here yeate I only waide out 150 pounes 
of your porke for my self which will be enofe to do me with tha 
hoge I raiste I have 53 heade of hoges now tha wile be 33 thate 
wile be redey to Cile nexte winter I have 26 heade of catel ane 
the same amounte of sheape 26 Horses ane mules 1 1 heade Tha 
winter has bine very weate ane colde onetile tha laste 2 weakes 
of February tha weather has bine mordrite with thoute eany 
raine, All my Stoke has stode tha winter pritey weale so fer bote 
tha have have conesumde a gode eale of rufness ane peas ane 
corne I have loste none bote 2 piges ine tha snow 
My Cotin crope was cote shorte by tha froste I have holde for 
bails to tha gine ane tha wile be some 2 or 3 more bails yeate 

1 wile hall tha balance as soone as Mr Hastines is redey for ite 
My wheate ane oates loakes bade ate this time bote i thinke wile 
come oute wheane tha winter brakes I have note solde eany of 
tha presante corne crope yeate bote wile starte to Charlotte with 

2 loades ine a few dais tha prise of corne is risine very fas ine 
this parte of tha contray ite has gote upe to 85 ate tha cribe 

yo roate ine your laste letor thate you was go ine to take tha girle 
saro home if yo take her away i hope yo wile sende me a mane 
ine her plase as i neade a hande of this Cinde for tha harviste 
thate is comine one ane tha lande thate whe wile have to werek 
ine Corne ane cotine tha is more lande thane whe cane werke 
ine wheate corne or cotin or eanthine whe plante for this croude 
of hanes to werke weale I have bine lokin for yo to come to se 
us for some time bote yo have note yeate come bote i stile shal 
hoape ane loake for yo as thate is all i cane do 

Mr grame whate i cane larne frome your sone tha is 2 or 3 letors 
thate i have roate to yo sence yo was upe to se me thate yo have 
note recide 


Christenbury was overseer at Grahams Earhart Plantation. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 221 

Mr smith has note gote your cartes done yeate bote wile pute 

the iarne ine theame ine a few dais 

Mr Rufus Low has a negro mane thate he wishes to sele yo as tha 

boy wance yo to bi hime tha boy has a wife ate tha wider 

dunkines ane he dos note wish to parte tha boy frome his wife if 

he cane avoide it he wile take one thoasan dolars for tha boy 

as he wishes to live with yo if yo wile pay hime six hundarde ane 

75 Cash he wile waite with yo for tha balance 

If yo wish to bi he wishes yo to lete hime no sone ane he wile 

note sele onetile yo come upe ane se tha boy 

I wile cloas bi saine to yo pleas come to se me as sone as yo cane 

yors very respecteabel 

From James Gordon and Company UNC 


Feby4th, 1861. 

You have doubtless seen the faovurable accounts brought by 
the two last steamers "Bohemia" and "Arabia." Namely sales 
for the week of 132 thousand bales at an advance of a J4 to % ct. 
Notwithstanding this favourable account, cotton has declined in 
New York an ]/$ to *4 ct - They say the decline is owing to the 
many receipts at the Southern ports. They seem to think that the 
next accounts from Liverpool will bring a decline. Why they 
think so we cannot imagine, for the stock in Liverpool is now 
reduced to about 500 thousand bales which is small for this 
period of the year and the receipts at all the ports in this country 
up to this period is over 550 thousand short of what they were up 
to the same period last year, and no one now estimates the crop 
of the U. States over 4 million bales. Last year it reached 4 [mil- 
lion] 600 thousand bales. Then England &: France had no treaty 
with China and the Bank of England rate of interest was about 
4 to 5% Now it is 7%, notwithstanding which cotton is still ad- 
vancing. We cannot see any good reason why cotton should 
decline but can see good reasons why present prices will be 

We have not yet sampled your cotton [and] can therefore 
say nothing as to its quality. We shall examine it tomorrow and 
report to you. We noted it is in very bad order . . . the bagging 
torn entirely off. You must talk to your overseer and impress 

222 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

upon him the importance of sewing the heads in strong. His 
plan of making the side piece long enough for the head also is 
a good one but he has not allowed length enough to cover the 
head perfectly. The order cotton is in helps to sell it very 

To Alfred M. Waddell 12 UNC 

[February 5, 1861.] 

To A. M. Waddell, Esq., Wilmington Herald: 

In your paper of the 1st. inst., I have observed the publication 
of the proceedings of a meeting of "Minute Men," in the town 
of Wilmington, in which my name is used to sanction, by impli- 
cation at least, a proceeding from which I wholly dissent. The 
fourth resolution of the meeting is as follows: 

4. Resolved, That we have seen with pleasure an announce- 
ment, said to be based upon "the best authority," that the Hon. 
Wm. A. Graham would not "condescend to accept" a seat in 
the cabinet of Lincoln, and if it is inconsistent with the dignity 
of a North Carolina statesman to accept office under a Black 
Republican administration, it is equally inconsistent with the 
dignity of the free people of North Carolina to be subjects of an 
administration so thoroughly hostile to their rights and interests. 

I have not been offered a seat in Mr. Lincoln's Cabinet. I 
have no personal acquaintance with him, and have never had 
any correspondence, either with him or with any person 
authorized to make such an offer. Since the publications in the 
newspapers some time since, of my name in connection with those 
of others, as one to whom such an appointment might be 
tendered, the subject has been referred to not unfrequently in 
conversations, and in two or three instances in correspondence 
with my friends. To them I have stated, that such an offer had 
not been made, and that if it were made, it would be declined. 
From these conversations, which were without reserve, the 
article published in the Spirit of the Age and alluded to in the 
resolution, no doubt had its origin. I had no knowledge of it 
however, until copied into the Fayetteville Observer last week. 
While it states the fact that I would decline to accept, it does so 
in language which would subject me to the imputation of arrogance 
had it been employed by me. 

12 This letter is taken from a printed broadside. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 223 

But while unwilling to become the confidential adviser of 
a President, whose election was effected upon sectional prin- 
ciples and by sectional votes, it is well known that I am far from 
believing his election merely is a cause for the abandonment 
of the Government of our Fathers, and especially for its overthrow 
by unlawful violence, such as is proposed by the meeting in 
question, and which threatens destruction alike to the constituted 
authorities of the State, as well as the Federal Government. All 
such proceedings are based on the mistaken supposition, that the 
Government is a monarchy, and the President a sovereign to whom 
we owe allegiance, and who may regulate and influence our 
destinies at his pleasure, whereas he is but the chief servant 
among those of the national household, whom the people from 
time to time, call to the performance of duties, limited and de- 
fined by the Constitution and Laws. Although the person now 
elected, has no claim upon our section of the Union, except that he 
has been elected according to the provisions of the Constitution, 
that is sufficient to entitle him to induction into office, and to the 
exercise of its legal functions — "acquiescence in the decision of 
majorities," says Jefferson (on questions committed to majorities) 
is the vital principle of Republics, from which there is no appeal 
but to force, the vital principle, and immediate parent of despot- 
ism." Let him, then, be installed in office according to the require- 
ments of the Government under which he was elected — and give 
to the nation a summary of his policy. The speeches on the hustings 
are not always the guides in the practical administration of Govern- 
ment. Let us hear before we strike — there will be no abatement of 
manly spirit to vindicate our rights, after this event, from what 
existed before. 

The real grievances of which the South has a right to complain — 
and as to which none are more earnest in desiring redress than 
myself — are not the result of Presidential usurpations; they spring 
from a disregard of the obligations of the Constitution, among a 
large portion of the people of the nonslaveholding States, favored 
in many instances by the action of their State Governments. The 
remedies for them, if the present Congress fail to agree upon them, 
should, in my opinion, be sought by a calm appeal to the people — 
through a convention of all the States. Such a body has never been 
assembled since the adoption of the Federal Constitution. It 
would probably be free from the asperities which have character- 
ized the deliberations of Congress — and if upon a candid compar- 
ison of opinions our differences should be found to be irrecon- 
cilable, it could provide for that peaceable separation so much to 

224 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

be desired, if it must come, and which is hardly possible in any 
other mode. This may be too dilatory to accomplish the views of 
more ardent natures, but it may be tried in far less time than 
our fathers spent in efforts for reconciliation with their brethren 
beyond the Atlantic, before the final severance. Is not the preser- 
vation of the Government of our ancestors, hallowed by their 
wisdom, and consecrated to us through a thousand recollections 
of national greatness, prosperity and renown, worthy of such 
an experiment, and thus much delay? In endeavoring to study 
and understand it by the light of the history of the past, it has 
seemed to me that it was a Government made for this people, 
and the people for the Government. Let us preserve and regulate 
it if possible — not destroy it. I have but little hope of seeing 
another securing to us so much freedom, prosperity and safety. 
I have still less from a reconstruction, which is the favorite idea 
of its destroyers. It was difficult to produce its adoption by 
thirteen States, amid circumstances of the most pressing necessity. 
It will be still more difficult to obtain the ratification of a new 
system by fifteen, with the diverse theories of government, interest 
and safety which pervade them. All these risques of the future, 
I shall, I trust, be as ready as other men to encounter, if the public 
interest, or safety, or honor shall require it. But I would have 
North Carolina to signalize her devotion to that Constitution, 
which her people have loved so well, and whose covenants she 
has so faithfully kept, by moderation, forbearance, and abstinence 
from precipitate action — to mediate and pacify if possible — to 
prevent the disintegration of the Confederacy, at least until its 
different members shall have sufficient time and opportunity 
in candor and a spirit of justice, to understand the positions and 
ideas of each other. When this shall have been done, I do not 
despair of seeing a return of peace, amity and union. If not, and 
the destruction of the Government becomes a necessity, we shall 
at least have the consolation to know that our best efforts were 
not wanting for its preservation. 

Very respectfully yours, 
W. A. Graham. 

Hillsborough, February 5th. 1861. 

From Paul C. Cameron UNC 


February 6th., 1861. 

I have been requested to ask that you will ride out at half 

The Papers of William A. Graham 225 

after two o'clock to the residence of the late Col. Jones 13 and ac- 
company his remains, as one of the Pall Bearers, on horse 
back, to the Episcopal Church, where his funeral is to take place 
at 4 o'clock. 

I hope nothing will hinder you in rendering this last sad 
service to our old neighbor and friend. 

From Sidney Smith, 14 John W. Carr, 15 and Jones Watson 

Chapel Hill, 

February 7th., 1861. 16 

At a Meeting of the citizens of Chapel Hill %c it's vicinity, 
held on the 6th. of this month, without distinction of party, the 
Hon. David L. Swain & yourself were nominated as candidates to 
represent the County of Orange in the Convention proposed by 
the Legislature now in session. 17 

The undersigned were appointed a committee to inform you of 
the nomination, and would add their personal solicitations to those 
they represent, and urge upon you the acceptance of the same. 

Sidney Smith \ 

John W. Carr \ Committee 

Jones Watson J 

13 Cadwallader Jones (1787-1861), a native of Dinwiddie, Virginia, was long a 
resident of Hillsborough. After attending the University of North Carolina briefly 
in 1803, he was commissioned a midshipman in the United States Navy. In that 
capacity he was a crewman on the Chesapeake when she was attacked in 1807 by 
the British Leopard off the Virginia capes. Soon afterward, Jones received an appoint- 
ment as an army officer and served under Wilkinson's command in the occupation 
of New Orleans and the Louisiana territory. Here he became a friend of a fellow 
officer, his contemporary in age, Captain Winfield Scott. Jones resigned from the 
army in 1810 or 1811 and lived subsequently in Halifax and Hillsborough. Al- 
though his attention was devoted largely to private and family matters, he was 
vitally concerned about internal improvements, serving frequently on the state 
board of internal improvements before retiring in 1849. An exemplary neighbor 
and citizen, he was the father of Dr. Pride Jones. Hillsborough Recorder, February 

14 Sidney Smith represented Orange County in the House of Commons in 1846, 
as a Democrat. Connor, Manual, 1913, 741; Lefler and Wager, Orange County, 88. 

15 John W. Carr was one of the principal merchants of Chapel Hill. He was a 
quiet, prosperous, and useful citizen, serving as Orange County commissioner and 
Chapel Hill magistrate. Battle, History of the University, I, 607-608; Lefler and 
Wager, Orange County, 188, 196. 

16 This version of the committee's letter is from the Hillsborough Recorder of 
February 20, 1861; the enclosure appeared in the Hillsborough Recorder of February 
13. 186L 

17 The regular session of the legislature, 1860-1861, proposed a referendum on 
the question of convening a convention. The Unionists, with Graham among their 
leaders, succeeded in the February poll in defeating the convention by the vote of 
47,323 to 46,672. The Secessionists had been thwarted temporarily. Sitterson, 
Secession Movement, 223. 

226 N.C. Department of Archives and History 



of a 

Public Meeting 


Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

PURSUANT to previous notice the citizens of Chapel Hill and its 
vicinity, without distinction of party, assembled at the village 
school-house on the 6th. of February, 1861, to take into consid- 
eration the present condition of our public affairs, and to nom- 
inate candidates to represent the county of Orange in the ensuing 
proposed State convention. 

When, upon motion of J. W. Carr, Esq., Andrew Mickle 18 was 
called to the chair, and Thomas A. Long, appointed secretary. 

Sidney Smith, Esq., then arose and addressed the meeting 
upon the importance of the present crisis, and the duty of our 
citizens in selecting our most talented and influential men to 
represent them in the proposed convention. He concluded his 
remarks by an eloquent and glowing eulogium upon the character 
and past political services of the Hon. Wm. A. Graham, and the 
Hon. David L. Swain, and avowed that they were his choice to 
represent the county in said convention. He then read the follow- 
ing preamble and resolutions, which were unanimously adopted: 

The freemen of Orange county, in this meeting assembled, 
believe it to be the duty of all the citizens of the State, in the 
present alarming condition of our country* to give some expression 
of their opinion upon the threatening aspect of our public 

A brief reference to the part the State has acted in the past, 
will furnish the best evidence of the feelings of her sons, and of 
their devotion to the Union of the States, and the Constitution, 
which is the sole bond which binds them together. 

Since the adoption of the present Constitution, throughout the 
whole progress of the republic, North Carolina has never in- 
fringed on the rights of any State, nor asked, nor received, an 
exclusive benefit. On the contrary, she has been the first to 
vindicate the equality of all the States, the smallest as well as the 

18 Andrew Mickle was a respected Chapel Hill merchant and sometime bursar 
of the University of North Carolina. Battle, History of the University, 647, 725; 
Campus of the University, 139, 196. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 227 

But claiming no exclusive benefit for her efforts, and sacrifices 
in the common cause, she has a right to look for feelings of 
fraternity and kindness for her citizens from the citizens of other 
States, and equality of rights for her citizens with all others, 
that those for whom she has done so much would abstain from 
actual aggressions upon her rights, or if they could not be pre- 
vented, would show themselves ready and prompt in punishing 
the aggressors. That the common government for which she 
contributed so largely, for the purpose of establishing justice, 
and ensuring domestic tranquility, should not, whilst the forms 
of the Constitution were observed, be so perverted in spirit, 
as to inflict wrong and injustice, and produce universal insecurity. 
In these reasonable expectations we have been grievously dis- 

Owing to a spirit of Pharisaical fanaticism prevailing in the 
North, in reference to the institution of slavery, incited by 
foreign emmissaries, and fostered by corrupt political demagogues 
in search of power and place, a feeling has been aroused between 
the two sections of what was once a common country, which 
of itself would almost preclude the administration of a united 
government in harmony. 

For the kindly feelings of a kindred people we find 
substituted, distrust, suspicion and mutual aversion. For a re- 
ligion of a Divine Redeemer of all, we find a religion of hate 
against a part, and in all the private relations of life, instead of 
fraternal regard, a consuming hate, which has but seldom char- 
acterized warring sections. This feeling has shown its self in the 
legislative halls, by the passage of laws to obstruct a law of Congress, 
passed in pursuance of a plain provision of the constitution. It 
has displayed itself in a persistent, and industrious circulation of 
incendiary publications, sanctioned by leading men occupying 
the high stations in the gift of the people, to produce discord, and 
division in our midst, and incite to murder and every imaginable 
atrocity, against an unoffending community. It has displayed 
itself in the persistent denial of the equal rights of the citizens 
of each State to settle with their property in the common territory 
acquired by the blood and treasure of all. It is shown in their 
open, avowed determination to circumscribe the institution 
of slavery within the territory of the States now recognizing it, 
the inevitable effect of which would be, to fill the present slave- 
holding States with an ever-encreasing negro population, resulting 
in the banishment of our non-slaveholding population in the first 
instance, and the eventual surrender of our country to a bar- 

228 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

barous race, or what seems to be desired, an amalgamation with 
the African. 

It has at last culminated in the election, by a sectional majority 
of the free States alone, to the first office in the Republic, of the 
author of the sentiment that there is an "irrepressible conflict" 
between free and slave labor, a sentiment which inculcates as a 
necessity of our situation, a warfare between the two sections 
of our country without cessation or intermission until the weaker 
is reduced to subjection. 

In view of this state of things, we are not inclined to rebuke or 
censure the people of any of our sister States of the South, suffering 
from injury, goaded by insults, and threatened with such outrages 
and wrongs, for their bold determination to relieve themselves 
from injustice and oppression, by resorting to their ultimate and 
sovereign right to dissolve the compact which they had formed, 
and to provide new guards for their future security. 

Nor have we any doubt of the right of any State, there being no 
common umpire between co-equal, sovereign States, to judge for 
itself, of its own responsibility, as to the mode and measure of 

Whilst therefore, we regret, that any State should, in a matter 
of common grievance, have determined to act for herself without 
consulting with her sister States equally aggrieved, we are much 
less constrained to say that the occasion calls loudly for action of 
some kind. 

Resolved therefore, that we desire no change in our govern- 
ment, whilst left to the free enjoyment of our equal privileges 
secured by the Constitution. 

Resolved, that should a wicked and tyrannical sectional ma- 
jority under the sanction of the forms of the Constitution, persist 
in acts of oppression and violence towards us, they only must be 
answerable for the consequences. 

Resolved, that liberty is so strongly impressed on our hearts, 
that we cannot think of parting with it but with out lives, that 
our duty to God, our Country, and ourselves forbid it. We stand, 
therefore, prepared for every emergency. 

Resolved, that we approve of the call of the ensuing State 
Convention, which has been proposed by the General Assembly 
of this State, now in session. 

Resolved, that this meeting proceed forthwith to nominate 
candidates to represent the county of Orange in said Convention. 

After the passage of the above resolutions, the meeting pro- 
ceeded to ballot for candidates for the convention. When it was 

The Papers of William A. Graham 229 

ascertained that the Hon. David L. Swain, and Hon. Wm. A. 
Graham received a majority of the votes present for the nomination: 

Messrs. Sidney Smith, Jones Watson, and John W. Carr, were 
appointed by the chairman to inform the Hon. D. L. Swain, and 
Hon. W. A. Graham, of their selection by the meeting, and ask 
their acceptance of the nomination. 

Able and interesting speeches were then delivered by Jones 
Watson, Esq., Dr. J. B. Jones, 19 and John W. Carr, Esq. 

On motion, the proceedings of this meeting were ordered to 
be published in the Hillsboro' and Raleigh newspapers. 

The thanks of the meeting were then tendered to the chairman 
and secretary. 

On motion of J. H. McDade, 20 the meeting adjourned. 

ANDREW MiCKLE, Chairman. 
T. A. LONG, Secretary. 

From Paul C. Cameron UNC 

Feburary 8th., 1861. 

I write you a line to ask if you will prepare "an obituary" 21 of 
our old friend and neighbor, Col. Jones. It seems to be expected 
that you or I do it. I hope and beg you will. The office should be 
yours — you have lived near him for 30 or 35 years, as friend and 
neighbor Sc no man in the community better understood his 
worth, or more highly appreciated his virtues; besides, you have 
leisure and facility for the duty. I am much engaged in and out 
of doors, in preparation for a visit to my places in Ala., and Miss. 
I am very sure that an offering from your pen will be most accept- 
able to his family and friends. 

19 Dr. Johnston Blakeley Jones (1814-1889) attended the University of North Caro- 
lina and was a Chapel Hill physician. Spencer Alumni Project; Battle, History of 
the University, I, 608-609. 

20 John Henderson McDade (1831-1863), of Chapel Hill, graduated from the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina in 1852. A Confederate captain in the Eleventh North 
Carolina Regiment, he was killed at Gettysburg. Spencer Alumni Project; Clark, 
Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, I, 121, 585. 

21 The Jones obituary appeared in the Hillsborough Recorder, February 13, 1861. 

230 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Pride Jones UNC 

February 8th., 1861. 

Mr. Cameron informed me this morning, that you desired some 
information with regard to my Father's connection with the Navy 
and Army. He was on board the Chesapeake as a Midshipman 
when she was fired on, and taken, by the Leopard. 

Afterwards, as a matter of preference, he joined the Army, 
and went to New Orleans as 1st. Lieut, in Capt. Pasteur's Comp'y. 

The accompanying letters and report will give you some informa- 
tion as to dates, should you need them. Please return them to me, 
when you are done with them. 

From Isaac Newton UNC 

Springfield, [Pennsylvania] 
Delaware County. 
2nd. mo. 8th., 1861. 
Respected Friend, 

I Received a letter from Thee some time since. I was Pleased 
to hear from thee, but Pained to learn that North Carolina 
had any Idea of Seceding from our Glorious Union. I hope and 
Trust she will Give the President Elect a fair trial. I paid him a 
visit on the 3rd., and found him to be a Superior Man to what I 
had anticipated before I saw him, he will give to the South 
all they are Entitled to by the Constitution, and will not interfere 
with Slavery, the District of Columbia he will carry out the old 
Whig Principles, I am Confident, he wishes to select a Cabinet 
officer from North Carolina, as I am acquainted with thee, I 
should be pleased to see thee appointed from that State. Gilmer 
has been Recommended, 22 My Preference is for thee, we should 
throw aside all that sectional feeling, and Endeavour to make 
Peace, and not cause Brother to be arrayed against Brother. I 
think I can do much for thee, to place thee in that situation, 
if thee would be willing to accept of it. I should be pleased to meet 
thee in Washington the 24th. of this month. Lincoln will be 

22 John A. Gilmer was later offered a post in Lincoln's cabinet, which he declined. 
Randall and Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction, 165-166. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 231 

there about that time. I know there is too much noble Union 
Loveing Spirit in thy bosom to do anything that will destroy 
the Greatest Nation on this Earth, that has been an exemplary 
Patern to all the world. I know that Noble head and heart of thine, 
Can do much towards allaying the difficultys that we are now 
surrounded with. 

Nothing would add more to my feelings and my comfort, if 
I Could be instrumental of Getting thee into that Cabinet, and 
make Peace with North Carolina. 

Please answer soon. 

I Remain, Thy Sincere and Devoted Friend, 

To Isaac Newton LC-Lincoln 

Hillsboro', N.C. 
Feb. 8th. 1861. 23 

Yours of the 8th. instant has been received, and I have to repeat 
my thanks for your friendly disposition towards me. My former 
letter to you, however, although such a declaration might have 
been unnecessary, expressed the settled conviction of my mind in 
regard to the subject to which you refer. With a large family, and 
professional and private business requiring my presence here, I 
have but little inclination to return to the public service in 
Washington even were it to be connected with an administration 
of my choice, and with associates whom I knew, and with whom 
I could hope to harmonize. But being a stranger to the President, 
and probably to most of those whom he will assemble around 
him, and differing widely from him and them in regard to the 
declared principles which brought him into power, I could not 
hope for that social union and cordial cooperation, which is indis- 
pensable to personal comfort, nor could I expect to concur with 
them, either in the measures of administration or the dispensation 
of patronage. 

At the same time I do not consider his success in the election 
as sufficient cause for breaking up the Government and am 
doing what I can to persuade the people to give to his administra- 
tion a fair trial. 

23 If the preceding letter from Newton to Graham was dated correctly, this 
date on Graham's reply is erroneous. It is probable that Graham made the mistake, 
having his mind on the date of Newton's letter. In the absence of definite informa- 
tion, the letter is placed as dated. 

232 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

But I very much apprehend that without some adjustment of 
present difficulties, which shall put a stop to the perpetual 
agitation of the subject of slavery, and restore a friendly feeling 
between the North and South, and that at an early day, all the 
slave holding States will separate from the Union. This State will 
vote for delegates, and on the call of a Convention on the 28th. 
inst. The Convention may assemble ten days thereafter. I am a 
Candidate for a seat in this body, and unless some plan of settle- 
ment shall have been agreed on by the time it assembles, 
N. C. 8c Virginia will be difficult to satisfy in the Union. I have not 
leisure to enlarge on this topic. 

I would be pleased to meet you in Washington as proposed 
in your letter, but I cannot leave the State while the election for 
Convention is pending. 

I remain very truly 
Your Friend 


From Paul C. Cameron UNC 

February 10, 1861.] 

I have read the obituary with interest — think it just and in 
good taste. 

I have no additions to make — and only to suggest that it is my 
impression that it was "the Leopard" that made the attack on 
"The Chesapeake," but I have no book here to turn to. 

My impression is that Col. Jones was born in the neighborhood 
of Petersburg, Virginia; if I can see any of the family, will 
learn how the fact is and inform you. 

With my thanks. 

From Tod R. Caldwell UNC 

Morgan ton, N.C. 

February 11th., 1861. 

I have been absent from home in Alabama since the 7 of Jan'y, 
until a day or two ago, and since my return have seen but few per- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 233 

sons from the Country, from all I have been able to learn, I think 
that the people in this County, if they were permitted to go to the 
polls and vote their own sentiments without interference on the 
part of leaders, would give a large anti-secession vote, but we have 
a large floating vote in this County, and many active, unscrupu- 
lous, men amongst the democratic leaders, who are all secessionists, 
and who will resort to any means, no matter how base, to carry 
their point, whilst on the other hand, our Whig friends, tho' 
generally firm for the Union and conservatism, rely more upon the 
justice of their cause than they will upon proper exertions to 
secure success. 

I hope that we will elect our Candidate, (Wm. C. Erwin) 24 
in this County, but I am not sanguine. I was at Caldwell Court 
two days last week, and everything there is in as good condition 
as the best friend of the Union could wish for; 8/10 of the people 
are opposed to secession. Ed. W. Jones 25 will be elected to the 
Convention without opposition. From Watauga, Ashe and 
Wilkes, I hear most encouraging reports, the feeling in each of 
those Counties being quite as good as that of Caldwell. I have 
nothing reliable from any of the Western Counties. 

I do most sincerely trust that the good sense of the people of 
the State may induce them to rally one time more around the 
Standard of their Country, and elect wise and conservative men to 
the Convention, who will use every effort to preserve the blessings 
of our once glorious Union, and transmit them unimpaired to 
our children's children, 'till time shall be no more. 

I pray you, Sir, to excuse this hurried epistle, my teeth are 
aching so that I scarcely know what I have written. 

Hoping for your success, and that of every candidate who 
wishes to preserve our Country. 

From Burgess S. Gaither UNC 

Morgan ton, 

February 12th., 1861. 

Mr. Caldwell handed me your letter to read this morning, and 

24 William C. Erwin of Burke County was a strong Unionist. Sitterson, Secession 
Movement, 220. 

25 Edmund Walter Jones (1811-1876), a Caldwell County planter, received his 
education at the Bingham School and the University of North Carolina, where he 
graduated in 1833. He was a Whig who believed that secession should be a last 
resort. He was a member of the state senate and council of state. McCormick, 
Convention Personnel, 49-50; Spencer Alumni Project. 

234 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

I was some what amused at the cautious manner in which you 
addressed him. I suppose in these days of revolution and treason 
you do not know who to trust, and I think you are right, for I 
have come to the same conclusion. Yet there are a few men in 
all communities who are reliable, 8c you know where to find them, 
in any given state of circumstances. The great misfortune is, 
there are so few who will stand firm, and stem the current of 
misrule in wild and revolutionary times like the present. In 
looking around us now, we find men who in former times we 
trusted and relied upon as Patriots, advocating treason, and in 
full communion with leading locofocos, plotting the downfall of 
our government. What is to be done, where is there a hope left us, 
I look with the deepest interest for the result of the peace 
Commissioners Convention at Washington, 26 but fear they will 
not agree upon any thing, & if they do, that it is too late. I am glad 
to see that you will probably be in the State Convention, and hope 
that we may be able to have a convention of prudent, discreet 
and able men, who will guard and protect the interest and honor 
of our State. If Virginia does not secede, we will be enabled to send 
down many Union men from the West. Cherokee and Macon, 
certain — Haywood doubtful. Col. Cathey 27 may succeed Shipp, 28 
will probably carry Henderson. Montravill Patton 29 is the Union, 

26 On February, 4, 1861, the Washington Peace Convention opened with former 
President John Tyler presiding. This ambitious attempt to avert war had been 
called by Virginia and was attended by representatives of twenty-two states, with 
thirteen, including the seven states of the lower South, absent. The deliberations 
were long but lacked a genuine spirit of accommodation. In late February the 
convention presented Congress with a compromise plan which closely resembled 
the abortive Crittenden proposals offered by the senate's Committee of Thirteen. 
The extremists of the North and the South rejoiced at the tragic failure of the 
convention. Randall and Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction, 151-152. 

27 Joseph Cathey (1803-1874), of Haywood County, was for many years one of the 
most successful merchants and influential men west of Asheville. He was a member 
of the Constitutional Convention of 1835 and of the state senate in 1842, but 
declined any further political opportunities. He was a strict constructionist, 
secessionist, and unreconstructed rebel. W. C. Allen, The Annals of Haywood 
County, North Carolina; Historical, Sociological, Biographical and Genealogical 
(N.p.: privately printed by the author, 1935), 119-122. 

28 William Marcus Shipp (1819-1890), a native of Lincoln County, graduated from 
the University of North Carolina in 1840, read law, and began a practice in 
Hendersonville. He represented Henderson County in the Convention of 1861. He 
was a Confederate captain, 1861-1862; state senator, 1862-1863; superior court judge, 
1863-1868; attorney general, 1871-1873; and again a judge, 1881-1890. McCormick, 
Convention Personnel, 74-75; Spencer Alumni Project. 

29 Montreville Patton, of Asheville, was a prominent merchant who represented 
Buncombe County in the state house in 1836, 1838, 1840, and 1866. He was for a 
time clerk of inferior court, Buncombe County. Connor, Manual, 1913, 517; Foster 
A. Sondley, A History of Buncombe County, North Carolina (Asheville: Advocate 
Printing Company, 2 volumes, 1930), II, 757. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 235 

& N. W. Woodfin 30 the disunion candidates in Buncombe. Patton, 
I think, will beat him. Madison & Yancey doubtful, but I think 
Union men. McDowell doubtful. Gen'l Burgin 31 is the Union 
candidate, & Alfred Erwin 32 the disunion. Burke, I fear, is in the 
hands of the disunionist, W. A. Erwin 33 is our candidate, 8c Gen'l 
Avery 34 disunion. Caldwell, Watauga, Ashe 8c Wilkes are all 
right — Rutherford and Polk doubtful. 

I wish you would write Gen'l Alney Burgin a letter upon 
public matters, 8c stir him up. I fear he will not canvass, k if he 
does not, he is in danger. His office is Old Fort, k a letter from 
you to Col. J. J. Erwin 35 at this place would do good. He married 

30 Nicholas Washington Woodfin (1810-1876), a native of Buncombe (now Hen- 
derson) County, was trained locally in the classics and read law with David L. 
Swain, who later said that no man in the state was better read than Woodfin. For 
ten years a Whig state senator, he was an advocate of the development of western 
North Carolina. His law practice prospered, and he attained a large landed estate 
which he cultivated scientifically. Woodfin opposed secession until Lincoln's 
call for troops. Later he was the state agent to superintend the North Carolina 
works in the salt mines of southwestern Virginia. Samuel A. Ashe, "Nicholas 
Washington Woodfin," Ashe, Biographical History, II, 481-486. 

31 Alney burgin was one ol the social and political leaders of Burke County. His 
residence was near Old Fort. Burgin represented McDowell County in the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1865. John Preston Arthur, Western North Carolina: A 
History (From 1730 to 1913), (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Printing Co., 191 4), 
360, hereinafter cited as Arthur, Western North Carolina; Connor, Manual, 1913, 

32 Alfred Martin Erwin (1831-1887), of McDowell County, was a graduate of 
Davidson College (1849). After studying law with Richmond M. Pearson, he 
practiced law in Marion. He was a Confederate major in the Thirty-fifth North 
Carolina Regiment. He served two terms in the state legislature: lower house, 1874- 
1876; senate, 1879-1881. Connor, Manual, 1913, 696; Lingle, Davidson Alumni, 56. 

33 Probably William C. Erwin. 

34 William Waightstill Avery (1816-1864), of Burke County, was the scion ot 
several influential North Carolina families distinguished in local affairs. In 1837 he 
graduated from the University of North Carolina, and in 1839 he began a legal career 
destined to result in his becoming one of the leading advocates in the mountain 
area. He was a member of the House of Commons in 1842, 1850, and 1852 and of 
the state senate in 1856 and 1860. A Democrat, Avery headed the North Carolina 
delegation to the 1860 convention. Upon the election of Lincoln he counseled 
immediate secession. He was a member of the Confederate Provisional Congress. 
In 1864 he joined a group of hastily raised citizens to confront a group of irregular 
hostile troops which had entered North Carolina from Tennessee, and he was 
killed in the ensuing skirmish. John Donald Wade, "William Waigstill [sic] Avery," 
Dictionary of American Biography, I, 445-446. 

35 Joseph J. Erwin, a graduate of William and Mary and a trained lawyer, owned 
and worked a fine plantation, "Bellevue," on Upper Creek in Burke County near 
Morganton. Although he never practiced his profession before the public, he was 
Burke County clerk of court for thirty years. North Carolina Biography, Volumes 
IV, V, and VI of History of North Carolina, by R. D. W. Connor, William K. Boyd, 
J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, and others (Chicago and New York: Lewis Publishing 
Company, 6 volumes, 1919), IV, 196, and V, 186, hereinafter cited as North Carolina 

236 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Holt's daughter, of Davidson, and is under the influence of Avery 
and Craig, 36 and is a little fishy. William C. Erwin, his brother, 
is all right. I feel gloomy at the prospects before us, and cannot 
satisfy myself of one single ray of hope in the future. If we had a 
President worthy of that position this state of things would not 
have arisen. Mr. Buchanan is responsible for the dissolution 
of the Government. If he had have followed Gen'l Scott's advice & 
armed the forts, Sc showed that he intended to keep possession of 
the public property, and to execute the laws of the Country, no 
State but South Carolina would have seceded. He had in his 
Cabinet three traitors, 37 who had his confidence, and who were 
conspiring with the leaders in the seceding States, and induced 
him to commit himself against coersion, and by his conduct to 
encourage all these States to secede, under the belief that it was a 
peaceful remedy for existing evils. Whereas, if the President's 
course had have been such as to apprise the people that secession 
means revolution, and war was the consequences, we would have 
had a different state of things. I can really see no hope for any thing 
else, but a civil war, of interminable extent. 

I have written you hastily, merely for the purpose of leting 
you know that we are not all doubtfull in this region. 

Invitation UNC 

of the members of the 
Constitutional Union Party of the City ofTroy, 

And Dinner, 

at the Troy House, on Friday, Feb. 22d., 1861. 

36 Francis Burton Craige (1811-1875), of Rowan County, graduated from the 
University of North Carolina, was proprietor and editor of the (Salisbury) 
Western Carolinian, 1829-1831, and was a successful lawyer. He represented the 
borough of Salisbury in the House of Commons, 1832-1834, and was a Democratic 
congressman from 1853 to 1861. As a delegate to the Convention of 1861, he 
introduced the secession ordinance in the form in which it was adopted. He was 
a delegate to the Provisional Congress of the Confederacy. McCormick, Convention 
Personnel, 27-28; Biographical Directory of Congress, 748-749. 

37 This reference, revealing Gaither's strong Union sentiments, was to Howell 
Cobb of Georgia, secretary of the treasury; Jacob Thompson of Mississippi, 
secretary of the interior; and John B. Floyd of Virginia, secretary of war. These 
three men were secessionists who advised Buchanan accordingly prior to their 
withdrawal from the cabinet. Their departure signalled the reorganization of the 
cabinet and a stiffening of Buchanan's policies. Randall and Donald, Civil War 
and Reconstruction, 153-154. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 237 

In commemoration of the birth-day of the Father of his Country, 

at which festival the pleasure of the company of 

Hon. W. A. Graham 

is respectfully solicited. 

Dinner at Seven P.M. 


Jonas C. Heartt, George B. Warren, Harvey Smith, Alfred 
Wotkyns, Clarence Burl, William Kemp, Lewis Lillie, 
Orsamus Eaton, Leonard Smith, D. W. Tuthill, F. B. Hubbell, 
George D. Wotkyns, C. S. Newcomb, George D. Carter, John T. 
Lamport, C. L. Richards, J. J. Tillinghast, John W. Paine. 

Have the kindness to favor us with an early reply. 
Troy, N.Y., February 13, 1861. 

[Written on the back of the printed invitation:] 
P.S. We should be most happy to see you in our City. If you cannot 
come, pray give us a letter. In these times, those whom the people 
will hear, should speak. 

In behalf of the Committee. 

From Sidney Smith UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

February 16th., 1861. 

I have just returned from Chatham Court, having been absent 
from home for a week. Your letter of acceptance of the Chapel 
[Hill] nomination, has just been received, and the correspon- 
dence between you and the Committee will be immediately for- 
warded to the Hillsboro' Newspapers for publication. 

We have heard nothing from Gov. Swain, he is expected to 
return home in a day or so. I entertain no doubt about your 
election. We will support you with great zeal here. 

Accept my best wishes for your success in the contest, and 
believe me when I say I can never forget your kindness to me in 
boyhood, when I was your law pupil. 

238 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Sidney Smith UNC 

February 19th., 1861. 

Gov. Swain returned home on Saturday night, and has accepted 
the nomination. He will speak at Durham's Depot on Thursday, 
and at Hillsboro' on Tuesday of Feb'y Court. 

Your prospects and Gov. Swain's, are very flattering here. 
Can't you have the correspondence between Gov. Swain and 
yourself and the Committee struck off in the form of hand bills, 38 
for distribution. 

From Richard C. Badger** UNC 


February 20th., 1860. [1861] 40 

The following telegrams were received here to night: 
From Washington — To S. H. Rogers 
"Force bill defeated in the House — vote 100 to 74. 

To W. W. Holden and J. W. Syme — 
"Vote for Compromise 132 to 56 — Cheering news. 

John A. Gilmer." 
I send these immediately to you, thinking they may be of service. 

Newspaper Report of a Union Meeting in Hillsborough* 1 
The Hon. Wm. A. Graham and Capt. John Berry Nominated. 42 

38 No such handbill has been found. 

39 Richard Cogdell Badger (1839-1882) of Raleigh, son of George E. Badger, 
was a graduate of the university and later a Confederate major. He was a Conserv- 
ative immediately after the war but became a Republican in 1869 and was Holden 's 
counsel in 1870-1871, when he tried to dissuade Holden from following John Pool's 
advice to carry the election of 1870 by force. He was a member of the lower house 
of the legislature, 1872-1873, federal district attorney, 1873-1877, and a delegate to 
the convention of 1875. Spencer Alumni Project; Connor, Manual, 1913, 832, 903; 
J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, Reconstruction in North Carolina (Gloucester, Mass.: 
Peter Smith, Reprinted, 1964 [first edition, 1906]), 362, 497-498, hereinafter cited 
as Hamilton, Reconstruction in North Carolina. 

40 It is clear that the date of this letter should be 1861, as no such bills were before 
Congress in 1860, but at this time neither of the bills mentioned had come to a vote. 
The Raleigh State Journal published the messages and insisted that they had 
been sent, not necessarily by those whose names were signed, in order to defeat the 
call for a convention. No other paper makes mention of these measures. 

41 This report is taken from the Hillsborough Recorder, February 27, 1861. 

42 Graham, a Whig, and Berry, a Democrat, both of whom were Unionists, de- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 239 

February 20, 1861. 

Pursuant to previous notice, the citizens of Orange county, 
North Carolina, in favor of the Union of the States, without 
distinction of party, assembled in the Court House in Hills- 
borough, to consult one with another on the present distracted 
state of our beloved country, and to nominate two candidates to 
represent the county of Orange in the State Convention, proposed 
by the act of our present Legislature, when, on motion, Capt. 
John Berry was called to the chair, and Thomas Wilson appointed 

On motion of Andrew C. Murdock, 43 the Hon. Wm. A. Graham 
was unanimously chosen as one of the candidates to represent our 
county in said Convention. 

It was then moved that the meeting nominate a committee of 
nineteen from the different sections of the county, to select and 
propose another candidate to represent our county in the said 
Convention. Whereupon the assembly chose the following 
persons as said committee, viz : Thomas Webb, Dr. Gay, Mr. 
Duskin, Col. Guthrie, James Turner, jr., James N. Craig, 
Thomas Wilson, Col. McCauley, Allen Brown, William Cheek, 
Thomas J. Cates, C. R. Wilson, William McCowan, Thomas H. 
Hughes, William H. Brown, Esq., George A. Faucett, Esq., 
Calvin Smith, Esq., Alexander Anderson and James Riley. 

In the absence of the committee the meeting was addressed 

by the Hon. William A. Graham in an able, patriotic and conserv- 
ative speech of considerable length, and was warmly cheered by 
the assembly. 

At the close of Mr. Graham's speech, the committee, through 
their chairman, Dr. Gay, reported that they had agreed unanimous- 
ly to recommend to the meeting the name of Capt. John Berry as 
a suitable associate with Gov. Graham. 

The report of the committee was adopted by the meeting, and 
the nomination confirmed by an unanimous vote. 

feated Secessionists Henry K. Nash and Pride Jones for the convention, which, 
however, was not called by the state's voters. The poll revealed the Union strength 
in Orange County. Graham received 1,554 votes; Berry, 1,513; Nash, 360; and Jones, 
356. Orange County voters opposed the convention by 1,436 to 458. Hillsborough 
Recorder, March 6, 1861. 

43 Andrew C. Murdock, whose home was two miles north of Hillsborough, was 
the town mayor several terms between 1854 and 1875, including the time of this 
meeting. Lefler and Wager, Orange County, 368; Blackwelder, Age of Orange, 189. 

240 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Allen Brown, Esq., was then called to the chair, and Capt. 
Berry expressed himself as endorsing the speech of Gov. Graham 
entire, even to the crossing of a t or dotting an i, and then said 
we ought to remember the blood and treasures our forefathers 
expended in obtaining and transmitting to us the great blessings 
we enjoy; the gift was too great, too sacred, to be cast aside and 
trampled on. He concluded by saying that he could not accept the 
nomination, as Gov. Swain was before the people as a candidate, 
and he could not permit his name to be used under the circum- 

Mr. Guthrie 44 took upon himself [to] withdraw the name of 
Gov. Swain, as he felt authorized to do, knowing the feelings of 
the Governor on the subject. Under that assurance Capt. Berry 
accepted. On motion, Mr. Guthrie was appointed to confer with 
Gov. Swain. 

Allen Brown, Pres't pro tern. 
Thomas Wilson, Secretary. 

P.S. I am officially informed this day, February 22nd., that Gov. 
Swain, on the application of Col. Guthrie to him, voluntarily 
acceded to the nomination made on the 20th. instant, and with- 
drew his name from the canvass. 

Thomas Wilson. 

From James Gordon and Company UNC 


Febury 21st, 1861. 

There is a better feeling in our cotton market than when we 
last wrote you and we hope to see better prices soon. We have 
held all your cotton 52 bales at 1 \t but owing to its quality not 
being very good we have not been able to obtain that price. We 
now hold it at 1 1/4 and shall be governed by circumstances all 
together in the sale of it. 

The accounts brot by the last steamer are rather favourable tho 
they had but little effect upon the New York market. We strongly 
incline to the opinion that cotton will improve slightly soon and 
when we think it has reached its highest point will let yours go. 
We regret the quality is not better. Choice cotton will command 
1 1/2 to day [sic] . 


Hugh B. Guthrie. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 241 

To David L. Swain A&H Swain 

March, 1861.] 

I hope you may visit Hillsboro' in the course of the present 
Court week, and if so, shall expect you to come to my house. 

The inaugural 45 is quite as pacific as Mr. Buchanan's annual 
Message, and more so than his correspondence with the S.C. 
Comm'rs. But our sensitive newspapers, even to the N.C. Pres- 
byterian, represent it as portending horrida bella. I am yet unin- 
formed as to the call of a Convention. 

From William W. Morrison UNC 

Navy Department, ' 
April 1st., 1861. 

I have been intending for some time to write to you for advice 
in regard to my position here, and, as our Chief Clerk called to 
see me this morning on this subject, will write today. He inform- 
ed me the pressure for office was very great, and begged me to 
write to you for a letter requesting my retention in office. 

I am now getting $ 1 400. per annum, and not being independent 
of office, would prefer remaining, and so long as our old State 
remains in the Union, do not think my friends expect me to 
resign. If the State should secede, I would, of course, go home at 

If you feel the least delicacy in writing such a letter as above 
suggested, do not hesitate to say so, for I would not for the world 
have you do anything contrary to your wishes. 

The Chief Clerk says no effort has been made as yet, to have 
me removed, but he fears efforts will be made against every one 
in the Department, & as he has known me six or eight years, is 
anxious to have me remain. 

If you decide to write, please enclose the letter to me, as I do 
not wish it placed on the files of the Dept. 

As I intend to be governed by your advice, would be greatly 
obliged if you will write soon, and give me your views fully. 

45 Lincoln's first inaugural address 

242 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Several of our acquaintances, who held office under Mr. Fill- 
more's administration, are getting office now, as black Republi- 

Willie Mangum 46 has been appointed Consul to Ningpo, 
China, at a salary of $3,000. per an. Mr. Seward 47 gave him the 

From William A. Graham, Jr. UNC 


April 21st., 1861. 

When you left here, you were opposed to my going to the 
forts. I now write to ask your permission that, should there be 
any fighting either in North Carolina or Virginia, I may join 
the ranks and assist in maintaining the rights of my State. In 
fact, I think you had better write to Jamie 48 to return and let me 
take his place, as I doubt if he is able to stand ''barrack's life.'' 

Please let me hear from you as soon as convenient, at Cottage 
Home, 49 as I shall leave town in the morning. The Charlotte 
Grays took possession of the Mint on yesterday, and are now 
guarding it, awaiting orders from the Governor. The Confederate 
flag, with nine stars, is waving over it. 

Dispatches last night confirm the fighting between the citizens 
of Baltimore and the Massachusetts regiments, about twenty have 

46 Willie Person Mangum, Jr., (1827-1881) a son of Priestley H. Mangum of 
Orange County, graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1848. He was 
a teacher and lawyer. In 1861-1881 he was consul and consul general to China and 
Japan. The nephew of Senator Willie P. Mangum, he apparently added "Junior" 
to his name so as to distinguish him from his illustrious uncle. Spencer Alumni Pro- 

47 Secretary of State William H. Seward. 

4 ^ James Augustus Graham (1841-1909) was approximately two years younger than 
his brother William who wrote this letter; William intended to "josh" James. James, 
who graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1860, was an officer in the 
Twenty-seventh North Carolina Regiment. He was destined to be wounded in 
action twice before his service to the Confederacy ended. He was a lawyer, state 
senator from Alamance, and university trustee after the war. Spencer Alumni Project; 
William A. Graham, General Joseph Graham and His Papers on North Carolina 
Revolutionary History (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton, 1904), 183, hereinafter 
cited as Graham, General Joseph Graham; Connor, Manual, 1913, 482. 

49 Cottage Home was the Lincoln County home of Robert Hall and Mary Graham 
Morrison. W. A. Withers, "Robert Hall Morrison," Van Noppen Papers. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 243 

been killed. The railroad from Baltimore to Havre de Grace 
has been torn up, and the telegraph wires pulled down. 50 

Please send me the H. Recorder for next week, and any other 
paper which may have any news in it. 

Brother Joe's Company will tender their service to the Gov- 
ernor tomorrow, but I can't see what he can want with Cavalry. 

Major Hill 51 has tendered his service with a hint that he must 
be head, or not [at] all. 

From George Little UNC 


April 22nd., 1861. 

I am directed by Mr. Badger, 52 (who is too unwell to write) to 
ask you to come down by tomorrow morning's Train, that he may 
have a conversation with you on the present aspect of affairs. Mr. 
Badger has been very sick for ten days, and I can only [add] my 
own desire to see you. 

Speech upon the Political Situation^ 3 
Hillsboro', April 27, 1861 

We are in the midst of great events. For months past our 
political skies have been dark and lowering. The country has 
stood in anxious suspense on the perilous edge of civil war. And 

50 Sympathy for the South was strong in Maryland, and when the Sixth Massachu- 
setts Regiment marched through Baltimore on April 19, riots broke out. Street 
fighting resulted in the death of four soldiers and perhaps as many as nine citizens. 
Many were wounded. After this bloody reception, the state of Maryland offered 
no further serious resistance to the movement of Federal troops. Randall and 
Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction, 195-196. 

51 Daniel Harvey Hill. 

52 George E. Badger. 

53 This speech is taken from the Hillsborough Recorder, May 1, 1861. The speech 
was introduced by the following editorial comment: "On the occasion of the meeting 
of the officers of the Militia of the county, and a large assembly of the citizens of 
Orange in the Court House at Hillsborough on Saturday last, the Hon. Wm. A. 
Graham, who had been absent from home during the two preceding weeks, in 
compliance with the general desire, addressed the people on the present critical 
and exciting state of the country. We are able to present but a meagre outline of 
his remarks, which occupied about an hour in the delivery." 

244 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

in despite of the counsels and exertions of national, patriotic and 
conservative men, at the head of whom it is not invidious to place 
the name of the gallant and veteran statesman, John J. Crittenden 
of Kentucky, and, as I believe, in despite of the wishes and senti- 
ments of a majority of American people, North and South, if the 
voice of the people could have been allowed to be heard, civil war 
is actually upon us. In regard to the earlier causes leading and 
tending to this dire event, and their sufficiency to produce such 
a result, some of us have entertained diverse opinions. It is well 
known that I among others, have insisted, that the election of Mr. 
Lincoln and his being invested with the power of President of 
the United States, obnoxious as were his own avowals of sentiment 
in relation to slavery in the South, and still more obnoxious as 
was the spirit of hostility to us, which animated the mass of 
his party followers, was not a sufficient cause for a dismemberment 
of this Government, and the destruction of the Union, that the 
restraining provisions of the Constitution, the counteracting 
influences on the Legislative and Judicial departments of the 
Government, both of which, for the present at least, were 
known to be in opposition to the objectionable creed of himself 
and his party, and the well established fact, that his election was 
effected by divisions among his opposers, and not by a majority 
of the people, afforded a sufficient security against usurpations 
or the abuse of his power to our injury, should he be so inclined; 
and that, though not insensible to the recreancy of many of the 
Northern States to their obligations under the Constitution 
in relation to slavery, and to the gross and persistent vituperation 
of many of their presses and political actors towards the 
people and institutions of the South, we yet cherished an ardent 
attachment to the Union, and a feeling of veneration for the 
Constitution of our Fathers, and hoped by a new understanding of 
its provisions, and by amendments putting its interpretations 
beyond all doubt, that the Government under which the country 
had prospered almost beyond example, and had acquired a name 
which was a passport and a protection to the ends of the earth, 
might still be preserved to ourselves and our posterity. We 
therefore disapproved the counsels which sought the overthrow 
of the Government, upon the announcement of the result of the 
late Presidential election, and in this disapproval were sus- 
tained, it is no exaggeration to say, by a large majority of the 
people of North Carolina. 

The seven States, however, stretching from our Southern 
frontier to the confines of Mexico, one by one in rapid succession 

The Papers of William A. Graham 245 

declared themselves separated from the Government of the United 
States, and formed a new confederation. They found in the 
election which had taken place sufficient cause of occasion, in 
their estimation, for this hitherto untried course of proceeding, 
and levied armies to defend it by force. The authorities of the 
United States denied the right of secession claimed by these States, 
and the danger became great of a collision of arms. The issue was 
made, but evaded under th£ administration of Mr. Buchanan. Its 
solution by Mr. Lincoln has been a matter of anxious contempla- 
tion to the people of the country since his accession to power. 
Whatever may be the true construction of the Constitution, or the 
President's idea of his duty to enforce the laws, a wise statesmanship 
cannot close its eyes to the facts. It is impossible to treat so exten- 
sive a revolution like a petty rebellion; for if suppressed by force, 
it would be at the expense of desolation and ruin to the country. 
He should have dealt with it, as did Wellington and Peel with 
the question of Catholic emancipation, or Clay with the 
crisis of 1833, yielded to the necessities by which he was surrounded, 
and adjusted by arrangement what he found it impossible to 
control by force, or if possible, only at a sacrifice to the nation 
itself never to be repaired. Had Mr. Lincoln risen to the height of 
the great occasion, promptly withdrawn his troops from fortifica- 
tions which he could not defend; convened Congress in extra 
session; recommended and procured the passage of a law, or 
amendment of the Constitution, acknowledging the independence 
of the seceded States, and granting the guarantees proposed by 
Crittenden, or some equivalent proposition, to the other slave- 
holding States which yet retained their connexion with the Union, 
(a course of measures which would have stripped the Northern 
States of no rights, nor subjected them to no humiliation,) he 
might yet have maintained a Union of twenty-seven contented 
States, with twenty-seven millions of inhabitants, and with all the 
resources of a great empire. And after an experiment of a few 
years, there might, and in my opinion probably would have been, 
a re-annexation of the seceded States themselves. 

But instead of this bold and magnanimous policy, his action 
has been vacillating. His inaugural address is equivocal. Inter- 
preted by some, on its first appearance as portending force, 
assurances are thrown out that his intentions are only peaceful. 
And when the public mind in all the eight slave holding States 
that had not seceded, was settling down in the conviction that the 
forts were to be evacuated and repose was to be allowed, so 
favorable to conciliation and harmony, a Proclamation suddenly 

246 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

bursts upon the country announcing a determination on coercion, 
and calling for a militia force so great as to endanger the safety of 
more than the seceded States. A part of this militia is required of 
North Carolina, and other slave-holding States. It was not enough 
for the President that the conservative people of these States had 
been willing to acquiesce in his election, and upon a peaceful 
course of action towards the seceded States, and proper guarantees 
of their own rights in view of the loss of their strength in the votes 
of Congress, by reason of the withdrawal of their confederates, and 
for a more faithful observance of the constitution in regard to their 
interests, he should exercise for the public benefit the functions 
of the office, and distribute its patronage among his followers. 
He requires more than this. Careless of any terms of conciliation, 
or adjustment of differences with the border States, he resolves, 
but not till after his own adherents have been demoralized by his 
hesitation and professions of peace, on the application of force to 
maintain the authority of the Government in the States which have 
withdrawn, and requires us to cooperate as instruments in their 
subjugation. This presents to us a question far different from that 
of acquiescence in, or resistance to his installation into 
office, in pursuance of an election made according to the provi- 
sions of the Constitution. The sober sense of the people of North 
Carolina had met this question, and for themselves had settled it. 
Ardent in their attachment to the Constitution and the Union, 
they had condemned separate State secession as rash and precipi- 
tate, and wanting in respect to the sister States of identical interest; 
and as long as there was hope of an adjustment of sectional 
differences, they were unwilling to part with the Government, and 
give success to the movement for its overthrow, which appeared 
on the part of some at least, to be but the revelation of a long 
cherished design. But the President gives to the question new 
alternatives. These are, on the one hand, to join with him in a 
war of conquest, for it is nothing less, against our brethren of the 
seceding States, or, on the other, resistance to and throwing off 
the obligations of the Federal Constitution. Of the two, we do not 
hesitate to accept the latter. Blood is thicker than water. However 
widely we have differed from, and freely criticized the course 
taken by these States, they are much more closely united with us, 
by the ties of kindred, affection, and a peculiar interest, which is 
denounced and warred upon at the North, without reference to 
any locality in our own section, than to any of the Northern States. 
And withal, we cannot exclude from our contemplation the idea, 
that when they shall be subdued upon the issues involved in 

The Papers of William A. Graham 247 

the contest, our turn will come next; our only exemption above 
theirs being, that, like the victims of the Cyclops, we shall be last 
to be devoured. I do not mean that Mr. Seward, Mr. Chase, or even 
Mr. Lincoln himself, entertain any present design of extinguishing 
slavery in the South. Their sweeping generalities, that the 
Government could not endure with a country half slave and half 
free, and that there was a necessary conflict whether freemen 
should cultivate the fields of the South, or slaves till those of the 
North, was the rhetoric of the hustings on which they were can- 
vassing for free-soil votes. But this rhetoric had its effect in in- 
fluencing, if not forming public opinion among the masses, and 
as often happens, those who blow up a flame are unable to blow it 
out. I regard a war of the Government of the United States 
upon the seceded States, therefore, with the design of compelling 
their submission to the laws, and return to the Union as in its 
consequence, a war upon the institutions of the Southern States 
in general. 

The course of the President has compelled Virginia to sever 
her connexion with the Union, contrary to what had seemed to 
be the wishes of her people, and leaves North Carolina no other 
alternative but to take the same step. Indeed from the action of 
Virginia, and that of the other States on our limits, this 
severance is now but a matter of form, Tennessee being the only 
coterminous State which has not declared her separation. We 
must therefore acquiesce in a necessity which our best efforts 
could not avert, a dissolution of the Government of the United 
States. The announcement of this fact inspires in me no feeling 
but a painful sadness. I believe so great a catastrophe to the 
whole country and to the world, could have been, and ought to 
have been prevented, and that even now, if the people of the 
two sections, whose armies are being marshalled in hostile 
array, could be allowed to commune together, and compare 
opinions in calm deliberation, if they could not agree on terms 
of reunion, could at least devise measures for a separation in 
peace. But let us yield to no feeling of despondency, but gird 
our loins for the duties imposed on us by the present, and awaiting 
us in the future. North Carolina with only less than a million of 
inhabitants, with her vast resources for war or for peace, can 
readily maintain her position as a separate power of the earth, or 
as a member of any new political organization into which she may 
enter. What condition in this respect she may resolve to occupy 
must be left to the future to determine. Her first care at present 
must be addressed to the impending war, in which, if it must 

248 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

come, she can bear no neutral part, but must ally herself with her 
sister States of the South, at least until the recognition of her and 
their common independence. Until that is achieved let us post- 
pone any differences which may separate us as to the responsibilities 
and causes of the present condition of affairs, and the new agencies 
for the taking care of our national interests which we may find it 
expedient to adopt. In expressing these sentiments, I have changed 
no opinions, and entertain no regrets as to the recent action of the 
people of the State. I concurred in the decision which they made, 
and in my opinion wisely made, against the call of a Convention. 
And whatever opinion may be held in relation to its wisdom, it 
was eminently a decision of the people themselves. The Legislature, 
the public presses and public men of all parties with but rare ex- 
ceptions were for a Convention, with no very clearly defined ideas 
of what it was to accomplish except on the part of those who favored 
immediate secession for then existing causes. The people regarded 
the proposed Convention as a measure to effect revolution, and 
not having exhausted the means of reconciliation and peace, 
which in the sincerity of their love for the Constitution and the 
Union, they desired to see attempted, they rejected the measure 
at the polls. But it would be altogether a false interpretation of 
that decision to say that in it there were any sanction or encour- 
agement to the use of coercive measures against the States which 
had withdrawn. On the contrary, such a course was universally 
condemned, and pronounced to be just cause for resistance by 
the opponents of Convention. Had the dissolution of the Govern- 
ment resulted from a Convention then called and for then existing 
causes, they would have felt that the blame might be imputable 
to themselves. Coming as it now must, from the high handed 
action of the President, they feel acquitted from its destruction, 
and will meet the issue with no doubting hearts. The decision 
and the delay therefore have placed the Government of the United 
States in the wrong and relieved us from any intestine divisions. 54 

From William P. Grimsley UNC 

Snow Hill, 

May 6th., 1861. 
Although unknown to you, I have known you by reputation 

54 The Hillsborough Recorder, at the conclusion of the speech, continued: 
"Mr. Graham made other remarks, directing our whole energies to the public 
defence, and on demonstrating to the world that if we had not been swift to enter 
the quarrel, we should so bear it, that the opposer may beware of us." 

The Papers of William A. Graham 249 

8c character from boyhood, and have seen you upon several occa- 
sions, and was present to hear your great speech at Wilmington, 
upon the present Crisis for the Presidential campaign, and it was 
so satisfactory to me, that when asked by my secession friends, 
when I would say secede, I would tell them never, but that when 
W. A. Graham said revolution, I was ready. I was taught by a 
widowed Mother to believe that the teachings of Washington, 
Clay, Webster, and I might add, yourself, to be sacred. I was also 
taught that if I occupied a right and honorable position, that I 
would have nothing to fear. I am now thirty years old, and so far, 
it has been my maxim. But now I am called upon to join secession- 
ist [s] in open rebellion against the Country of Washington, for 
present troubles, and those troubles brought on by the secession- 
ist [s] themselves. I believe it to be wrong. Politically, I am as 
hostile to Mr. Lincoln as any one, save the office seekers, and I do 
not like to go at their bidding. When my Country or my State is 
attacked by a foreign foe, no man will be more ready to sacrifice 
life, and whatever of property I may have, rather than submit to 
dishonor. But to take up arms against my own countrymen, and 
led on by men who never professed any confidence in my political 
friends, and untill very recently have had no more confidence in 
Clay Whigs than they now have in Republicans, such is very 
repulsive to my feelings, and so long as they were in power all was 
right. Give them the plunder of the Government, and they care 
but little for the interest of the people. I have no confidence in 
the men who lead in this rebellion. I feel confident there is not a 
more corrupt set of men living, and think we are very much in the 
condition of poor tray, and I think the sooner we break out from 
among them the better. Whatever may be the destiny of the Union, 
and patriotic men of North Carolina, I am willing to share, and 
will do so cheerfully. 

I seated myself tonight to ask you for your Autograph, and 
also for any remarks you are pleased to make in reply, all of which, 
I can assure you, Sir, would be most gladly rec'd. I think the 
Hon. J. J. Crittenden's policy preferable to the secessionist. If so, 
I feel sure that Mr. Badger, Mr. Gilmer, Mr. Brown 55 and yourself, 
with many others I could mention, would have no trouble in 

55 Bedford Brown (1792-1870), of Caswell County, was an active North Carolina 
political figure for many years. He was a member of Commons, 1815-1818, state 
senator, 1828-1829, 1858-1863, and United States senator, 1829-1840. He was whole- 
hearted in his support of the Jackson-Van Buren administrations and became 
so disgruntled that he left the state for six years when the Calhoun wing of the party 
refused to return him to the Senate in 1842. He was an advocate of states* rights 
within the Union, opposed secession in the Convention of 1861, but urged vigorous 
prosecution of the war. By 1863 this militant mood had passed. Subsequently, his 

250 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

inaugurating such a policy, or any course you might think proper 
to take. 

The people are heartily tired of these sensation politicians, 
if opposed, their time will soon expire. I have as great a horror 
of trie Southern Confederacy as I have of Lincoln's Administration, 
am opposed to both. I fear it is now too late to make any effort 
to save our good old State from Civil War. But will never despair 
untill the ship goes down, and feel confident that honest efforts 
are generally crowned with success. Honest men will not long be 
deceived by political rogues. 

I hope Providence will protect us in the right. 

From D. Clapp 5 * UNC 

Danville, Illinois. 
May 7th., 1861. 

You will please pardon me, being comparatively a stranger, 
for addressing you these lines. But having been born and 
educated, and having resided in your State, in what is now Ala- 
mance County, until I was 22 years old, and having many friends 
still residing there, and feeling a warm attachment to the Southern 
people, is my only excuse for addressing you in this time of 
National trial. It is true that I have resided in the North West 
for 22 years past, but this has not changed, in the least, my admira- 
tion of the Southern character; and little did I expect, when I last 
visited with my family, Old Orange, Alamance and Guilford 
Counties in the Summer of 1853, that the time would ever come, 
in the history of this Nation, when it would be unsafe for me to 
revisit the place of my birth, where my Father, and many of my 
friends lie in the silent grave; but if reports for the last year, and 
especially for the past six months, be true, then has this time come. 
But I am branching off in a direction which I did not intend when 

old Unionist posture caused both governors Holden and Worth to use him as a 
mediator in Washington. Although Brown's intellectual equipment was mediocre 
and he was an unusually poor speaker, he exerted considerable influence in the 
Jacksonian era. Jackson was his great friend and model. Brown owned a large 
plantation, "Locust Hill," in Caswell County. C. C. Pearson, "Bedford Brown," 
Dictionary of American Biography, III, 104-105; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 
22; Biographical Directory of Congress, 606. 

56 This letter reveals the trauma which secession caused for many Southerners who 
had settled outside their section. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 251 

I commenced writing. My object is to learn, for my own satisfac- 
tion, from some source more reliable than mere newspaper 
reports or telegrams; the position, the feelings, the wishes, and 
the course intended to be taken by the people of your State in 
the present crisis. 

I have, with much anxiety and interest, watched and scanned 
all the reports coming from the Old North State, for the past few 
months. Knowing as I did that N.C. had always been loyal to 
Government, I believed she would ever remain so; but have been 
much astounded at the reports we have from there within the 
few weeks past. 

You may think I view the present difficulty from a northern 
stand-point. I think not. 

What has Government done to oppress the South? Did the 
Southern people ever; until within a few years past, except old 
John C. Calhoun, and a few of his adherents, claim or hold that 
slavery was national? Have not the leading men of this Republic, 
with but very few exceptions, ever held, and have not the Supreme 
Courts of nearly all the southern states decided that slavery was 
local, and could not exist except by local enactment? It is true the 
people of the North are opposed to the principle of slavery, and 
therefore are bitterly opposed to its extension. Believing it to be 
an evil, both morally, socially, and politically, they are opposed to 
its introduction into any and all territory now free. But, notwith- 
standing their hostility to the institution of slavery, and to its 
extension, I honestly believe there is not one man in fifty, in the 
North Western States, who is an Abolitionist, or, in other words, 
who is in favor of abolishing slavery by any act of the General Gov- 
ernment, in the States where it now exists. It is true, there are 
those in the North who object to some features of the fugi- 
tive slave act, and obstacles have been thrown in the way, by mob 
violence, of its execution. But how many slaves have thus been 
prevented from being returned to their owners? I venture the 
assertion that there have not been more of this class than there have 
been free negroes captured by unprincipled men from the south, 
assisted by the same characters from the north, and carried south 
and sold into perpetual bondage. One of those acts, however, is 
no excuse for the other. But are the Southern States, and especially 
the Southern Cities, free from such violence? How many men have 
suffered in the Slave States at the hands of mobs, for no other 
offence than simply expressing their honest convictions of right 
and wrong; a privilege guaranteed to them by God Almighty, 
and by the Constitution of this Republic. Men have been murdered 
in the South for no other cause than that of expressing themselves 

252 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

against the evils, morally, of slavery. These things are too well 
authenticated to be denied, names, dates, and locality can be given. 
And did the authorities ever attempt to bring the offenders to 
justice? One man from this town, John E. Lemon; who was born 
and educated in Virginia, and who has now two brothers residing 
here, one of them a practising physician, and the other a lawyer, 
both of whom are strong Douglas Democrats; about ten years 
since left here, and emigrated to Texas, where he married and 
settled, has been pursued, hunted, and taken by a bloodthirsty 
mob, and murdered; and whose only offence was that of writing 
an article, which was published in one of their own papers, in which 
the writer attempted to compare and show the advantages of free 
over slave labor. 

What has the present Administration done to give offence to, 
or to injure the South? Has it taken from them any right or 
privilege guaranteed to them by the constitution? Has it withheld 
from them even, any favor which the South had a right to ask? 
Has it, the South, given the Administration a fair test, so as to 
know what it would do? I know that the Republican Party has 
been stigmatized as a black abolition party. Some have even 
gone so far as to assert that the aim and object of said party was, 
as soon as they should obtain the power, to abolish slavery in 
the States where it existed. Depend upon [it] there is not one 
word of truth in such an assertion. Abraham Lincoln, than whom 
the Almighty never created a more honest man, is by no means an 
abolitionist. That he is opposed to slavery is equally true. Tell me, 
how many Presidents has this Republic ever had, who were 
not opposed to the institution of slavery. Is President Lincoln not 
qualified for the post he occupies, is he not honest? The South 
will find, and learn that he is both. It is true he was elected by 
northern votes. This is not the fault of the North, the South had 
the privilege of voting for him, they did not choose to do it. He was 
constitutionally elected, and without fraud, and it is the duty of 
every good citizen, who is loyal to his country, to submit to his 
administration, and assist in enforcing the laws. What is the duty 
of the President. Is it not to maintain the supremacy of the laws, 
and save the Republic from wreck and ruin, if in his power to do 
so? Can he do this by acknowleging the right of secession? Certain- 
ly not! Admit this, and at once you destroy our Government. If 
South Carolina has the right to secede, so has Illinois, if Illinois 
has, so has New York, and so has every other State in the Union. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 253 

With the right of secession conceded on the part of the Administra- 
tion, where would be our Government? The right of rebellion, 
none deny. But, in case of rebellion, what is the duty of the Govern- 
ment? Suppose Breckenridge had been elected, and Illinois had 
rebelled, and established an independent government, and at- 
tempted to dissolve her allegiance to the Federal Government, 
what would have been the imperative duty of the Federal Govern- 
ment, with Mr. Breckenridge at its head? 

The foregoing will give you some idea of the views of the people 
of the North West on the present crisis. And one of the questions 
now to be tried and tested is, whether a Republican form of 
government can sustain itself, or not. The Administration will 
be cheerfully supported by the entire North, in the Present 
difficulties. No parties are now known, but the North is a unit 
in support of the constitution and the enforcement of the laws. 
If it becomes necessary, Illinois alone can, and will, turn out 
150,000 to 200,000 men, and support them in the field for five 
years, if required. It is impossible to describe the feeling that 
prevails throughout the north west. Under the call on this State 
for 6,000 troops, no less than 65,000 volunteered, and offered 
their services to the government. And a call for 10,000 volunteers 
by the Governor, for the defence of the State, was filled in two 

Depend upon it, the Government will be sustained, though 
there may be a long and bloody Civil War to wade through. Are 
not the projectors of the Southern Confederacy guilty of treason, 
and, if so, in what way should they be dealt with? 

What will North Carolina do? She has already taken possession 
of government property. Will she persist in that course? Has not 
the Administration bore and forbore with the Southern Gulf 
States? There has been no disposition on the part of the Govern- 
ment to attack, or wage war upon the South, she has 
certainly refrained from any act which could be construed as a 
hostile intent, even; until she has been compelled to, for her own 
safety. And now the people go into the contest, with a full assur- 
ance of the righteousness of their cause, and a firm reliance on 
Him who rules in the armies of Heaven and amongst the children 
of men. 

Will you have the goodness to reply to this, and oblige, 

Yours Very Resp't'y, 

254 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From J. J. McElrath 57 UNC 

New Orleans, 

May 15th., 1861. 

This City presents the appearance of a great Military encamp- 
ment. The sound of Marshal Music, and the tread of marching 
troops are to be heard at all hours of the day, and night, — hundreds 
are leaving daily for Virginia. Our route through Georgia and 
Alabama was literally lined with armed man. 

At Montgomery I had an introduction to the President of the 
Southern Confederacy; I was not favorable impressed with him, 
his appearance did not come up to my expectations. Nor did his 
conversation convey to my mind the idea of a wise, cautious, 
and prudent Statesman. In Mr. Lincoln, I thought I could 
see too much of the Buffoon; in Mr. Davis, too much of the Brag- 
adocia. Neither of them seem to be willing, or, it may be, they 
are not capable, of taking a calm and rational view of present 
troubles. Excuse me, Gov., these are only first impressions, and 
are as likely to [be] wrong as right. However, under such leaders, 
the Country, I fear, can expect nothing but the most dire calamities. 

The impressions made upon my mind, in traveling through 
both sections of the Country, is, that the sufferings, pecuniarily, 
is now, and will continue to be, incalculably greater at the North, 
than here. In a protracted War, the Southern people need only 
experience the wants of luxuries, not of nessessaries. At the North, 
on the other hand, hundreds of thousands must either subsist 
upon Charity, or Starve; this class, however, will make up the 
great body of the Northern Army. 

From Robert B. Gilliam A&H 


May 16th., 1861. 

After expressing my very deep gratification at your re-election 
to the Convention, 58 I desire to ask your favorable consideration 

57 McElrath had recently departed from Hillsborough. 

58 Despite an increase in secessionist sentiment in Orange County, Graham 
(1,064 votes) and Berry (932) defeated Paul C. Cameron (809) and Henry K. Nash 

The Papers of William A. Graham 255 

of the wishes of our friend Col. L. C. Edwards to be apppointed 
Clerk of that body. I know of no one who possesses higher qualifi- 
cations for the office, and I shall be very much gratified if it should 
be the pleasure of the Convention to give him the appointment. 
Will you do Col. E. and myself the favor to mention this matter to 
Capt. Berry. 

You have probably heard of the defeat of Amis 59 and myself 
in this county. The old secessionists were united and active 
whilst the original Union were indifferent and torpid — many 
of them refusing to go to the election, from an idea that the only 
business of the Convention would be to secede from the General 
government, an office which could be performed, as they said, 
as well by one person as another. I lost my election by some ten 
or twenty votes. 

From David L. Swain UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

May 18th., 1861. 

The difficulties of the times have induced the editors of the 
Univ. Mag. to suspend its publication, after the two first forms of 
the May No. had been printed off. 

Supposing that my unfinished article contains some things 
which may be of interest at the present moment, I send you a 
copy. The notes were in type before the Assembly was called, 
the letters to which they are appended written in 1834. Having 
occasion yesterday, in preparing a lecture for the seniors to com- 
pare the "permanent with the provisional constitution," I was 
surprized to find that the prohibition to the States "to emit bills 
of credit," adopted in the latter from the constitution of the U. S., 
was omitted in the latter, (the Permanent Constitution). My note, 
p. 527, refers to the Provisional Government. 

(727). When the convention met, Weldon N. Edwards defeated Graham for 
president by a vote of 65 to 48, which was an accurate indicator of secessionist 
and Union strength. In the convention Graham supported George E. Badger's 
proposed ordinance, which was a declaration of independence, based on the idea 
that a revolution was occurring. It was defeated, and Graham then voted for the 
ordinance of secession which was adopted unanimously. Hillsborough Recorder, 
May 15, 1861; Sitterson, Secession Movement, 246-248. 

59 James S. Amis served Granville County in the state legislature in 1850, 1852, 
1854, 1862, and 1864. Granville County was represented in the convention by Taze- 
well Lee Hargrove, Stephen Samuel Hargrove, and Abraham Watkins Venable. 
Connor, Manual, 1913, 624; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 42, 69-70, 85-86. 

256 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Lawrence Washington 60 desires a lieutenancy in the regular 
army of this State. There is no member of his class whom I 
can more confidently recommend as suited to such a position 
than he, but I am at a loss as to whom, and where, I should 
address a note on the subject — the government at Raleigh or 
Montgomery. I have not seen our Military bill, 61 and know 
nothing of its provisions. I intend visiting Raleigh on Monday, 
and will avail myself of the opportunity to confer with you on this 
and other subjects. 

Would not S. F. Phillips make a better Secretary for the Conven- 
tion than any one else who will probably be in nomination? 
I make the suggestion without his knowledge. He goes down to 
Wake Court on Monday morning, and you will have opportunity 
to ascertain his wishes in time for the nomination. He rendered 
yeoman service to Capt. Berry as well as yourself, at the election. 

I think the Convention ought to repeal the stay law, adopt a 
new basis of taxation, and re-write the Constitution of [the] 
State, ommitting [sic] the parts rendered obsolete by the adoption 
of the federal Constitution, and doubly obsolete by its abrogation. 

From Josiah Turner, Jr. , 62 A&H 


May 18, 1861. 

I send you a little slip which in these war times may have 
escaped your reading. 

60 George Lawrence Washington (1842-1892), of Lenoir County, Mrs. Graham's 
nephew, was then a student at the university. He withdrew to enter the Confederate 
army, and in 1911 was awarded the bachelor's degree posthumously. Spencer Alumni 
Project; Clark, "Washington Descendants." 

61 On May 1, 1861, the North Carolina legislature met in special session. It quickly 
approved Governor John W. Ellis's stand in resisting a federal call for troops, 
called for a special election to choose delegates to a convention to be convened on 
May 20, and passed a series of military measures upon the presumption that war 
was imminent. Sitterson, Secession Movement, 243-244. 

62 Josiah Turner, Jr. (1820-1901), of Hillsborough, was a lawyer, political journalist 
extraordinary, and politician. He was always an admirer of William A. Graham, 
whose advice he frequently sought and followed. He was a Whig member of 
Commons in 1852, 1854, 1858, 1860, and was elected as a Conservative to the state 
senate in 1868; but he did not take his seat. He opposed secession, but he became 
a Confederate captain of cavalry. Wounded and disabled in the New Bern campaign, 
Turner resigned. In 1863 he was elected to the Confederate congress as a peace 
candidate. He was actively hostile to the Davis administration and urgently desired 

The Papers of William A. Graham 257 

There are a few seceders who will have an ordinance all ready. 
What think you of having one ready to offer at an early moment? 
I hope you will have a declaration of independence prepared. I 
like the Tennessee alliance with the Southern Confederacy. 63 

You see the Governor's war board — everything here goes for 
the party, they think more of that than of the country. I shall be 
at the Forks on Monday. M. H. Pinnix 64 requests me to say he is 
a candidate for Secretary of the Convention; he was at Chapel 
Hill with your sons, who can tell you more of him than I can. 

From Calvin H. Wiley 65 A&H 

Greensboro', N.C., 
May 20th, 1861. 

Owing to the severe illness of my Mother, I will not be able to 
leave home before tomorrow or next day. 

In the mean time, I hope the Convention will take the initiatory 
steps of some action in regard to our Common Schools, for it is 
due to this interest Sc to the State that the character of the former 
be known, 8c the policy of the latter in regard to it be fixed and 

peace. After the war Turner became a Conservative and was an enthusiastic enemy 
of William W. Holden. In 1868 he purchased the Raleigh Sentinel and edited it as 
an anti-Holden organ. Bitterly opposed to congressional Reconstruction, Turner 
soon displayed a genius for political polemic as he held the carpetbag government 
up to ridicule and abuse. He was probably the one man most responsible for 
overturning congressional Reconstruction in North Carolina. During the height 
of the Kirk-Holden war, Turner was imprisoned, after issuing a public dare to 
Governor Holden. Later, Turner's arrest was one of the charges brought against 
Holden in impeachment proceedings. In later life Turner was a pathetic figure who 
seemed to lose his balance. He went bankrupt, lost the Sentinel, and never got 
the political preferment he desired. The Democrats distrusted his instability and 
erratic behavior, and he died a Republican. The historian and biographer 
Samuel A. Ashe believed that the death of Graham in 1875 signaled Turner's loss 
of control. Turner had the highest respect for Graham and cared only for his 
advice and counsel. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, "Josiah Turner," Dictionary of 
American Biography, XIX, 68-69; Samuel A. Ashe, "Josiah Turner," Ashe, Biographical 
History, 111,415-526. 

63 Enclosed with the letter was a long clipping from the North Carolina Standard, 
Raleigh, containing a copy of the proposed convention between the state of Ten- 
nessee and the Confederate States of America, and a Declaration of Independence of 

64 Marshall Henry Pinnix (1835-1897), of Caswell and, later of Davidson County, 
was a graduate of the University of North Carolina and a lawyer. He was a univer- 
sity trustee, member of the North Carolina House of Representatives, 1874-1879, 
state senator, 1883-1885, and mayor of Lexington. Connor, Manual, 1913, 589; 
Spencer Alumni Project. 

65 Calvin Henderson Wiley (1819-1887), of Guilford County, was educated by the 
Caldwell Institute and the University of North Carolina. He was a lawyer, editor, 

258 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

It seems that it would be both just and appropriate to have 
appointed a Committee of intelligent 8c honest men, of both 
political parties, or of all parties, to make a thorough examination 
into the affairs of my office, the history 8c condition of the 
Schools, 8cc. 8c make a report, recommending such action as they 
may deem important to the interests of North-Carolina. 

I want, once for all, a complete and searching examination 
into these things, by competent men. 

It may be that I myself am deceived, and now is a good time for 
us all to see where and how we stand. 

There ought to be on the Committee men of intelligence and 
patriotism — men who can comprehend the subjects coming 
before them, Sc who will express their opinions honestly. I cannot 
offer some suggestions which I wished to lay before you as I am 
anxious to get off several letters this morning, Sc the mail is 
about to close. 

P.S. If it is desired to have my last report before the Members of 
the Convention, copies for this purpose can be obtained in the 
bindery over Turner's Book Store. If any Committee is appointed 
I suppose it will await my arrival in R. before reporting, etc. 

From Calvin H. Wiley A&H 

Greensboro', N.C, 
May 21st, 1861. 

I hope you will excuse me for troubling you again. 

I had to write a number of letters by candle-light yesterday 
morning, the one to you among them, in order to be in time for the 
mail, my residence being several miles from town. 

novelist, and educator. Early in life he became concerned about the backwardness 
of North Carolina social and economic conditions. As a Whig legislator, 1850-1852, 
he was a moving spirit in an effort to improve the state's common schools. In 1853 
he became the state's first superintendent of common schools, a position he was to 
occupy until 1865. He wrote textbooks, edited an education journal, and propagan- 
dized the need for universal free education and better schools. In the process he 
earned recognition as one of the nation's foremost educators. Unlike many of 
his contemporaries he was a warm advocate of public education for the freedmen. 
In his later years he was engaged in various worthwhile religious and patriotic 
endeavors. Edgar Wallace Knight, "Calvin Henderson Wiley,'' Dictionary of Amer- 
ican Biography, XX, 213. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 259 

The state of my Mother's health is such that I do not know when 
I can leave her: she has no child living with her but myself, 2c she 
is now very sick. 

It is natural for one who feels that he has honestly tried to serve 
his Country, to desire to have his public career understood, 
especially when his course is reflected on in places where he is not 
allowed to reply. 

I have made nothing but a bare living out of the State, having 
freely spent of my small salary to advance her interests 8c honor; 
& when flings are made at me & the office I feel as if my position 
was of no importance, & my public income sufficient to carry the 
State thro' a revolution I cannot but feel keenly, for I have nature 
in me. 

But that which fills me with most concern is to see the fond 
hopes of years destroyed by the recklessness of an hour. I have 
probably committed sin in attaching too much importance to 
the merely human devices for the advancement of our race; 8c I 
believe also, that my love for my own State had become too 
much of a ruling passion. 

No human being knows, or will know how much interest I 
have taken in the honor and prosperity of North-Carolina, 2c with 
what pride I have witnessed her progress in all the moral and 
material elements of greatness since I have been on the stage of 
action. A great and glorious revolution seemed rapidly going on, 
8c in ten years, if we had been permitted to pursue our career, 
every citizen could have lifted up his head as a member of a rich, 
happy, and powerful Commonwealth. 

The present revolution need not destroy these hopes, 2c what 
I dread is not the necessities of the crisis, but the spirit with 
which we meet these troubles. If we were animated with the 
moral courage of our fathers, or of the Romans, when Hannibal 
was encamped under the walls of their City, this storm would 
only settle and strengthen us. 

I had a great desire to meet a Committee of the Convention 2c 
to furnish to it means of forming an estimate of the character 
of our System of Common Schools, 2c of the manner in which I 
have discharged my public obligations, 2c it seemed to me that 
the occasion was appropriate for such an investigation. If it is the 
will of Providence I would like to put on such a trial, that future 
public bodies may not act in haste 2c with a one-sided view of 

I trust that your body will not act in this ex-parte way, and that 
if these subjects come up I will be notified, 2c have opportunities 

260 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

of furnishing information which can be procured from no other 

At present I am utterly at a loss what to do. Every moral agency 
draws on the future in all its operations. My office, properly 
discharged, is not one of mere routine; &c to do the work of to-day 
properly, I must also, labor for and calculate on to-morrow. 
My means must reach into the^r future, even, & how can I now 
apply myself with energy to my task? To-morrow my whole system 
of appliances may be cut up by the roots, and in the mean time, 
the cause of educational and moral progress in N. C. stands 
shivering with fearful suspense, 8c if not soon re-assured by the 
statesmen-like section of our public men, will fall into a hopeless 

From W. E. Boudinot 66 A&H 

Wilmington, N.C, 
May 27th, 1861. 

Believing that you are always influenced by patriotic motives 
when called into public service; I have volunteered in the present 
critical condition of our Country to address this communication 
to you, in regard to the Military defences of the State, which may 
be worthy of your consideration. 

Gov'r Ellis in his partiality for Newberne has apparently 
lost sight of this place which is doubtless the great strategic 
point of the States; we are here in a comparatively defenceless 
condition, for a force might easily be landed on the Coast within 
7 miles of the town, and in a few hours take possession of it. This 
accomplished it would place the enemy in command of the Military 

66 William E. Boudinot, at this time a prominent citizen of Wilmington, had 
entered naval service as midshipman in 1836. In November, 1858, he resigned as a 
lieutenant, a rank to which he had been appointed in 1849. He was second to none 
in practical seamanship and scientific attainments. He was a member of a committee 
concerned with the military preparedness of the Cape Fear area. Sprunt, Cape-Fear 
Chronicles, 210; Edward W. Callahan (ed.), List of Officers of the Navy of the United 
States and the Marine Corps from 1775 to 1900, Comprising a Complete Register 
of all Present and Former Commissioned, Warranted, and Appointed Officers 
of the United States Navy, and of the Marine Corps, Regular and Volunteer 
(New York: L. R. Hamersly and Company, 1901), 466, hereinafter cited as Callahan, 
List of Officers of the Navy and Marine Corps; D. Wallace to John W. Ellis, April 18, 
1861, Noble J. Tolbert (ed.), The Papers of John Willis Ellis (Raleigh: State 
Department of Archives and History, 2 volumes, 1964), II, 638-640. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 261 

highway of the State, for by establishing a line of posts along the 
road, Military combinations would be prevented, the co-opera- 
tion of the Eastern and Western portion of the State would be 
impossible. The supplies of the Garrisons at Forts Johnston and 
Caswell cut off and they soon starved into capitulation — the 
transportation of troops from the South prevented — the Arsenal 
at Fayetteville assailable — Telegraphic Communication stopped 
and the State virtually in possession of the enemy. 

To obviate this, I would propose to establish a Military 
encampment to consist of five thousand men at Goldsboro, 
a central and comparatively healthy situation, where in the event 
of an attack on either Beaufort or this place, we would have the 
appliances of three converging roads for the immediate trans- 
portation of troops stationed there; thus requiring only one half 
the force necessary for the defence of both places. 

I have felt some hesitation in offering these suggestions, seeing 
that you are surrounded by eminent Military men, but I have done 
so with the hope that this recommendation may be of some service 
to the old North State in her hour of need. 

Miss Susan Graham's 67 Quarterly UNC 

School Report 

School of the Misses Nash and Miss Kollock, 68 
Hillsborough, N.C. 

Miss Susan Graham's Quarterly Report, from 
22nd. March to 30th. May, 1861. 

Highest number 10. 

67 Susan Washington Graham (1851-1909) was later Mrs. Walter Clark. Clark 
"Graham Descendants." 

bg The Nash-Kollock school was a "select school" which operated in Hillsborough 
from 1858 to 1892. A school which attracted students from as far away as Texas, it 
brought culture and refinement to the community. It was opened by Sally and 
Maria Nash, daughters of Chief Justice Frederick Nash, and their cousin Sarah 
Kollock. Lefler and Wager, Orange County, 137; Blackwelder, Age of Orange, 


N.C. Department of Archives and History 




Deportment 10 

Scripture, 10 

Orthography, .... 10 

Definitions, 10 

Reading, 10 

Writing, 5 

Grammar, 9 


Geography 8 1/2 


Arithmetic, 10 


Arithmetic, 10 

Book of 

Commerce, 7 

Map Drawing, . . 6V2 
History, 71/2 

Algebra, 10 

Dictation, 91/2 

Rehearsal, 10 

Chemistry, 10 


Geography, 10 


Synonymes, .... 10 

Chronology 10 

Geometry, 10 

Rhetoric, 10 

Astronomy, 10 


Literature, 10 

Mythology 10 

Grammer and 

Composition 10 


Philosophy, 10 

Composition, ... 8 

Lectures on 

Eng. History, ..... 10 


Class Book, 10 

Extra Studies. 

French, 10 

German 10 

Greek, 10 

Latin, 10 

Drawing, 10 

Painting, 10 


Philosophy, 10 


Geography, 10 

Science of Things 

Familiar 10 

Botany, 10 

Analysis of Eng. 

Language, 10 


Milton, 10 


Science, 10 


Criticism, 10 

Trigonometry,. . . 10 
Evidences of 
Christianity, 10 


Piano 10 

Guitar, . 10 

Melodeon, 10 

Vocal Music, 10 

The Fall Term commences on the 12th. of July, 1861, 
and the Spring Term the th. of January, 186 . 

From H. Parker 


June 4th. 1861. 

I saw you have the Stay law before your Convention, if the law 
is repealed & something of the sort is not passed by the Convention 
from what I saw and heard expressed at Court last week by credi- 
tors there will be the most stringent collection we have ever ex- 
perienced in N.C. & such sacrifice of property we have not seen for 
no one ever so able would not buy property at this time, and would 
put the Debtor completely in the power of the Creditor, for the 
Banks I suppose will not be able or willing to do more than to help 
the State at present. I do hope your enlightened body will be 
willing and able to devise some means of relief that will be just 
to Creditor and debtor, securing the Debtor's property to his 

The Papers of William A. Graham 263 

now existing debts, if you can spare a few moments from your 
other engagements, I should like to hear from you concerning 
our national affairs & the Convention, etc. 

From Josiah Turner, Jr. A&H 

Goldsbo rough, 
June 9th, [1861]. 

Your son William and other young men, think that I can raise 
a company in Orange. 

I think it very doubtful. Black Smith Tom Lynch's 69 son and 
one or two others I saw on Saturday would go — but not willing to 
go out of the State. 

The chance of geting in the Seven Regiments for the defence 
of the State would cause many to go who otherwise would not. 

If the restrictive clause in that Bill were replaced it would add 
to the chances of making up a company. If the Company is made 
William wishes a Lieutenancy [in] it. 

If we make it up I should be glad of your advice as to what 
branch of the Service to enter, Volunteers, State troops, or what? 

Yours truly for the Fort. 

To Susan Washington Graham A&H 

June 12th, 1861. 

I write a line by Mr. Carmichael to say that telegraph never 
was received here yesterday evening — that the 1st. N.C. Regiment, 
Col. Hill with some Louis'na troops engaged the enemy at New 
Port News on James River, Va. 70 and destroyed 300 of them with 
a loss of only 7 or 8. 

69 Tom Lynch (1790-1861) was a good Christian and respected member of Hills- 
borough society. The roll of Turner's company lists no volunteer named Lynch. 
Hillsborough Recorder, September 4, 1861; Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 140-142. 

70 This reference is to the battle of Big Bethel, the first land battle of the war. 
The Federals lost seventy-six men and the Confederates eleven. Daniel H. Hill 
and the First North Carolina fought well, and although the engagement was only 
a skirmish, martial spirit ran high in the South. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 63; 
Daniel Harvey Hill, Bethel to Sharpsburg: North Carolina in the War Between the 
States (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Company, 2 volumes, 1926), I, 46-62, 
hereinafter cited as Hill, Bethel to Sharpsburg. 


N.C. Department of Archives and History 

"The Only Correct and Reliable Map of the Battle of Bethel!" was drawn by 
Lieutenant W. G. Lewis and published by Wm. B. Smith of Tarboro, N. C. In 
the lower left corner is an extract from the official report of Colonel D. H. Hill. This 
copy is from the files of the State Department of Archives and History. 

Another telegraph today says the loss was of but one man. The 
report is, I think, exaggerated, but there is no doubt that there 
has been an engagement, and the advantage was on our side. We 
shall probably get more reliable news this afternoon. 

A gentleman now here was at Suffolk & heard long continued 
firing on Sunday night and Monday morning, when the battle 
is said to have occurred. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 265 

The Convention did not elect its delegates to Congress today, 
but probably will tomorrow. 

Joseph, I hear from Wm. Morrison, will probably get the place 
of Assistant Surgeon in the Regiment with Gen'l Young. 71 

I have heard nothing from Fort Macon since my return. 

From Samuel F. Phillips A&H 

[June 13, 1861.] 

I have been sorry that no adequate sketch of the Debates in 
your Convention has been given to the public. If this storm of 
war has any effect in breaking up the lethargy which broods over 
all departments in North Carolina, so far it will be a blessing. 

I have been especially desirous of learning how Mr. Badger 
& his allies met your point of law as to the means by which our 
State can enter the Southern Confederation. He is represented 
as saying that by adopting the Provisional Constitution we get 
upon the same platform with the Seven original Seceders: and 
therefore, enter the Permanent Confederacy in the same way that 
they do. I suppose that the reporter does him injustice, as there 
seems to be no logic in that; unless (& that time is to disclose) a 
logic of events. However, Sir, whether her action bear fruit sooner 
or later, I do not know that, after the decent discussion given to 
the Constitution, it is to be regretted that action has been taken 
upon the grave question of Accession [Secession]. 

I suppose you have read Mr. Turner's letter to the Recorder; 72 
I really think that of the sort to which it belongs, it is first rate. 
Mr. Turner belongs to the Guerilla arm of our service — & no one 
can exceed some of his performances in that line. 

71 John Augustus Young (1815-1889), of Iredell County, was married to Graham's 
niece, Malvina Sophia Graham (1821-1894). He was lieutenant colonel of the Fourth 
North Carolina Regiment. He was unfitted by illness for the field, and at Governor 
Vance's earnest request, resigned to manufacture cloth for uniforms. He was later 
colonel of the Seventy-fourth Regiment (Fifth Reserves). Clark, "Graham Descen- 
dants"; Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, I, 230, 241, V, 676. 

72 This letter in the Hillsborough Recorder, June 5, 1861, was written from Fort 
Macon on May 23. It was a highly characteristic letter, full of abuse of secessionists. 

266 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From J. H. Montgomery UNC 

Troy, N.C, 

June 14th., 1861. 

You must pardon me for writing you this note of inquiry. Should 
there be a draft for soldiers necessary from our State, (which may 
God forbid), would the men drafted be taken from the County 
or from each Captain's Dist.? 

My reason for troubling you is, that some of the Districts in 
my County have furnished almost the whole number, while others 
have furnished none. This is not just & equal, if in your power, 
and you think with me about the matter, I would be glad that 
you would have the matter so arranged that each Captain's 
Dist. be compelled to furnish it's just proportion of men. The 
Dist. in which I live has furnished over one third of it's citizens, 
among them, all the sons I have, capable of bearing arms. I write 
this hastily. I would be glad to see you, Sc hope to be able to [do] 
so before long. 

To Susan Washington Graham a&H 


June 20th, 1861. 

I have been appointed with Judge Ruffin, 73 to go immediately 
to Richmond to confer with the Pres't of the Confederate States, 
in relation to the transfer of the troops of N.C. to that Gov't. 

We shall leave early in the morning (Friday) $c expect to return 
Sunday afternoon or Monday morning. The appointment was 
made suddenly and unexpectedly, this afternoon. 

An order has issued from the Adjutant Gen'ls office, saying no 
more volunteers will be received for the present. The design being 
to force all troops into the regular service for the War. I think 
Wm. may as well delay the formation of his company for a week 
or two, at least till I return from Richmond. 

The Convention has finally put off the session of the Legislature 
till the 15th. of August. 

73 Thomas Ruffin. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 267 

Gov. Ellis, I hear, will go in the morning to the Red Sulphur 

Spgs., Va. Many suppose he will never return, and there [is] 

some talk of electing a Lieut. Governor to take his place in the 

event of his death. 74 

I can't, you will see, be at home on Saturday evening next. The 

Convention had resolved to adjourn next Wednesday evening, 

but I think will be obliged to remain till the end of the next 


Secession Convention Ordinance A&H 


That the Hon: Thomas Ruffin and the Hon: William A. 
Graham be appointed Commissioners by this Convention, that 
they be requested to proceed on the 21st. Inst, to Richmond for the 
purpose of conferring with the Confederate authorities, in relation 
to the reception into the service of that Government, of the State 
troops and Volunteers of this State, and that they make report of 
the result of such conference to this Convention, at the earliest 
day practicable. 

W. N. Edwards 75 

The above is a true copy of a Resolution adopted by the Con- 
vention of North Carolina on the 20th. day of June, A.D. 1861. 

Walter L. Steele 76 

74 Governor Ellis died on July 7 and was succeeded by Henry Toole Clark of Edge- 
combe, the speaker of the state senate. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 156-157. 

75 We Id on Nathaniel Edwards (1788-1873), of Northampton County, was a 
trained lawyer but was more interested in agriculture and politics. He was a 
protege of Nathaniel Macon and was in complete sympathy with his mentor. 
He was a member of Commons in 1814, the United States House of Representatives, 
1815-1827, the Constitutional Convention of 1835, where he opposed democratic 
reforms, the state senate, 1833-1846 and 1850-1854, and the Convention of 1861, 
where he presided. He shrank from exercising the right of secession before Lincoln's 
election, but soon became its chief proponent. His election to the presidency of the 
convention, in a contest with Graham, indicated clearly that the secessionists were 
dominant. After 1862 he devoted his time to writing a Memoir of Nathaniel Macon 
Of North Carolina. Despite the ravages of war and defeat, Edwards led a comfortable 
life on his beloved plantation "Poplar Mount" near Ridgeway. J. G. de Roulhac 
Hamilton, "Weldon Nathaniel Edwards," Dictionary of American Biography, VI, 

76 Walter Leak Steele (1823-1891), a lawyer and manufacturer, was secretary of 

268 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Report of the Commissioners Sent by the Convention, to 
Confer with the President of the Confederate States, in 
Regard to the Transfer of the Troops Raised by North 
Carolina to that Government 77 

The undersigned Commissioners, appointed by the Conven- 
tion of North Carolina, to confer with the authorities of the 
Confederate States, in relation to the reception into the service 
of that Government of the State troops and volunteers and naval 
forces of this State, Report: 

That in obedience to the order of the Convention, they repaired 
to Richmond, Virginia, and had an interview with the President 
of the Confederate States, on Saturday, the 22d inst., on the several 
matters embraced in their mission. 

1. The President consented to receive, as soon as they shall 
be ready for service, the State troops levied by North Carolina, to 
serve during the war: of which description offeree, it was supposed 
by the undersigned there would be the full complement of ten 
Regiments, or at the least eight Regiments. The law of the Con- 
federate Congress, to which he made reference, and copies of 
which are presented herewith, authorizes the reception of such 
troops only in regiments, or in battalions or companies, without 
general officers or staff officers of any class whatever. And the 
conclusion of the President, after the suggestion of the under- 
signed that this law was in violation of the Constitution, which 
secures to the States the appointment of officers of their militia, 
called into the service of the Confederation, and a free discussion 
of the question was definitely expressed that no officers of these 
descriptions would be received into the service of the Confederacy, 
under commissions from the State, and that the Confederate Gov- 
ernment would itself appoint all Pay Masters, Quarter Masters, 
Commissaries, and Surgeons, as well as Generals of Brigades and 

76 Walter Leak Steele (1823-1891), a lawyer and manufacturer, was secretary of 
the Convention of 1861. A native of Richmond County, he graduated from the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina in 1844, after attending Randolph-Macon and Wake 
Forest colleges. He was a Democrat in politics. He was a member of Commons in 
1846, 1848, 1850, 1854, the state senate in 1852 and 1858, and the United States 
Congress, 1877-1881. Biographical Directory of Congress, 1648-1649. 

77 This report is taken from a printed pamphlet located in the North Carolina 
Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 269 

2. As to future requisitions on the States for troops, the Pres- 
ident expressed his purpose to be (and for this an act of Congress 
had also provided) to call for men by companies in the several 
States, and to issue commissions of the Confederate Government 
to their officers where the requisite number of men shall be 
furnished. In this mode he proposes to raise a "reserved corps," 
which shall be kept up in the States at camps of instruction, and 
which may be called to active service whenever necessity shall 

3. Touching the volunteer forces which have been raised and 
are now being organized in North Carolina: four regiments, the 
undersigned were informed by the secretary of War, in the inter- 
view with the President, have already been received, and mus- 
tered into the service of the Confederate States. The undersigned 
called the attention of the President to the fact that this State had 
a large force of volunteers for twelve months, amounting to eight 
or ten thousand men, in addition to the three regiments now 
ready to be tendered for service under the Confederate flag, and 
they urged that much disappointment would ensue, and the 
ardour of our young men might be dampened in future calls for 
troops, if they were now compelled to disband and return to 
their homes, instead of marching against the enemy. The President 
agreed to consider the proposition to accept these troops also, 
and at the request of the undersigned, promised to communi- 
cate his determination in writing through the Secretary of War. 
The letter of the Secretary on the next day is presented herewith 
as a part of this report. Upon its perusal in the presence of the 
Secretary, the undersigned call his attention to the omission of 
any conclusion of the President in regard to the volunteers 
for twelve months, now ready to be tendered as above stated. The 
Secretary promised further to consult the President on this point, 
and make known his conclusions by telegraph. The accompanying 
dispatch received this day informs the undersigned that the Pres- 
ident will accept these volunteers for twelve months, two thousand 
men only — but that he designs, in a day or two, to call for a 
reserved force of three thousand men from this State, "to be ac- 
cepted by companies," to go into camps of instruction. 

The undersigned deem it proper to declare that they are unable 
to concur in the construction of the Constitution by the Presi- 
dent and Secretary of War, by which the States are deprived of the 
appointment of general and staff officers, corresponding with the 
numbers of men furnished by their Governors upon requisitions 
of the President, and the further power on his part to call on 

270 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Governors of States for men by companies, whose officers are to 
be commissioned by himself, as proposed in the above mentioned 
letter of the Secretary of War. 

4. As to the naval force of North Carolina, the President, with 
the advice of the Secretary of the Navy, declared his readiness 
to commission as officers of the Confederate Navy all officers now 
in the service of North Carolina, who had retired from the Navy 
of the United States, in consequence of the recent disruption of 
that Government, and in the rank held by them under that 
Government, but no engagement would be made to issue commis- 
sions to any other officers. 

Upon hearing the opinion of the Secretary of the Navy he 
declined to receive the vessels of the State purchased for naval 
uses, but agreed to take them as transports for the war department, 
provided the Secretary of War, should, on investigation, find 
them to be useful in communicating with the Forts and Batteries 
on the coast of the State. 

5. The Confederate States agree to receive all Quarter Master's, 
Commissary and Medical stores owned by North Carolina, Which 
she may consent to deliver over, and will pay for them on delivery 
to their officers. 

6. The President expressed his sense of the obligation of the 
Confederate Government to defend every part of the territories 
of all the States against the common enemy, and in a subsequent 
conversation with the Secretary of War, the same obligation was 
acknowledged by him, with the declaration of his opinion that it 
was unnecessary for a State to keep up a separate force for its 
own defense, and assurances were given that proper measures for 
defense in all quarters would be duly provided by the common 
Government; and furthermore, that if two thousand men of the 
volunteer forces aforesaid, should be accepted by the President 
(as the dispatch of this day informs us they will be) it would be 
with a view to employ them in the Forts and along the coasts of 
North Carolina. 

Thomas Ruffin, 
Will. A. Graham. 

June 26th, 1861. 

P.S. A communication from the Secretary of the Navy, received 
since closing this report, is herewith presented. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 271 


Confederate States of America, War Department, 
Richmond, June 23rd, 1861. 

To the Hon. Messrs. Graham and Ruffin, 

Commissioners from North Carolina. 

Gentlemen: I herewith transmit you the acts passed by the 
Provisional Congress at its first and second sessions, and, in 
relation to the conversation between us held on yesterday, deem 
it proper to say, that, by reference to the act to "provide for the 
Public defence," and the emendations of that act, you will find 
the law regulating and controlling the organization and service of 
the Provisional Forces of the Confederate States. It will be seen 
that volunteers have the same organization and the same pay and 
allowances provided for the Regular Army, and are received and 
mustered into service by "Companies, Squadrons, Battalions and 
Regiments" only. When thus organized, according to the Act 
"for the establishment and organization of the army of the Con- 
federate States of America," they are uniformly accepted with the 
Company and Field Officers selected by themselves. It is quite 
apparent this Department cannot receive, under the law, a higher 
military organization than that of a Regiment; and it has always 
claimed and exercised the right to make all Staff appointments, 
reconciling, in this respect, as far as practicable, the preferences of 
the volunteers with the interests of the service. Brigades are orga- 
nized and General officers appointed by the authorities here. The 
Congress wisely confided both the one and the other to the 
military experience of the President; and the reservation of Staff 
appointments to the War Department was essentially necessary 
to the harmonious administration of the Commissariat, Quarter 
Master, and Surgical Bureau, operating throughout a field so 
extensive and ramified as that now existing. 

Some of the States, before joining their fortunes to those of the 
Confederates, found it necessary to make independent military 
preparations and to raise troops under their own laws. These 
troops have been generally passed under Confederate Authorities, 
through agreements between their respective States and the Con- 
federate Government. In view of the controlling necessity of the 
case, and to avoid confusion, the Confederate Government may, 
perhaps, in this manner, have taken into its service troops not 
thoroughly organized, according to the requirements of Congress; 
but, in no instance, has the Confederate Government stipulated 

272 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

to receive from a State a Brigade, as such, a General officer, or in 
diminution of its power to regulate Staff-appointments at will. 

The organization of the regular army, provided for at the first 
session of the Congress, has been entirely suspended for the 
present, in view of the public necessities and the immediate 
demand for large forces in the field, only to be supplied through 
volunteers. This department has been enabled the more readily 
to take this step in consequence of the law passed at the second 
session of Congress, in order to meet the proclamation issuing 
from the Government at Washington calling for enrollments for 
three years and enlistments for the war. By this law the President 
was authorized to receive volunteers for the war. Thousands have 
been so tendered, and, by the fact, the chief bulk of the army now 
in the field from the States composing the Confederacy, stand on 
the same basis as regulars. An enormous expense has been thus 
saved to the Government, at the same time that the effectiveness 
of the service through the suspension of the organization of the 
regular army has in no manner been diminished. 

It is understood here that North Carolina has organized ten 
Regiments for the war to be passed under Confederate Authorities; 
and it gives me pleasure to say that these Regiments will be muster- 
ed into the service and received into the pay of this Department 
at the earliest moment after notification from Governor Ellis of 
their actual organic formation. But, concerning the fact men- 
tioned by you, that a number of volunteers, in addition to the ten 
Regiments reported for the war, are being raised in North Caro- 
lina, it is proper for me to state that the President , under the laws 
of Congress authorizing him to make requisitions upon the States, 
will call for these troops from time to time as the public exigencies 
may demand. He now, more especially, desires to embody in the 
different States a reserved army corps, to be placed in camps of 
instruction and thoroughly prepared, as regulars, to meet the 
casualties of the battle-field and a possible reverse of arms. To 
this end these forces will be enrolled for the war, will be received 
by Companies, and, as thus mustered into service, will be paid and 
subsisted by this Department. The numbers necessary to the entire 
corps will be determined upon, and the quota of North Carolina 
made known to Governor Ellis in the course of a few days. 

This Department would not arrogate to itself to suggest, un- 
asked, what course North Carolina should pursue in the transfer 
of the Forts and Arsenals within her limits. But as the Commission- 
ers have done me the honor to request an expression of opinion 
on the subject, I do not feel at liberty to decline their solicitation. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 273 

Such jurisdiction over the Forts and Arsenals should be ceded 
to the Confederate Government as would clothe it with the 
power fully to execute the objects of the transfer. The particular 
form in which this shall be done, this Department will not presume 
to indicate. This form has varied in the different States — the trans- 
fer in some of them being absolute, or without limitation, while 
in others the ultimate fee has been reserved, together with the 
right to resume jurisdiction whenever, in the opinion of the State 
making the cession, the power transferred should be unjustly 
used. I would furnish copies of these transfers, but they are not 
upon the files of the Department. The subject is one of vast 
moment, and the despotism exercised by the Government at 
Washington over the Forts and Arsenals ceded to the United States, 
in derogation of the trusts reposed in its authorities, is patent 
on the face of events. It will be for the wisdom of your statesmen 
so to word the instrument of transfer, as to reconcile the funda- 
mental doctrine of State Rights set forth in the Constitution with 
the imperative requirements of our present military operations 
against an insolent and audacious foe, and the exacting purpose 
of the general defence hereafter. 

I have the honor to be, 

With high consideration and respect, 

L. P. Walker, 78 
Secretary of War. 


Telegraph from Richmond 

Richmond, June 25th, 1861. 

To Gov. Graham or Judge Ruffin: 

The President desires me to say that, of the volunteers for 
twelve months, he will accept two thousand. Beyond this number 

78 Leroy Pope Walker, of Alabama, graduated from the University of Alabama 
and studied law at the University of Virginia in preparation for a career in law and 
politics. A Democrat and ardent secessionist, Walker was appointed first Confederate 
secretary of war. His appointment was politically motivated, and he proved 
incapable. He resigned in September, 1861, and was immediately appointed 
brigadier general. Assigned to the Department of Alabama and West Florida, 
Walker sought vainly to get a field command. Failing this, he resigned in February, 
1862, and was later appointed judge of a military court, a position which he held 
at war's end. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 885. 

274 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

he cannot go. A reserved corps for the war of three thousand 
men will be called for from your State in a day or two, to go into 
camps of instruction, and to be accepted by Companies. This 
arrangement will probably absorb what is left of your volunteer 
organizations for other points. I refer you to my letter of the 
twenty-third inst. 

L. P. Walker 

From Kenneth Rayner a&H 

Thursday night, 
June 25th. [1861]. 

Since the Convention adjourned, I have heard that there is 
still a doubt, whether your bill to transfer the troops has passed 
further than its second reading. If so, we shall yet be defeated 
by a technicality. Refresh your memory, & try & recollect 
whether it was the second or third reading that it passed to-day. 
The question was mooted at the time it passed to-day; but the 
chair decided it had passed its third reading. I am almost afraid 
there is some mistake about it. It must be the first thing enquired 
after in the morning; and if it has passed only its second reading, 
we must force it through its third reading if it consumes the day. 
Be sure to look after it. 

An Ordinance 79 to Provide for the Disposition of the State 
Troops and Volunteers Raised Under the Acts of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, Respectively, Entitled, "An Act to Raise 
Ten Thousand State Troops," Ratified the 8th Day of May, 
and "An Act to Provide for the Public Defence," Ratified 
the 10th Day of May, 1861, and for Other Purposes 

1. Be it ordained by the Delegates of the people of North 
Carolina in Convention assembled, That the State troops levied 

79 This ordinance was the measure passed by the convention as a consequence of 
the mission of Graham and Ruffin to Richmond. Ordinances and Resolutions 
Passed by the State Convention of North Carolina, First Session in May and June, 
1861 (Raleigh: John W. Syme, 1862), 37-40. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 275 

under the act of the General Assembly, first aforesaid, which 
have been formed into regiments, with proper complements of 
officers and men, be, and the same are hereby transferred, by 
regiments, to the Confederate States of America, upon the same 
terms and conditions as if they had been raised under the authority 
of the said Confederate States. 

2. Be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid, That all 
levying and recruiting of troops under said act shall cease and 
determine from and after the 20th day of August next; and that all 
troops which shall have been raised under said act prior to that 
day, shall be organized into regiments and transferred to the Con- 
federate States in the manner and upon the terms and condi- 
tions aforesaid. And if there shall be an excess in the number of 
said troops, sufficient to form a battalion, companies or company, 
such excess may be organized according to its appropriate numbers, 
and transferred in like manner. 

3. Be it further ordained, That all appointments of officers 
under said act, either in the line or in the staff, over and above the 
number appropriate to and required by the regiments, battalions 
and companies thus organized, shall cease and be vacated on the 
said 20th day of August next; and that His excellency, the Gov- 
ernor, may, in his discretion, order any Quartermaster, Commis- 
sary or Medical stores, owned by the State, and not required for 
immediate use, to be turned over to the said Confederate States 
upon proper receipts for the articles thus delivered, to be taken 
by the officers accountable for the same. 

4. Be it further ordained, That all commissions to officers in the 
aforesaid State troops, issued by the Governor and Military 
Board, under the authority of the act of the General Assembly to 
create a Military Board, ratified the 10th day of May, 1861, who 
shall remain in service after the 20th day of August next, as afore- 
said, are hereby ratified and confirmed, notwithstanding any 
provision in the Constitution of the State for a different mode of 

5. Be it further ordained, That the naval forces and vessels of 
the State troops, in the second section of this ordinance, the said 
vessels to be paid for or accounted for upon terms to be agreed 
upon by the Governor with the Confederate States; and that after 
the 20th day of August next, all naval officers of this State shall be 
discharged, and all vessels of the navy not accepted by the Confed- 
erate States, shall be sold under the direction of the Governor. And 
whereas, the President of the Confederate States, through a com- 
munication from the Secretary of War, has informed this Conven- 

276 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

tion that he will accept from this State into the service of the Con- 
federate States, two thousand volunteers for twelve months, in 
addition to the four regiments already in service, and cannot 
accept any greater number of volunteers for twelve months: 

6. Be it therefore ordained by the authority aforesaid, That all 
volunteers who have been called out by the order of the Gover- 
nor for twelve months, over and above the four regiments afore- 
said and two thousand men, to be designated by the Governor, 
and tendered to the President for service as aforesaid, shall be 
discharged on the 20th of August next: Provided, That any of 
said volunteers who shall signify their desire to enlist in the State 
troops aforesaid or in any corps that may be called for by the 
President in the mean time, shall be discharged forthwith, to the 
end that they may enter such new service; and Provided further, 
That the Governor shall again tender such volunteers by 
regiments to the President of the Confederate States, and if the 
President shall agree to accept them or any part of them, by, or 
before the 20th day of August next, it shall be the duty of the Gov- 
ernor to order them, or as many of them as the President shall 
accept, into the service of the Confederate States, and discharge 
only the residue: Provided, further, That any volunteers dis- 
charged as aforesaid, shall, in addition to their pay, be allowed 
reasonable expenses for traveling to their several homes; and 
Provided further, That the Governor may order out the Militia 
as volunteers or otherwise, in case of invasion or imminent danger 

7. Be it further ordained, That all provisions of the aforesaid 
acts of the Assembly, authorizing the raising of a greater number 
of men, or of a different species of force than is hereinbefore 
comprehended, or as are otherwise inconsistent with this ordinance, 
are hereby repealed and declared of no effect. 

8. Be it further ordained, That the act of the General Assembly 
entitled "An act to create a Military Board," be, and the same 
is hereby repealed from and after the 20th day of August next: 
Provided, That the office of Military Secretary will be continued 
until the 20th day of September next, for the purpose of settling 
the military accounts. 

9. Be it further ordained, That no oath shall be required to be 
taken by the officers or soldiers of any of the forces aforesaid, 
except the oath of allegiance to the State of North Carolina, prior 
to their being mustered into the service of the Confederate States; 
but each man shall be held and deemed to be in the military ser- 
vice and subject to the rules and articles of war of the Confederate 
States from the time of his signing the articles of enlistment. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 277 

10. Be it further ordained, That it shall be the duty of the 
Governor to take immediate measures, and issue the necessary 
orders to carry into effect the foregoing provisions of this 

11. Be it further ordained, That this ordinance may be amended, 
modified or repealed by the General Assembly, so far as regards the 
discharge of the twelve months volunteers which may not have 
been accepted by the government of the Confederate States. 
[Ratified the 27th day offune, 1861.] 

David Schenck's Tribute to Graham 
at the Convention ofl861 80 

The work of war and revolution now began, and Governor 
Graham threw his heart and soul into the struggle. He was honest 
in his convictions, sincere in his purposes, and fearless in his 
advocacy. No one who knew him could ever doubt him, no 
sensible man could misapprehend him. He never dissembled, and 
was too bold and manly to compromise his principles or his honor. 

I well remember the impression his personal presence made 
upon me. He was the handsomest man in the convention, perhaps 
in the State. His figure was tall, erect, majestic; his features dis- 
tinct and symmetrical, making a striking profile, his eye was 
bright and watchful, and the beard worn on the cheek gave great 
force and expression to his countenance; add to this the faultless 
fit of his broadcloth suit, and the scrupulous neatness of his 
person, and we have the picture of a perfect, manly man. 

He was severely dignified in his manners, almost repellent, 
and seldom divested himself of this characteristic, even in the 
presence of his friends. But it was natural with him, and to that 
extent excusable. I never ventured through this obstruction to 
study his personal traits, or to know him intimately. I can there- 
fore only speak of him as I saw him at a distance and heard him 
in public debate. 

He was never an extreme man in anything, but always conserv- 
ative, cautious and prudent. He never became excited and could 
not be hurried or driven to a conclusion; he followed his judgment 
always, and never allowed it to be swayed by sentiment, passion or 

80 This tribute is taken from David Schenck, Personal Sketches of Distinguished 
Delegates of the State Convention, 1861-2, North Carolina (Greensboro: Thomas, 
Reece and Company, 1885), 8-12. This characterization of Graham is included 
because it is not easily accessible otherwise. 

278 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

It was soon apparent that Gov. Graham was exercising more 
influence on the action of the convention than any other member 
of it. and men who differed with him on abstract questions in 
politics began to respect, then to approve and at last submit to 
his opinions and judgments. His influence was not personal, 
for he did not seem to have friends, in the cordial acceptation of 
that word, and he did not confide his conclusions to others nor 
seek their assistance. His power was due to his great moral worth, 
his honesty and sincerity, his sound common sense and his wis- 
dom and extensive experience. 

Gov. Graham did not strike me as a man of genius but as 
possessing comprehensive talents, through which he acquired 
great knowledge, and as a close and philosophic observer of men 
and things. He argued generally from precedent and always re- 
spected authority. His mind was richly stored with historical 
information, and when the ardent leaders of the Revolution were 
rushing on with the tide of sentiment and the flush of patriotic 
feeling, his voice was ever recalling some incident of warning to 
calm their tempers and enlighten their judgment. He urged on the 
convention to be guided by the experience of the past, by the 
teachings of history rather than the empirical ideas of the day. He 
did not become exalted by victory, nor depressed by defeat, but 
was ever philosophical, patient and vigilant. 

Gov. Graham did not impress me as a great lawyer, except upon 
constitutional questions. His extensive reading while in national 
politics had given him an intimate acquaintance with the 
development of our government, and the great political sub- 
jects which were constantly discussed, and when it became neces- 
sary to legislate upon financial questions, and to define the duties 
and powers of the States in their relation to the Confederacy, and 
to find constitutional precedents for the measures proposed he 
became as an oracle in the assembly. 

He was no orator, like Mr. Badger, but he was an accomplished 
debater and graceful speaker, and far superior to Mr. Badger in 
practical sense; nor was he a jurist like Ruffin, with his unbounded 
legal lore, but he knew what the law ought to be, and what were 
the necessities of the people, and as a statesman he was wiser and 
safer than Ruffin. He did not possess shrewdness and tact in the 
management and leadership of debate like Gilmer, but he was 
frank, courageous and fair, and gathered followers whom he 
convinced rather than persuaded. As a man he was pure, consistent 
and sincere. He was not a professing Christian at that time, but he 

The Papers of William A. Graham 279 

revered the Christian church, honored God, and kept His com- 

In his manners, Governor Graham was always decorous and 
polite, but never familiar. 

He allowed no man to encroach upon his dignity. In debate 
he was fair, logical, polite and respectful. His pure mind abhorred 
a vulgar jest or an indecent allusion, and he looked upon the 
new era of unchaste oratory as a sure indication of the decay of 
public virtue and private morals. He was not careful to conceal 
his disgust of such license in debate, and provoked the resentment 
of those who indulged in it. Gov. Graham was a perfect model of a 
gentleman of the early days of the Republic, and never forgot that 
he had been a Senator and a Governor. The dignity of those 
elevated stations in official life was never debased by indulging 
in acts or language unbecoming the man who had occupied them. 

I do not remember to have heard Gov. Graham tell a joke, or 
indulge in satire, though he was often happy and pleasant in the 
narration of some personal incident or historical occurrence 
which seemed to illustrate his argument or impress his conclusions. 

He was a laborious man and never spoke without a thorough 
preparation; the result was that he never failed to instruct if he 
did not convince his audience. 

From John W. Graham UNC 

Raleigh, N.C. 
July 1st., 1861. 

Please write to Gen. Gatlin 81 fully on what terms the N.C. 
State Troops have been received by President Davis, and what 
you were able to learn in regard to him. I find a letter from him, 
requesting me to ask you to let him know whether they were 

81 Richard Caswell Gatlin (1809-1896), of Lenoir County, who was a veteran of 
the Black Hawk, Seminole, and Mexican wars, graduated from West Point in 
1832. He resigned from the United States Army in May, 1861, and was named 
adjutant general of North Carolina troops. In early July, 1861, he was promoted to 
Confederate brigadier general and was placed in command of coastal defenses 
in the southern department. He was seriously ill during the New Bern campaign and 
resigned in September, 1862, under a shadow. He sebsequently served as state 
adjutant and inspector general. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 327. 


N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Brig. Gen. Richard Caswell Gatlin (1809-1896) was in command of Confederate 
forces at the battle of New Bern, although he was ill at the time and resigned in 
September, 1862. Gatlin later served as state adjutant general and inspector general. 
Serving under Gatlin was William A. Graham, Jr. 

received by regiments, or under the present organization. The 
Gen. is anxious to know whether he will go to Virginia or not. I 
hope the President will accept him, but suppose I would have 
to get a place as Lieutenant in the Confederate Army, if this should 
be the case. Could [you] do any thing for me in that line? I go 
to Wilmington this afternoon. How long Gen. Gatlin remain [s] 
there, depends upon the intention of Davis. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 281 

From Edwin G. Reade a&H 

July 2nd, 1861. 

I have not seen it as you have, but I know well enough the 
proscriptive, unscrupulous & corrupt policy of the dominant 
party, of which you speak. 82 They have literally killed the country, 
of malice, and are now fattening upon its remains! 

But what can we do, Gov'r? If we say they are spending 
millions by the month in N.C. The answer will be that we must 
not think of dollars in such a crisis. If we say they are proscriptive 
8c have all the places of profit and honor, they will answer, that 
those who were most zealous for the war ought to conduct it. 
If we say they were at fault for provoking it, they will say no, they 
are not at all at fault but the North is altogether to blame, or if 
the whole blame is not upon the North then the remainder of it 
is upon you and me for not seceding sooner. And if you contravert 
any position it will be said you are making division where we 
ought to be united. And the malignant will say you are with the 
North. So that, turn which way you may, to take an active conserv- 
ative stand, without great prudence, is to jeopardize ones influence 
for good hereafter. 

And yet there is evidently a strong conservative influence in the 
country which ought to be enlightened, organized 8c kept ready 
for use, whenever it can be made available for the good of the 
country. It is the only hope of the country, for the spirit that now 
rules is, Destruction. Let, therefore, all of our men who are noted 
for firmness and caution be put in harness. And what cannot be 
done to day may be easy enough tomorrow, when the people begin 
to feel the evils which await us. 

I have much regard for Mr. Gilliam 83 as a man Sc much confi- 
dence in his integrity and availability as a politician Sc I will join 
you most heartily in urging him to become active. If you have 
occasion you will please say to him for me all that I could say if I 
were with you. I think we ought not only to be prompt in putting 
out our best men, but we ought to take the responsibility of 
keeping back such as would embarrass us. 

82 Graham had undoubtedly referred to North Carolina secessionists, whose in- 
fluence he resented. 

83 Robert B. Gilliam of Oxford. 

282 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Is there no chance to get up a good paper in the State? 
I have troubled you with too long a letter, but a real solicitude 
for the condition of our country is my apology. 

From James A. Graham UNC 

Fort Macon, 84 
July 8th., 1861. 

I wish that you would write me whether you are willing for me 
to volunteer for during the war or not. As President Davis will not 
receive any more 12 month Volunteers, our Company must 
either volunteer for the war or be disbanded on the 20th of 
August. Capt. Jones 85 has the promise that if he can raise a regi- 
ment he shall be Col. If he is promoted to Col., Joe Webb 86 will 
be Capt., and I think I can be elected 1st. Lieut., but I have heard 
that President Davis will not accept any commissioned officers 
under 2 1 years of age, but do not know whether it is so or not. 

Yesterday was my twentieth birthday. I wish that I could have 
been at home then. Stephen Dickson 87 has been elected 2nd. Lt., 
in Johnny's place. We are very well, there being only two or three 
serious cases of sickness in the whole garrison. One young man 
named Jackson, 88 in our Company, is very sick with Typhoid fever. 

It has been very warm for the last two or three days, but is 
getting cooler again. 

84 Fort Macon was strategically located on the east end of Bogue Banks, protecting 
the entrance to Beaufort Inlet. William S. Powell (comp.), The North Carolina 
Gazetteer (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), 180, hereinafter 
cited as Powell, North Carolina Gazetteer. 

85 Pride Jones (1815-1889), of Hillsborough, was at this time captain of the Orange 
Guards, but he did not serve with his company or its regiment during the war. He 
was a graduate of the University of North Carolina and was a state legislator in 1858 
and 1872. Spencer Alumni Project; Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, 
II, 425-426; Moore, Roster of Troops. II, 407-428. 

86 Joseph C. Webb, a druggist in Hillsborough, succeeded Pride Jones as captain 
of the Orange Guards, which became Company G of the Twenty-seventh North 
Carolina Regiment (of which he was later lieu tenant- colonel). After the war he 
was active in the Ku Klux Klan. Military Service Records; Moore, Roster of Troops, 
II, 407-408, 422; Hamilton, Reconstruction in North Carolina, 462. 

87 Stephen Dickson, of Orange County, enlisted in April, 1861, as a private but was 
soon elected second lieutenant of the Orange Guards, a company of which he became 
captain in April, 1863. He received a disabling wound at Bristoe Station in late 1863 
and retired in November, 1864. Military Service Records. 

88 No Jackson appeared on the muster rolls of the Orange Guards, so it seems 

Major William A. Graham, Jr. 

Major John W. Graham 

Pictured on this page are Mr. and Mrs. William A. Graham's five sons who served 
in the Confederate Army. 

284 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From James A. Graham UNC 

Fort Macon 
July 11, 1861. 

I received your very welcome letter a few minutes ago. ... I 
will not enter the service for the war unless in an office, for I know 
that I am as well if not better qualified for it than a great many 
who do hold offices, even as high as Capt. ... I want to be in the 
army somewhere or the other but do not care about going as 4th 
Sergeant if I can do better. I do not wish to be idle while others 
all around me are going at their country's call and if it were 
absolutely necessary would be willing to go in any position. Root 
has not yet sent the watch that you bought for me. I hope that he 
will send it soon, for I need it very much as I very often have to 
go on guard some distance from the Fort, and in that case have to 
borrow a watch to keep time with. 

I have no books with me except those you sent me sometime 
ago. ... I study military tactics a good deal and therefore do not 
have as much time for other reading as I would wish. There is no 

From Kemp P. Battle UNC 


July 11th., 1861. 

Presuming you feel an interest in the fate of your ordinance, I 
enclose you a copy of a general order, which my friend, Capt. 
Sparrow, 89 of Beaufort County, has in his possession. He tells me 

reasonable to presume that Jackson either died or was rendered unfit for service. 
Military Service Records; Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 422-423. 

89 Thomas Sparrow (1819-1884), of Beaufort County, a native of New Bern, grad- 
uated at Princeton in 1842, read law with William Gaston, and practiced law in 
Washington, North Carolina, where he was for a time a partner of Edward Stanly. 
He was a member of the state Commons in 1858, then moved to Illinois, and returned 
the following year. A captain of the "Washington Grays" in the North Carolina 
Seventeenth, he was captured at Hatteras and was imprisoned for about six months. 
After his exchange he was a major in the Tenth North Carolina Regiment and saw 
considerable active service. He was a member of the state House of Representatives, 
1870-1872, and was chairman of the board of managers in the impeachment of 

The Papers of William A. Graham 285 

that when Singletary's 90 Reg't became disorganized by several 
companies preferring the State troops to his service, Col, S. came 
to Raleigh, and stopped, by his urgent appeals, the transfer of the 
volunteers to the State troops, unless with the consent of the 
authorities here. It seems to me, those authorities having failed in 
defeating your bill, have determined to kill it by constructions, to 
place things in such confusion as to give the delectable Legislature 
an excuse for keeping up the patronage & power. Volunteers have 
been punished for joining the State troops without the consent of 
their Captain, and forced back into the volunteer companies. In 
my opinion, the authorities intend to retain their patronage by 
such collocation of companies into regiments as will secure the 
election of their favorites. Winslow told Capt. Sparrow that our 
Commissioners to Va. did not understand Pres't Davis, and that if 
his company would volunteer for the war, he would have a voice 
in the choice of the regimental officers. If this be so, then Davis 
will treat N.C. differently from Va., as announced in a late proc- 
lamation of Letcher. 

I'm afraid we have no good change by having Gov. Clarke 91 in 
place of Gov. Ellis, but time will show. 

[P.S.] I will start tomorrow on a trip of ten days to Va., to "see 
what I can see." 

Governor Holden. Lindsay C. Warren, Beaufort County's Contribution to a Notable 
Era of North Carolina History (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1930), 5, 
7-9, 26; Connor, Manual, 1913, 498-499; Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regi- 
ments, V, 35-54, 680. 

90 George B. (or E. B.) Singletary, of Pitt County, was lieutenant colonel of the 
Twenty-seventh and then colonel of the Forty-fourth North Carolina regiments. He 
was killed at Tranter's Creek, in eastern North Carolina, on June 5, 1862. He was 
a fine officer whose career was ended prematurely. Military Service Records; Clark, 
Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, II, 425-427, III, 21. 

91 Henry Toole Clark (1808-1874), of Edgecombe County, a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, read law with his kinsman William H. Haywood, Jr., and 
was admitted to the bar but never practiced. A member of the state senate, 1850-1861, 
he was elected speaker in 1860. Upon the death of Governor John W. Ellis in July, 
1861, Clark succeeded to the governorship. He initiated many of the policies to be 
employed by his successor Zebulon B. Vance before Vance defeated him and became 
the symbol of North Carolina's war effort. Clark returned to the state senate in 1866 
but did not take an active role in politics after his return to his Edgecombe planta- 
tion. John Blount Cheshire, "Henry Toole Clark," Van Noppen Papers. 

286 N.C. Department of Archives and History 


Adjutant General Office, 

July 5th., 1861. 

Gen'l orders 

No. 15. 

By an ordinance of the Convention, the Volunteer forces not 
accepted by the Southern Confederated States, will be discharged 
from the service of the State. This ordinance requires that the 
Governor of the State shall tender the Volunteer forces in Regi- 
ments to the President of S.C. States. Until this tender has been 
made, and the forces refused, no individual member of a Volunteer 
Company will be permitted to enlist in the State troops, unless by 
the consent of the Captain of his Company, or a regular application 
for a transfer from one Company or regiment to another. Nor can 
Volunteer companies, which have been mustered into the service 
of the State, and which have been combined into regiments, be 
permitted to enter the State troops, except on application, and a 
regular transfer from the Adjutant General office. 

By order of the Gov'r. 
J. F. Hoke.9 2 
Adj't Gen. 

From Kemp P. Battle UNC 


July 11th., 1861. 

I start on a tour of observation tomorrow, and would like to 
visit York town and, if possible, Manassas Gap. 

92 John Franklin Hoke (1820-1888) of Lincoln County, a brother of Michael Hoke, 
graduated from the University of North Carolina and read law with David L. Swain 
and Richmond M. Pearson. He served as a regular army officer in Mexico with 
Winfield Scott. A lifelong Democrat, he was a state senator in 1850, 1852, and 1854, 
and a commoner in 1860. After brief service as North Carolina's adjutant general, 
Hoke was made colonel of the Thirteenth North Carolina Regiment (later the 
Twenty-third). He resigned in the spring of 1862 because of poor health and became 
a colonel of senior reserves. Late in the war he was given charge of the Salisbury 
Prison, a thankless task. He held no public office after the war. Marshall De Lancey 
Haywood, "John Franklin Hoke," Van Noppen Papers. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 287 

Will you be so kind as to send me, to Richmond, Exchange 
Hotel, an introductory letter, which may be of service in procuring 
a permit from the Confederate authorities. 

To Kemp P. Battle UNC-Battle 


July 13th. 1861. 

My Dear Sir 

I enclose herewith agreeably to your desire, a note of introduction 
to the President or Secretary of War. As you are a younger traveller 
than I, let me suggest, that you call at the Presidents office, say 
between 12 & 2 oclock, send in the letter with your card. If he has 
leisure to see you, very well, if not, call at the office of the Secretary 
of War, and between the two, you can probably get the permit 
desired. It will be respectful, and no doubt well received, if you 
likewise call at his office, on Governor Letcher, 93 inform him that 
you are a member of the Convention of the State, and have called 
to pay your respects. I would send you a note introductory to him, 
but your position is a sufficient introduction. In the same manner, 
if you choose, you can call on any of the Heads of departments, 
whom curiosity, if no other motive, may prompt you to see. 

And as Cicero says, it would be no gratification for one to ascend 
up into the skies, if he had no friend, to whom to tell what he had 
there seen. I shall be glad, at your leisure to have some account of 
your adventures and observations. 

Will you allow me also, to trouble you to purchase in Richmond, 
the recent work of Professor Gilliam of the Va. Military Institute, 
on Military tactics. Wm. my son wishes it, with reference especially 

93 John Letcher (1813-1884), of Lexington, Virginia, graduated from Washington 
(now Washington and Lee) College in 1833. He became a lawyer and journalist, edit- 
ing the Valley Star, a Democratic paper in a Whig county. By 1847 he had become 
an advocate of abolition in northwestern Virginia. While representing his district 
in Congress (1851-1859), he defended southern rights but never glorified slavery. He 
supported Douglas in the presidential contest of 1860 and opposed secession until 
Lincoln's call for troops. He served as war governor of Virginia (1860-1864) and 
supported the Confederate war effort with vigor. After the war, Letcher advised 
Virginians to accept the results of defeat; and he set a good example for them by 
quietly resuming his law practice in Lexington. He was twice a delegate to the 
state House of Delegates in the 1870s. William G. Bean, "John Letcher,'' Dictionary 
of American Biography, XI, 192. 

288 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

to a Cavalry Company which he and J. Turner are forming. Please 
forward it here, on your return with a statement of the cost, which 
shall be promptly remitted. 


To the President or Secretary of War of the Confederate States 

Hillsboro' N.C. 
July 13th. 1861. 

To the President or secretary of War of the Confederate States. 
K. P. Battle Esqr. of Raleigh, to whom this is delivered, belongs 
to the profession of the Law, and is a delegate from Wake County, 
in the Convention of North Carolina. He proposes to visit Rich- 
mond, and go thence to the encampments or fortifications occupied 
by our troops in Virginia. I beg leave to commend him as a gentle- 
man of intelligence, and of the highest probity and honor — full of 
zeal in the patriot cause, and worthy of entire confidence — and 
trust there may be no reason for withholding the passports neces- 
sary to accomplish his desires. 

With the highest respect 
Will. A. Graham 

From Dixon, Albright, & Company 94 UNC 

Fairmount Foundry [Snow Camp] , 

July 18th, 1861. 

We see in the Newspapers inquiries made about making ball Sc 
shell in this State. 

We drop you these lines to learn of you what you think our 
chance would be to get a Job of casting for the State. 

We can make ball, etc., as cheap as elsewhere. If we could get a 

94 Dixon, Albright and Company operated Fairmount Machine Shops and Foun- 
dary at Snow Camp in Alamance County. It solicited orders for manufacturing or 
repairing any kind of machinery, horse-powers, threshing machines, straw cutters, 
mill gearing, etc. Their card is included in the Graham Papers, UNC. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 289 

Job with any assurance that our Company %c moulder would be 
permitted to stay at home & attend to it, perhaps we would be of 
more advantage than in a Military capacity. 

We can get pig iron in the mountains, 8c the deep River coal 
will answer, by coaking it. 

We will be pleased to hear from you soon, 8c if you think we can 
do anything, we wish to have your assistance 8c influence. 

Will give any reference where are known. 

From Kemp P. Battle UNC 

Chapel Hill, 
July 25th., 1861. 

I rec'd your letter of introduction, and am thankful for your 
kindness. I called on the Pres't at your suggestion, but found him 
closeted with the Sec'y of War, and both were inaccessible to 
visitors. I found the war office open, however, and my letters 
procured the permits desired. The travelling to 8c from Yorktown 
is so slow, that my time did not allow a visit to Manassas, which I 
regretted exceedingly, as I missed thereby seeing the great victory, 
not being able to reach Richmond until Saturday night late. 

The book your desire is out of print, and not a copy could I find 
for sale in Richmond. A new edition will be in the market in one 

I was in Richmond when the news of Garnett's 95 death arrived, 
and I was sorry to see that every second man I met seemed to be 
frightened, and expecting McClelland 96 to be in Staunton in one 
day, and Richmond in one week. There is not the same enthusiasm 
in the portions of Va. I visited, as exists in N.C., and the presence 
of a Northern Army in Richmond would be a death blow to 
secession in other counties than those in the Northwest. 

There is a bad feeling between the Virginians and some of the 
Southern troops, especially those from Ala., and Miss., which 

95 Robert Selden Garnett (1819-1861), of Virginia, was a West Point graduate who 
served as aide to Generals Wool and Taylor during the Mexican War. Former West 
Point commandant and Indian fighter, Garnett was on leave in Europe when the 
Civil War began. He resigned his United States commission as major in 1861 and 
became adjutant general of Virginia. Appointed Confederate brigadier general and 
given command of all troops in northwestern Virginia, he was killed at Carrick's Ford 
on July 13, 1861. Armistead Churchill Gordon, Jr., "Robert Selden Garnett," 
Dictionary of American Biography, VII, 158-159. 
96 George B. McClellan 

290 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

sometimes leads to abusive language and sometimes to blows. The 
Southerners charge the Virginians with extortion, & lukewarmness, 
and vaunt their own sacrifices in the defence of Va. soil. 

I am glad to say that our regiments are praised for discipline and 
good behavior. Fisher's 97 regiment was reviewed by Davis, and 
was thought to be a fine body of men. Our men have been better 
provided with accoutrements than those of other States, I was 
often told. The morale of our troops is excellent, they are confident 
of victory if they have anything like fair terms. 

It is generally thought that Yorktown will not be attacked, 
unless Richmond should be captured. Gen. Hill has done a great 
deal of work there, and the place is well intrenched. Hill must be 
a good Commander of volunteers, has their confidence, not so 
much their love. 

From Jonathan Worth 98 A&H 


August, 14th., 1861. 

I wish I could spend a few hours with you and get your views on 
some of the important subjects on which the Legislature must act, 
having more confidence in your judgment than I have in that of 
anybody else. I leave for Raleigh today. 

97 Charles Frederick Fisher (1816-1861), of Rowan County, received a classical edu- 
cation and attended Yale College briefly before engaging in planting, mining, 
journalism, and railroading. As associate editor of the Salisbury Western Carolinian 
he espoused Democratic principles. He was a member of the state senate in 1854 and 
the next year was elected president of the North Carolina Railroad Company. An 
inexperienced railroad man, Fisher's election was politically inspired and his tenure 
controversial. He was also contractor for building the Western North Carolina 
Railroad from Hale's to Morganton. At the outbreak of the war he organized and 
became colonel of the Sixth North Carolina Regiment. He was killed at First 
Manassas while leading that regiment. He may have been killed by Confederate fire 
because his regiment had advanced considerably beyond Confederate lines. General 
Thomas L. Clingman believed Fisher's movement may have saved the day for the 
Confederates. Fort Fisher was named for him. Samuel B. Wiiks, "Charles Frederick 
Fisher,'' Van Noppen Papers. 

98 This letter may be found on page 83 of the Letter Press Book in the Jonathan 
Worth Papers, State Archives, State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 291 

From James A. Graham UNC 

Fort Macon, 

August 30th., 1861. 

I will not be able to come up home in a week or two, as the 
enemy are now on our soil, and we will all have to stay here to 
defend this place in case of an attack. 

The battery at Hatteras Inlet was taken yesterday by the federal 
forces. We have not very much news from there, but as far as I can 
learn, there were on our side, about 40 killed, 20 wounded, and 
nearly all the rest, between 700 and 800; taken prisoners. Among 
them are Commodore Barron," Col. Bradford, 10 ° Col. Martin, 101 
17 Reg. Volunteers, Lt. Col. Johnson; 102 Major Gilliam, 103 and 
Maj. Andrews 104 from Goldsboro'. I have not heard anything of 
the loss of the enemy. 

99 Samuel Barron (1809-1888), of Virginia, was the scion of a distinguished naval 
family. He was appointed midshipman at the unprecedented age of two years and 
began service in 1820. By 1861 he had risen to a captaincy, which he resigned to 
become a captain in the Confederate navy. He had charge of the coastal defenses 
of North Carolina and Virginia. Captured at Hatteras, he was a prisoner for nearly a 
year. Exchanged, he was sent to England to purchase two rams, but the British 
government seized them. He then went to Paris where he remained until 1865, 
busily engaged in the fitting out and direction of Confederate commerce destroyers. 
Allan Westcott, "Samuel Barron," Dictionary of American Biography, I, 650-651. 

100 James A. J. Bradford (d. 1863), a native of Tennessee and a graduate of West 
Point, was a regular army captain of ordnance who was stationed at the Fayetteville 
arsenal for over fifteen years. He resigned and became colonel of the Tenth North 
Carolina Regiment (First Artillery). He was captured at Hatteras but was later 
exchanged and returned to his regiment. Louis H. Manarin (comp.), North Carolina 
Troops, 1861-1865: A Roster (Raleigh: State Department of Archives and History 
[projected 12 volumes, 1966- 1), I, 39-40, hereinafter cited as Manarin, North Carolina 
Troops; Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, I, 500, 518, 525; IV, 294, 

ioi William Francis Martin (d. 1880), of Pasquotank County, was a graduate of 
the University of North Carolina, a lawyer, and colonel of the Seventeenth North 
Carolina Regiment. He was a brother of Adjutant General James G. Martin. Spencer 
Alumni Project; Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 39; Clark, Histories of the North 
Carolina Regiments, II, 1; IV, 556. 

102 George W. Johnson, of Pitt County, was lieutenant-colonel of the Seventeenth 
North Carolina. Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 39; Clark, Histories of the North 
Carolina Regiments, II, 1. 

103 Henry A. Gilliam, of Edgecombe, was major of the Seventeenth North Carolina. 
Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 39; Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, 
II, 1. 

104 William S. G. Andrews was major of infantry at Fort Hatteras, where he 
assumed command July 20, 1861. He was captured when Hatteras fell and was con- 
fined at Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, until exchanged in January, 1862. He resigned 
his commission as major of infantry in order to become a captain of artillery, a posi- 
tion he held until he was forced by poor health to retire. His service was in the 
Tenth North Carolina Regiment. Manarin, North Carolina Troops, I, 101. 

292 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

The fight commenced at 9V£ o'clock Wednesday morning, and 
the garrison surrendered at 1 1 o'clock on Thursday. I do not know 
when they will come on us, but if they do come, we will do our 

It is sad to think that the first battle fought on North Carolina 
soil was gained by the Yankees, but I hope our troops will soon 
wipe it out, and drive the enemy from among us. We are all in 
good health. There is no more news. You can let Carmichael make 
my uniform by the measure he has, or not, as you think best. 

P.S. As I will not need my uniform, I will wait 'till I come home 
to have it made. 

j. A. G. 

From John W. Graham UNC 


September 5th., 1861. 

I arrived here safely on last Saturday evening, and found affairs 
better than I expected. In Goldsboro' I met a large number of 
persons, among them, Cousin Eliza Sloan, and Julia Graham. At 
every depot there was a large crowd very anxious to hear the news, 
"what number of troops were expected from Virginia," "whether 
Washington, N.C, had been burned," and "if I thought the enemy 
would come immediately to Newbern," etc. 

There are now about eighteen hundred men at Fort Lane, 105 
about three miles down the River at Judge Manly 's 106 place con- 

105 p ort L ane was located three miles southeast of New Bern in Craven County. 
Powell, North Carolina Gazetteer, 179. 

106 Matthias Manly (1801-1881), a native of Chatham County, was the son of 
Basil Manly, a revolutionary hero, and a brother of Governor Charles Manly. He 
attended the Bingham school and graduated from the University of North Carolina 
in 1824, sharing honors with William A. Graham and two others. He read law 
with his brother Charles, married the daughter of William Gaston, and established 
a highly successful legal practice in New Bern. He served as a commoner, as a supe- 
rior court judge for nineteen years, on the state supreme court, 1859-1865, in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1865, in the state senate, and as mayor of New Bern. 
Samuel A. Ashe, "Matthias Evans Manly," in Ashe, Biographical History, VI, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 293 

sisting of Campbell's 107 regiment, Singletary's battalion, 108 and 
Brem's 109 Battery. Sam Lowrie, 110 after a spree in Goldsboro', 
resigned, and Brother Joe, and Springs Davidson 111 will both be 
promoted. Vance's regiment is, for the present, at Morehead City. 
There are now six Companies at Fort Macon, and one on the 
Island, some distance above. I do not know what number are in 
Washington. I understand there were sixteen hundred at Roanoke 
from Norfolk, and one rifled 32. 

From the fact of Capt. Rowan 112 being in command, there are 
not many soldiers at Fort Hatteras, but what they call the ''Naval 
Brigade," Crossan 113 estimates them at about three thousand, and 

107 Reuben P. Campbell (1818-1862), of Iredell County, was a graduate of West 
Point who served with distinction in Mexico and elsewhere. He was a fine adminis- 
trator and disciplinarian in his capacity as colonel of the Seventh North Carolina 
Regiment. Many leaders, including General Gatlin and William W. Holden, be- 
lieved that he deserved higher command. Killed on June 27, 1862, at Gaines's Mill, 
he was later characterized as the "bravest of the brave." Clark, Histories of North 
Carolina Regiments, I, 361-362; II, 547. 

108 Early in the war the men serving under George Badger Singletary were re- 
ferred to as Singletary's battalion, but later these troops formed the Twenty-seventh 
Regiment. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, IV, 224. 

109 Company C of the Tenth North Carolina Regiment (First Artillery) was com- 
manded by Captain Thomas H. Brem and bore his name. The company was raised 
in Charlotte and had a fully equipped battery of six guns. When four of its guns 
were lost during the battle of New Bern (March, 1862), the people of Charlotte gave 
their church bells, and new guns were cast at Richmond. When Brem resigned in 
June, 1862, Joseph Graham, eldest son of William A. and Susan Washington 
Graham, assumed command, and the company was known as "Graham's Battery." 
Manarin, North Carolina Troops, I, 61. 

110 Samuel J. Lowrie, a Charlotte lawyer, was first lietuenant of "Brem's Battery" 
before resigning in August, 1861. Later, he served aboard the Confederate steamer 
Indian Chief Manarin, North Carolina Troops, I, 63, 546. 

111 J. Springs Davidson, a Mecklenburg farmer, enlisted in the "Charlotte artillery" 
(later "Brem's Battery") in June, 1861, at age twenty-three. He was first sergeant of 
the company. He was discharged at Kinston in April, 1862, because of a fractured 
leg. Manarin, North Carolina Troops, 1,65. 

112 Stephen Clegg Rowan (1808-1890), a native of Ireland, was reared in Ohio. He 
entered naval service in 1826 and distinguished himself in the Seminole War and 
especially in the Mexican War for his part in the capture of Monterey, California. 
His outstanding Civil War service included cooperation with General Ambrose E. 
Burnside in the capture of Roanoke Island and New Bern. He was promoted to rear 
admiral in 1866 and retired in 1889 as vice admiral. Charles Lee Lewis, "Stephen 
Clegg Rowan," Dictionary of American Biography, XVI, 196-197. 

113 Thomas Morrow Crossan (1819-1865), though a native Pennsylvanian, spent 
most of his youth in Kentucky. A graduate of the Naval Academy, he served twenty- 
one years in the navy before resigning in 1857. He settled at Warrenton and, al- 
though he deplored the war, devoted his full energies to the Confederate cause. As 
captain of the North Carolina navy he commanded the Winslow, which captured 
several merchantmen, before accepting a Confederate commission to assist in the 
state's coastal defenses. Crossan won his greatest fame as captain of the Advance, 
the state's famed blockade runner, which he went to England to purchase. He had 
energy, courage, and was a fine seaman. Marshall De Lancey Haywood, "Thomas 
Morrow Crossan," Van Noppen Papers. 

294 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Sunday evening they were working very hard, and had a good many 
guns mounted. We cannot recover the place until we get some 
rifled pieces, and something of a naval force, and then it will be 
desperate work. 

We hear of no depredations, but as soon as we [get] some gun 
boats, we will have hot times on the Sound. Anderson 114 of the 
Army, "I do not know what rank," will be down to take charge of 
the Engineering to-night. A very good, practical gunner has been 
sent to Fort Macon, and as they [have] six months provisions, and 
35 guns, we have no apprehensions about it. I was down there on 
Tuesday, and saw some fair firing. 

Let me congratulate you on this your birthday, and wish you yet 
many happy returns. 

I suppose the Yankees had a grand time marching their prisoners 
up Broadway. I do hope we will [make] a descent upon Hatteras 

[P.S.] I wrote to Gov. Clark from Goldsboro', but have heard 

nothing from him. I expect an appointment in the C.S.A. very 


Clark told me in Raleigh he had not receved my letter. 

From John L. Peyton 115 UNC 


September 17th., 1861. 

Your letter was duly rec'd on yesterday, & I hasten to say in reply 
that I have intended for some time past to make a visit to N. York 
about the 25th. of this month, for the purpose of disposing of 

114 Joseph Reid Anderson (1813-1892), of Virginia, was a graduate of West Point. 
He resigned from the army in 1837 and became assistant state engineer of Virginia, 
chief engineer of the Valley Turnpike Company, and, from 1841, head of the Trede- 
gar Iron Works in Richmond. A secessionist, he entered the Confederate army as a 
brigadier general and saw active service until he was wounded at Frayser's Farm in 
1862. Thereafter, he masterfully managed the Tredegar works and in so doing per- 
formed invaluable service for the Confederacy. Walter S. Grant, "Joseph Reid Ander- 
son," Dictionary of American Biography, I, 268-269. 

115 John Lewis Peyton (1824-1896), of Virginia, graduated from the University of 
Virginia law school. He practiced law in Chicago before returning to his home state. 
He married Henrietta Elizabeth Clark Washington (1834-1907), Mrs. Graham's niece. 
He was a Unionist who likened his position to that of William A. Graham. He re- 
presented North Carolina in a business way in Europe, where he remained until 
1876. He was quite a prolific writer. He was, for a while, a Fellow of the Royal 
Geographical Society of Great Britain. See his The American Crisis or Pages from the 
Note-Book of a State Agent During the Civil War (London: Saunders, Otley and 
Company, 2 volumes, 1867) 

The Papers of William A. Graham 295 

certain stocks and bonds which I own in Northern and North- 
western Companies, having their principal offices there. 

The difficulties of reaching N. Y. by the Ky: route have been so 
much increased by the events of the past few days, that I have 
turned my attention to the Ocean, as affording a more speedy and 
certain means of accomplishing my purposes. 

There are two vessels at Beaufort now loading, ostensibly for 
Liverpool, but it is not unlikely they may intend landing their 
cargoes at some British North American port. It is not material 
whether I land in Canada or Liverpool, as the principal part of 
my bonds are due from Co's in which English capitalists are largely 
interested, & can be readily negotiated in either country, through 
their Banking houses. 

At either point, too, I can use the proceeds of such sales as I may 
make in procuring a return cargo of articles very much needed by 
our Government and people. 

A good-deal depends upon the nature of your securities whether 
I can be of service to you or not. If they be stocks standing in your 
name Sc only transferrible in person, or by power of attorney, I 
fear the time has passed when they can be legally transferred, 
having recently seen the substance of an order issued by the Gov't 
at Washington, prohibiting any transfer of stock owned by citizens 
of the Confederate States. If they be coupon bonds, I am quite sure 
I can secure their market value for you. 

In either case, however, I shall be happy to take charge of them, 
and do all in my power to protect you from loss. 

As soon as I hear from the Captain of the ship Gondale, I will 
write you again. It is not settled that I can secure passage by her. 

From John L. Peyton UNC 


September 21st., 1861. 

I shall not be able to get off on either of the English vessels 
lying at Beaufort, but shall make an effort to reach Canada by the 
Western route through Kentucky and Ohio. 

If you will come to Raleigh any day before Friday with the 
public securities you wish disposed of, I will take charge of them, 
and do what I can to carry out your wishes. I am anxious to leave 
at the earliest day, and if you can be here sooner, would much 
prefer your doing so. 

296 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From John W. Graham UNC 


September 22nd., 1861. 

I returned this morning from a trip to Wilmington on business 
for Gen'l Gatlin. I have taken quite a bad cold from my ride 
down on last Thursday night, arriving about 5 o'clock on Friday 

Dr. Thomas Wright 116 died about 2 o'clock on yesterday. I 
have not heard from Brother Joe or Jimmie since I was at home, 
but suppose they are well. . . . Gen'l Anderson is still at Wilming- 
ton, and pushing affairs there as much as possible. It is generally 
thought there, that the next attack will be on that place, though 
our best information, (I cannot say reliable) points to Fort Macon. 
The Governor seems to be still in a stupor. The only Force that 
he has offered to Gen'l Gatlin since the Hatteras affair, has been 
Vance's Regiment, and three Companies under Command of a 
Mr. Roberts. 

The Governor himself ordered Shaw's 117 Regiment to Roanoke 
Island, and, I understand, Clingman's to Wilmington. The only 
Regiment which the General has been able to get from Virginia, 
(the 24th. Georgia) has been sent below Washington. From this 
you will see that we can have no hopes of taking Hatteras, unless 
we leave exposed very important points, without being sure of 
success in the end. I will probably be in Fort Macon and New Bern 
the latter part of this week, or next. I send enclosed a communica- 
tion from Mr. Barringer, 118 which might do very well as a piece of 
special pleading for a poor lawyer, but does not suit my idea of 
either of the manner in which the Governor should — the meaning 
of the law under which I was appointed — Military dealing — or 
common honesty. What Mr. Barringer says in regard to the Ad'j't 

116 Dr. Thomas Henry Wright (1800-1861), of Wilmington, was a graduate of the 
University of North Carolina, a physician, and president of the Bank of Cape Fear. 
Spencer Alumni Project. 

117 Henry Marchmore Shaw (1817-1864), a native of Rhode Island, graduated in 
medicine from the University of Pennsylvania. He practiced in Currituck County 
where he also was a planter. He was a state senator in 1852, a Democratic member 
of Congress, 1853-1855, 1857-1859, a secessionist delegate to the Convention of 1861, 
and colonel of the Eighth North Carolina Regiment. He was captured at Roanoke 
Island and killed near New Bern in 1864. Biographical Directory of Congress, 1588- 
1589; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 73-74. 

118 Daniel M. Barringer was an unofficial adviser to Governors Ellis and Clark. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 297 

Gen'l giving me any explanation whatever is not true, as Col. 
Martin expressly informed me he could give me no information 

But I am done with them all now, though as soon as I get some 
blanks I am going to try to get pay until the 20th. of Aug., as I 
suppose I stand no chance for compensation since that time. 

I received an appointment as 1st. Lieut. Provisional Army, 
Confederate States & A.D.C., on 18th of this month, dated 13th., 
which I have accepted. Two hundred and fifty soldiers, (captured 
at Manassas) passed through this morning to New Orleans. In 
reply to inquiries as to "Why they were travelling with so large an 
escort" and "where they expected to spend the winter," they were 
anxious to know "where Hatteras was," and "what we were doing 
there." I would be much obliged if you send some books, of any 
kind you may select, as I suppose I will be here for some time. . . . 


From Daniel M. Barringer to John W. Graham 

State of North Carolina 

Executive Department 


September 16th., 1861. 

Your communication to Gov'r Clark was duly delivered to him 
by me. I would have replied earlier to your note to me, covering 
the one to the Gov'r, but for the fact that, on calling at the Adj't 
Gen'ls Office, I was informed that the matter had been fully 
explained to you. Your appointment as Lt. has not been revoked 
by Gov'r Clark, but expired by virtue of the Ordinance of the 
Convention, on the 20th. of Aug t, on failure to raise a Company, 
as has been the case with many others. In your case, it cannot 
interfere with your appointment as Aid de Camp to General 
Gatlin, as the Confederate Gov't has passed a law, (one of their 
last before the recent adjournment) giving the authority to Com- 
manding Officers, to appoint Aids de Camp, outside the line. 

The Gov'r cannot discharge you as Aid de Camp, as Gen'l 
Gatlin belongs to Confederate forces, & may appoint whom he 

He cannot discharge you as Lt. of State troops — 8th. Reg't. — 
because if you were in fact a Lt. in that Reg't, it has been transfer- 

298 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

red and accepted, and is now in the Service of the Confederate 
Gov't, but, in point of fact, you were not commissioned as Lt. in 
that Reg't, or any other, but only had the ordinary letters of 
appointment as Lt., for which you could get a Commission on 
raising, or assisting in raising a Company. And on the failure of 
this, and on not being transferred as Lt. in such a Company thus 
raised, before the 20th. of Aug't, your letters of appointment 
expired, by operation of the Ordinance of the Convention. 

From Archibald H. Arrington 119 UNC 

Hilliardston, N.C., 120 
September 22nd., 1861. 

I presume you have seen the announcement of my name as a 
candidate to represent this, the 5th. district, in the Confederate 
Congress, and, as I am but little acquainted in your County, I 
must request the favor of you to make two or three appointments 
for me to address the people in different parts of the County. I 
shall attend Wake Court, which will commence on Monday the 
30th., the next week I shall be at Franklin Court, and the week 
after at Warren Court, consequently, I will not have an opportu- 
nity to go to your County before the 21st. of October. So you will 
please make the 1st. appointment about Tuesday, the 22nd., which 
will give me time to get there, as I shall expect to go by private 
conveyance. I would prefer that the appointments should be made 
so as to enable me to meet with as many of the Country people as 
possible, as there is not so much to be gained by speaking in Towns 
and Villages. Please have the appointments published in the 
Hillsboro' Recorder. I think I shall get a very united vote in this 
County, and a very strong vote in Franklin. I attended a meeting 
of the people in the latter County by invitation, and addressed 
them on Friday last. The crowd seemed to be unanimously for me, 
and I learn that I shall do very well in Warren, and I expect to 

119 Archibald Hunter Arrington (1809-1872), of Nash County, was a lawyer and 
planter, Democratic congressman, 1843-1845, secession delegate to the Convention of 
1861, member of the First Confederate Congress, and a delegate to the National 
Union Convention held in Philadelphia in 1866. Biographical Directory of Congress, 
490; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 13. 

120 Hilliardston was a community in north Nash County located on Swift Creek. 
Named for John Hilliard, an early settler, it was founded about 1780. Powell, North 
Carolina Gazetteer, 228. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 299 

get a good vote in Granville, notwithstanding Venable 121 and 
Gooch are both candidates. 

I can form no opinion as to your County, if there is no candidate 
from Wake, I think I will do well there. Atto: Gen'l Jenkins, 122 
it is said, wishes to be a candidate, but is yet undetermined what 
he will do. I should be glad to hear from you. 

To Henry Toole Clark DUKE 


Sept. 24, 1861. 

Dear Sir 

My friend J. L. Peyton Esqr informs me that he will probably 
visit Europe in the next few months, with a view to commercial 
adventure, and will be pleased to purchase arms or munitions of 
war, for the use of the states if you deem yourself at liberty to buy 
articles of that nature. As I understand him, he does not desire 
any advance of money from the Treasury, but will be glad to have 
some assurance from you, that if he shall deliver the articles in 
question to any part of the Confederate States, the State of North 
Carolina will take a certain quantity upon terms that may be 
agreed upon before hand, or that may be settled by referees to be 
mutually chosen. I am not advised to the appropriations at your 
command, but if there be any, I beg to suggest that the opportunity 
appears favorable to add to the supplies necessary to the public 

I am with great respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. A. Graham. 

His Excelly. H. T. Clark. 

I write in great haste as I remain but a short time in town. 

121 Abraham Watkins Venable (1799-1876), a native of Virginia who moved to 
North Carolina in 1829, was a graduate of Hampden-Sydney College (1816) and 
Princeton (1819), where he studied medicine. He practiced law in Virginia and 
North Carolina. He was a Democratic member of Congress, 1847-1853, and a 
Confederate congressman. Biographical Directory of Congress, 1753. 

122 William A. Jenkins (1829-1869), of Warrenton, was a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, member of Commons in 1854, 1856, and 1865, state attorney 
general, and lieutenant-colonel of the Forty-sixth North Carolina Regiment. Spencer 
Alumni Project. 

300 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From John L. Peyton UNC 

Raleigh, N.C. 

Sept. 28th 1861 

Dear Sir 

I have been unexpectedly delayed in getting off & Shall not be 
able to leave finally before the latter part of next week. Meanwhile 
I shall go to Richd. but [will] be in Raleigh again by next Wednes- 
day Evening. 

As the State has enjoyed my services in the matter of procuring 
arms, I shall feel bound to make it the first object to get to Europe 
by the route promising the greatest certainty. This may be by 
Tampico Mexico. It is thought that Messrs Mason 8c Slidell 123 
our recently appointed Commissioners to England & France will 
take this route. I will know more of this however on my return 
from Richd. 

As your stocks 8c bonds where [sic] placed in my hands under 
the impression that I would go by way of Covington Ky &: make 
sale of them before I left America I have thought it proper to 
advise you of the present Status of my affairs that you might with- 
draw them if you thought it advisable. 

I think it highly probable however that it is your best plan to 
let them go to England, to be disposed of thro' English banking 
houses with branch establishments in the United States. The 
proceeds to be handed to you in a sterling bill. These bills now 
bringing a high premium with us, but not so high as they will 
bring some time hence. You are the best judge however of the 
matter k can let me know your wishes on my return here. 

With Kind regards to Mrs. Graham I am, though in much haste 

Yours truly 

123 The transit of Confederate diplomats James Murray Mason, of Virginia, to 
London and John Slidell, of Louisiana, to Paris was not easily accomplished. They 
successfully ran the blockade and, on November 7, 1861, took passage from Havana 
aboard the Trent, a British ship. The next day the United States ship San Jacinto, 
commanded by Captain Charles Wilkes, stopped the Trent and removed the Con- 
federate commissioners, allowing the British ship to proceed. Mason and Slidell were 
imprisoned at Fort Warren in Boston harbor and the American public and most of 
Lincoln's cabinet rejoiced. Northern joy was short-lived, however, as the incident 
became a major international incident bringing Great Britain near to a declaration 
of war. The British contended that Wilkes's action constituted a violation of their 
rights as neutrals. Secretary of State William H. Seward realized that, without author- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 301 

To Susan Washington Graham A&H 


Oct. 19th, 1861. 

I am detained here longer than I expected, owing to my sending 
Sam to Charlotte, and a rise in the river, which caused him to 
remain a day beyond the time allotted. 

My Buggy met me in Charlotte, and I came to Henderson's 
on Monday evening. Hastings 124 and his wife were there, and came 
up with me. They had gone to get some supplies for their son 
Wm. who has joined a Volunteer Company of the neighborhood, 
and expected to set off in a few days. I found my affairs at Hender- 
son's in tolerably good condition. The Barn with all it's sheds has 
been covered with a very neat new shingle roof. The larger corn 
crib has several new logs put in, and a new roof on, the stove has 
been set up, in the upper room %c pipe let into the chimney, 8c two 
small windows with glass lights in the West end. 

The Crops of Corn and Cotton are good, and pumpkins the 
most abundant I ever saw. The Crop of Wheat was the largest that 
has been made on the plantation, 8c has been in part sold. 

The negroes were well except Rose, who is in a settled decline, 
and Cynthia, who was somewhat unwell. After remaining two 
nights and a day, I came, by Dr. Morrison's 125 to this place. The 
Crops here are excellent — the Corn is being gathered. Among it, 
are at least 200 Bushels of Peas; the Crop of Cotton will make 18 
or 20 Bales. I have here 6 Colts, 3 Horses, and three Mules, having 
bo't today one of the finest at 6 months old I have ever seen. 

Christianbury 126 has engaged with Dr. Johnston for next year. 
Hastings I think will remain at Henderson's, though his arrange- 
ments are disconcerted by the departure of Wm. I have engaged 
no one for this place yet, though several offer, but none that are 
desirable. Christy has acquired control of the negroes, and I 
dislike to allow a relapse into the old state of affairs. 

At Charlotte I saw John Davidson with some 25 Horses for his 
Comp'y. I learn that he has gone with them to the Camp. They 
were well at Dr. Morrison's. None of the children at home but 

ization, Wilkes had violated the established American policy of freedom of the seas. 
Consequently, the Confederate diplomats were released. Concise Dictionary of 
American History, 965-966. 

124 James Hastings was overseer of Graham's Henderson plantation. 

125 Robert Hall Morrison of Cottage Home, Lincoln County. 

126 R.F. Christenbury was overseer at the Eai hart plantation. 

302 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Alfred. 127 Anna 128 and Laura 129 had gone to Charlotte. Anna had 
been some time at her husband's Camp, near Manassas, but left a 
few weeks since. A brother in law of her husband 130 — a man of 
large fortune in Western Va. — is a firm adherent of the Gov't of 
the U.S. Several sick soldiers, one or more dead bodies of others, 
and two women, one a mother who had lost a son, and the other 
had been to nurse hers, through the sickness of the Camp at 
Manassas, were on the train as I came to Charlotte. 

I propose to go to the lower place on Monday to remain a day 
or two, probably get to Charlotte by Wednesday, may reach 
Greensboro' Thursday morning, but will hardly be at home 
before Friday. Say to Rob't that I think he may as well sow the 
whole of the field at Ray's 131 in wheat, breaking up and harrowing 
the ground first, and then plowing it in. If it rains as it does here, 
the hands may haul rails from the Hasting's field, & repair fences. 

Tom Goldthwaite 132 has joined an Alabama Company as a 
private. Three or four young men of very good families in this 
section have lately died in the Camps at Manasses & York town — 
causing great distress among their connexions. 

I hear no news since leaving Charlotte, but have been solely 
occupied in plantation matters, have gotten a partial supply of 
leather, and an abundance of pegs and shoe thread, part of which 
I will carry home. I have no tidings from the lower place, but have 
no doubt sustained damage from the flood in the river in Sept. 

127 Graham's nephew, Alfred James Morrison (1849-1876), was later a Presbyterian 
minister. He lived in Lincoln County and Selma, Alabama. He is buried at Machpelah 
Church in Lincoln County. Clark, "Graham Descendants ", Graham, General Joseph 
Graham, 181. 

128 Mary Anna Morrison (1831-1915), daughter of Robert Hall and Mary Graham 
Morrison, was the second wife of General Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson (1824-1863) 
and a resident of Lexington, Virginia. Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

129 Laura P. Morrison (1840-1920), youngest daughter of Robert Hall Morrison, 
later married John Edmunds Brown (1830-1896) of Charlotte. Clark, "Graham 

130 John Junkin, a son of George Junkin the Presbyterian minister who was presi- 
dent of Lafayette College, Miami University (Ohio), and Washington (later Washing- 
ton and Lee) successively. Concise Dictionary of American Biography, 514. 

131 Ray's was a plantation which the Grahams worked in Orange County. 

132 Thomas Goldthwaite (1843-1869), of Mobile, Alabama, son of Elizabeth Isabella 
Witherspoon and Judge Henry Barnes Goldthwaite, was Graham's great-nephew. 
Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

The Papers of William A. Graham 303 

To Augustus W. Graham 133 UNC 


October 28th., 1861. 

Your Mother was so busy in making clothes for your brother 
W'm's Company, that she did not send for you last Friday, but 
will send next Friday, if the weather shall be good, and nothing 
happens to prevent. I have been absent at the plantations for near 
two weeks, only returned last Friday afternoon. We had good crops 
at all our places, but the river has been high, and injured a great 
deal of Corn, on the Creek, at the lower place. 

There are 37 fine fattening hogs at that place, 31 at Earhart's, 
and 1 6 or 1 7 at Henderson's. The hogs at the latter place have died 
of some disease among them. They have yoked up a pair of oxen 
at the lower place, and have 4 or 5 Beeves to kill. I bought a fine 
Mule Colt at Earhart's, and we now have six Colts there — 3 Mules 
and 3 Horses, including the sorrel filly, 3 ! /2 years old. I drove her 
in the Buggy with Crawley, and she did very well. 

I have had new roofs put on the Barn & sheds, and Crib, at 
Henderson's, and on the piazza at Earhart's. 

Wm. Hastings has volunteered, and will be with his Company 
this week, at High Point. Several young men from the neighbor- 
hood of our plantations have died in the army 8c been brought 
home to be buried. 

We have 1 5 Hogs and 2 Oxen fattening here, and some 20 young 
hogs, that we must keep 'till late in the winter, at the Estes place. 

We have heard from your brothers, all within a few days. Your 
bro. Jos. was to have been here last Saturday night, but he writes 
that the enemy were expected to land on the Coast, and he must 
be with his Company. John is with Gen'l Gatlin at Goldsboro'. 
Wm's Company are near Edenton, will get their uniform this 

133 Augustus Washington Graham (1849-1936), the youngest Graham son to attain 
his maturity, was at the time of this letter enrolled at Alexander Wilson's excellent 
classical school. He graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1868, ob- 
tained his law license in 1872, was a Hillsborough commissioner, 1875-1885, state 
senator, 1885-1887, member of the state house in 1901, 1903, 1905, 1909 (speaker), 
and the extra session of 1913, secretary to the Virginia-Maryland Boundary Com- 
mission, 1874-1877, superior court judge, 1895-1897, and president of the American 
cotton exchange, 1919-1922. He was a Democrat who, after 1888, resided in Oxford. 
Upon his death the Oxford Public Ledger commented: "He was a man of probity 
and industry and his keen intellect and interest in things and people made him one 
of the most popular men in the state during the active years of his life." Spencer 
Alumni Project; Public Ledger (Oxford), October 16, 1936. 


N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Pictured above is Augustus Washington Graham, "the seventh son of a seventh 
son," who served in many public offices during his long lifetime. This is thought to 
be one of the last photographs made of Graham and is here reproduced through the 
courtesy of the owner, Mr. A. H. Graham, attorney at law, Hillsborough, N. C. 

week, but are without horses, and imperfectly armed. James is 
still at Fort Macon. Carmichael will send his uniform as Lieut, 
this week. Rob't is busy sowing wheat at Ray's, and pulling Corn 
at Estes'. The Corn here is not pulled as yet. Sissy and Eugene are 
well. He has been talking a good deal since you were last at home. 
Tell Alfd Goldthwaite 134 he must come down with you. I 
brought from Charlotte a Coat, Cap, and two prs. of socks for him. 
His Mother had reached Mobile, and his Uncle Alfred was some- 
what better in health. All woollen goods 8c leather are becoming 
very scarce. I had some trouble to get enough for the negroes this 
fall. The enemy's ships prevent any from being brought into the 
country, and we have only what is made here. 

134 Alfred Goldthwaite (1847-1892), of Mobile, Graham's great-nephew, was then at 
the Wilson school. Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

The Papers of William A. Graham 305 

From William A. Graham, Jr. DUKE 

Camp Washington near Edenton 
November 7, 1861 

We arrived at Hertford on Saturday the 12th of Oct, Capt 
Strange 135 Capt Co D and Senior Capt present in command of the 
battallion composed of Capts Cole, 136 Strange, Bryan, 137 Thomas 138 
8c Turner's 139 Companies .... Hertford is situated on the Per- 
quimmons river about 12 miles from its mouth and from 
its appearance is one of the oldest towns in the State. There are no 
paved side walks and most of the streets are covered with grass. 
The people generally are well off but not near as enthusiastic in 
the cause of the South as the middle 8c western population of the 

On Thursday morning the Col 14 ° arrived and after a brief 
survey of the camp concluded that the place would not suit. Three 
sides of the camp was swamps 'k the 4th the Perquimmons river. 
He immediately detailed Capt Strange Sc me to come over to 
Edenton to look for a situation for the camp. ... At Hertford there 
is a float bridge acorss [sic] the P. river . . . about two hundred 

135 James W. Strange, of Cumberland County, was captain of Company D, Nine- 
teenth North Carolina Regiment (Second Cavalry). He commanded the regiment 
temporarily upon ihe death ot Colonel Solomon Williams at Brandy Station. He was 
a brave man and a good officer. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, 
11,80,93; V, 274. 

136 Captain Barzillai F. Cole, of Guilford County, commanded Company F, Nine- 
teenth North Carolina Regiment, at this time but soon resigned. Clark, Histories of 
the North Carolina Regiments, II. 80; Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 129. 

137 Captain Jesse L. Bryan, of Moore County, commanded Company I, Nineteenth 
North Carolina Regiment, until his resignation in 1862. Clark, Histories of the 
North Carolina Regiments, II, 80; Moore, Roster of Troops, II. 137. 

138 Columbus A. Thomas, of Wilson County, was captain of Company E, Nine- 
teenth North Carolina Regiment. He resigned early in 1862. Clark, Histories of the 
North Carolina Regiments, II, 80; Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 127. 

139 Captain Josiah Turner, Jr. commanded Company K, Nineteenth North 
Carolina Regiment, until he sustained a disabling wound at New Bern in March, 
1862. He resigned in November and William A. Graham, Jr., became company com- 
mander. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, II, 80, 82; Moore, Roster 
of Troops, II, 140. 

140 Samuel B. Spruill (1810-1889), of Bertie County, was colonel of the Nine- 
teenth North Carolina Regiment (Second Cavalry) from June. 1861, to March, 1862. 
He attended the United States Military Academy for three years before failing eye- 
sight forced him to resign. He became a lawyer and lived in Tyrrell, Wake, North- 
ampton, and Bertie counties. A Whig in politics, he represented Tyrrell in the Com- 
mons in 1831, Northampton in 1840, and Bertie in 1852. McCormick, Convention 
Personnel, 78-79; Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 113. 

306 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

yards of the bridge floats on the water being only fastened at the 
ends. At half past ten the Col. Capt S 8c I set out for Edenton. The 
Country was all low & sandy and from the appearance of the crop 
of corn ready to be harvested quite productive. Most of the land 
had been swamps rendered cultivatable. . . . at 12V2 o'clock we 
arrived at Edenton and stopped at Gregory's hotel. E. is quite a 
pretty place situated on Edenton Bay wh. is an arm of the Alber- 
marle [sic] Sound, about 2 1 / 4 o r 3 miles broad. There are several 
very fine residences in the place. . . . The shade trees are all elms 
and grow very luxuriantly. Some streets have a row in the centre 
as well as on each side. The Court House is a pretty building now, 
and I suppose in the year it was built (1720) ranked with first 
buildings in the country. In it is a chair once used by Gen. 
Washington. The people of E. are quite hospitable and great 
kindness & attention was shown me. . . . The people here like 
those of Hertford only more so are not very zealous in the cause 
of the South and I believe if Lincoln could reach here he would 
find as many if not more friends than enemies. And you can hear 
them say "they dont care a d — d wh. whips the North or the South 
and all the South will get out of them will be in taxes." The ladies 
have been very kind to our sick and every one now has a mattress 
to lay on. They send them also soup every day in the week. Mr. 
Paxton has sent a boy over whose business it is to wait on the sick. 

In 16 — a Swedish vessel wast [sic] cast a shore near here with 
seven guns aboard these guns have been in the town ever since 
and at the time Hatteras was taken were on the green in front of 
the Court House immediately on the bay in full view from the 
Sound. The citizens fearing they might provoke an attack moved 
them behind the Court House to Conceal them and they are now 
called the Edenton masked battery; but this is a sore subject to the 
Edentonians. The society of E. is as good as any in the country. 

After dinner the Col, Capt, and I with our landlord Gregory 8c 
Hospital Steward Jordan 141 procured a boat and started across the 
bay to Pembroke which had been recommended to our attention 
by the people of E. After about 15 minutes rowing we arrived at 
P. and landed to view the ground. P. is situated on the E. bay at 
the mouth of Gilbert Creek. It is a high sandy situation and about 
250 yards from the water. You have about 150 acres of level plain 
well suited to drilling. . . . 

141 This was probably A. Smith Jordan, assistant quartermaster, Nineteenth 
North Carolina Regiment. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiment, II, 88. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 307 

After an examination we concluded the place would answer and 
returned to town. Capt Strange was ordered next morning to 
proceed immediately to Hertford and move the camp to this place 
as soon as practicable. I was detailed to remain and with the Sergt 
Major to lay off the ground for the encampment. On Saturday 
about 1 2 o'clock the commissioned officers arrived having procured 
a stage 8c come over in it. At one o'clock the companies commence 
to arrive under command of the Orderly Sergeants. At 4 o'clock 
the last company arrived. The tents 8c baggage were all sent 
around by water so as they had not yet arrived the citizens prepared 
supper and breakfast for the men and they staid [sic] at night in 
the Court House. Next morning being Sunday the battallion got 
permission from the Col to attend church but about that time one 
of the schooners hove in sight with the baggage on board and all 
hands were ordered to fall in by the assembly call on the bugle 
by the Yankee Jack. 

November 11, 1861 

After the battallion was formed the Col ordered us to proceed 
at once to Pembrook [sic] to pitch our tents. The column under 
Capt Strange proceeded to the wharf where we found three large 
batteaus ready on which we went and started for our new homes. 
After 15 minutes pull we arrived at the same time with the schooner 
at our landing. As soon as we had landed we unloaded the schooner 
Sc proceeded to pitch our tents and fix up our camp the tents of the 
whole battallion being pitched in two rows. We had very dis- 
agreeable weather raining day the Col ordered us to rearrange our 
tents and put them in infantry style. We objected to the order but 
finally consented. Our objection was that we being Cavalry had no 
business in an infantry encampment. The Col stated he only did 
it to save duty Sc we obeyed his order tho' with some reluctance. On 
Thursday he informed us ("unofficially" however) that he had been 
ordered by the Adjt. Gen to equip us with muskets for temporary 
use and spoke something about liking to go to Roanoke Island if 
needed. I gave him to understand that I did not want the muskets. 
Capt Cole and I called on him in a friendly manner and stated our 
objections. That we were Cavalry and the musket was not a 
Cavalry arm, and that the state had no more right to give us . . . 
muskets for arms . . . than a man would have to send another a cow 
instead of a horse he had bought. The Col stated it was only 
temporary and he would certainly enforce the order. ... on sunday 
night he called a meeting of the officers and informed them that 
he had been ordered to equip us with the muskets and went on to 

308 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

say that he believed it to be only temporary etc. etc. I asked him if 
he thought the state had the power to make us take them tempo- 
rarily but not permanently. I replied that if they could make us 
take them temporarily they could permanently, that as far as the 
muskets were concerned I had no objection with them and if he 
was willing I would borrow enough from him to drill the company 
in extra drills as an individual but would not accept them as arms. 
As I believed they [sic] authorities could & would construe it as a 
consent to become infantry and could force us so to do and from 
appearances would, and further stated the guns . . . were no account 
as I can sling the bayonet off of 7/8 of them 8c half of the flints 
were no account. Capt Moore 142 (Commissary) remarked that 
McCullock 143 whipped the Yankees with worse guns I remarked 
that that might be so but doubted it. The Col said "Any guns 
were good in the hands of brave men but none were good with 
cowards." Whereupon I told him my men had never been tried 
but they came from brave kines who had made a name for them- 
selves in the days of the revolution and I did not believe (however 
others might differ with me) that the blood had degenerated but 
true my men were as brave as ever walked the earth. This fired 
the old Col & he remarked he did not say they were not brave. I 
was entirely too sensitive. After some more discussion the meeting 
broke. The next day Capt Moore came to us and endeavored to 
effect a compromise. After an hours conversation he said that the 
Col had asked for the muskets & we would render him ridiculous 
if we did not take them & that we knew the authorities were 

142 John Wheeler Moore (d. 1906), of Hertford County, graduated from the uni- 
versity in 1853 and was a lawyer and North Carolina historian. After serving as a 
staff officer of the Nineteenth North Carolina Regiment, he was appointed major of 
the Third Battalion, North Carolina Light Artillery, in February, 1862. Spencer 
Alumni Project; Manarin, North Carolina Troops, I, 336. 

143 Ben McCulloch (1811-1862), a native of Rutherford County, Tennessee, fol- 
lowed his neighbor "Davy" Crockett to Texas in time to see action at San Jacinto. 
Subsequently a surveyor and Indian fighter, he served with distinction under 
Zachary Scott in Mexico. After participating in the "forty-niner" gold rush, he re- 
turned to Texas and was a United States marshal. In February, 1861, as colonel of 
Texas troops, he accepted the surrender by General David Emanuel Twiggs of 
Texas and all Union forces and supplies. On May 11, 1861, he was commissioned 
Confederate brigadier general and given command in Arkansas. In August his men 
won the Battle of Wilson's Creek, aided by Price's Missouri troops. He was killed at 
Elkhorn Tavern on March 7, 1862, by a Federal sharpshooter. Disliking to wear his 
uniform, he was at the time of his death wearing a black velvet suit. He was the 
elder brother of Brigadier Henry Eustace McCulloch. Warner, Generals in Gray, 200- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 309 

anxious to get rid of him. I then told him I would accept the 
muskets with the following receipt, "Received of Col Spruil — 
muskets to teach my company of Cavalry the manual of arms with 
and for them to defend this camp with if necessary to being under- 
stood by Col Spruill that this is not in any manner, shape or form 
a consent or agreement to become infantry. 8c that I will not leave 
this encampment equipped with these muskets except for the 
defence of Edenton or its immediate vicinity" I also went to the 
Col $c told him I wished to avoid any difficulty and if would take 
my receipt I would receive the muskets [but] he gave me no 
answer. On Wednesday Capt Thomas returned. On thursday I was 
officer of the day and instructed to order the men to receive the 
guns. Some refused [and] I reported so to the Col. He sent for 
Capt Thomas . . . [who] told him he would resign before he would 
take them. That evening he sent for . . . Thomas Sc me and we 
talked it over and told him there were shot guns enough for the 
efficient force [of] 190 men 8c let us drill with them. He consented 
and thus ended one of the most disagreeable affairs I was ever 
concerned in &: hope never to have anything of this sort happen 
during the remainder of my military life. The Col received 
orders last week to buy horses Sc guns for Capts Cole, Strange, Sc 
Bryan, And guns for Capt Thomas Sc me. So we have but one 
Captain in camp now Sc about seven Lieutenants. Gen Hill 144 
ordered out the militia in 15 counties around here. Those from 
this county 300 in number left last night. About 50 or 60 have 
taken the swamp ^c cant be caught. I went over to see them yester- 
day Sc got 6 recruits The Col made them a speech yesterday 
evening and is to send 20 men under a commissioned officer 
... to guard the town every night. Capt Thomas goes tonight Sc I 
will go tomorrow night. It was a sad sight to see them leaving 
their families. There is over two to one negroes in the county to 
the white men when all are at home and I think it is very bad to 
leave the women Sc children so much exposed. Every one is 
cursing Gen Hill for the order. 

I have some idea of resigning if Turner dont for it is bad 
enough to have inefficient officers under you and I dont think I 
can stand one over me for I am tired doing Capt's work and 
holding Lieut rank. ... If I resign I shall get married and go to 
farming for if we are to be ruled by democrats let them fight for 
the government. 

144 General D. H. Hill. 

310 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From James A. Graham to Augustus W. Graham UNC 

Fort Macon 
Nov 20th 1861 

We see Old Abe Lincoln's ships every day about five or six 
miles off. 

They will not come closer to us. We all wish they would so that 
we could get a chance to shoot at them some, but they always keep 
further off than our guns will shoot. There is two and sometimes 
three of them in sight at the same time. 

You ought just to see our company now. It does not look at all 
like the old Orange Guards; for we have not got as pretty a uniform 
as we had at home and then we drill so much better than we did 
then. Our uniform is a grey coat, grey pants, and black hats. 

From Eliza W. Goldthwaite 145 UNC 

Mobile [Alabama], 
November 30th., 1861. 

I send you thirty dollars, which you will oblige me by giving to 
my Alfred, to pay his expenses to Ala. I find I will not be able to 
keep him from home any longer, & we have a very good school 
next door to my house, if I choose to send him. I have been at home 
nearly one month, most of that time alone in my house. I have 
gotten myself very comfortably settled, my son John 146 is now with 
me, but has been absent for some time in Miss., attending to a large 
estate of his Brother-in-law, that died recently out there. My sons 
Tom 8c Henry 147 are in the Army on our Coast. Henry has a very 
good position as Adjutant of the 21st. Regiment. Thomas has gone 
as private, but is in a Company of gentlemen & many of our 

145 Graham's niece, Elizabeth Isabella Witherspoon Goldthwaite (1816-1884), was 
the widow of Judge Henry Barnes Goldthwaite (1802-1847). Judge Goldthwaite, a 
native of New Hampshire who settled in Mobile, was a lawyer, journalist, Democrat- 
ic state legislator, and state supreme justice. His promising career was cut short by 
yellow fever, which took his life in 1847. Albert B. Moore, "Henry Barnes Goldth- 
waite," Dictionary of American Biography, VI, 369; Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

146 John Witherspoon Goldthwaite (1840-1883), of Mobile, Alabama, was Graham's 
great-nephew. Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

147 Dr. Henry Goldthwaite (1842-1895). Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

The Papers of William A. Graham 311 

My two boys, Joseph and George, 148 are at Tuscaloosa, they 
find the new Military discipline very severe, and I don't think 
have been as well pleased as they expected, but the unsettled state 
of affairs in this State, render education almost a useless task to 

I find this City in a most deplorable state, no business, and 
everything very dull, yet it is my home, and I am better satisfied 
than to be elsewhere, and shall stay as long as I can. 

There is a recklessness about our solons that is appaling. I went 
down to visit our Forts a few days ago. Fort Morgan seems to be 
a strong place. Fort Gain[e]s, 149 where Thomas is, is in a most 
unprotected situation. We could see the ships of the enemy very 
distinctly, lying out before us. My daughter Mary, has been 
spending the fall at her Uncles, — Judge Goldthwaites 150 — at 
Montgomery, where she seems to have found some pleasure. We 
have heard that my sister Mary 151 arrived safely in Europe. The 
rest of my family are well. Please say to Dr. Wilson that I regret 
to have to take Alfred from School, but I can't spare all my chil- 
dren, and he is the only one that it suits to take home. 

W. A. Graham's Speech in the Convention of North Carolina 

December 7, 1861 

Mr. President: — When the original ordinance pertaining to this 
subject came up for consideration several days since, I took occa- 
sion to express my decided aversion to test oaths, as antiquated 
instruments of oppression and despotism, unsuited to an enlighten- 
ed age, and wholly at war with all our ideas of free republican 
government. I was then of opinion that an indefinite postpone- 
ment was the proper disposition to make of the entire topic. At 
the suggestion of others, it was referred to a committee, of which, 
under your appointment, I had the honor to be a member. When 

148 Joseph Graham Goldthwaite (1845-1905) and George Goldthwaite (1846-1891). 
Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

149 F orts Morgan and Gaines overlooked Mobile Bay. 

150 George Thomas Goldthwaite (1809-1879), a native New Englander and brother 
of Henry Barnes Goldthwaite, settled in Montgomery, Alabama, about 1826. A 
successful lawyer and planter, he was chief justice of the Alabama Supreme Court 
and United States senator, 1871-1877. He was unsympathetic with slavery and opposed 
secession, accepting it with reluctance. Concise Dictionary of American Biography, 
349; Biographical Directory of Congress, 954. 

151 Mary Sophia Witherspoon (1829-1880). Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

312 N.C. Department of Archives and History 


^. ■ ** .* -* " of ■' * 



c ** 


in $k$ €kmvmiwn of tforth-OsreHn^ Ihc. H*» 1$^% m the 
Ordinance ezncernmg Test Oaths and 

- v 


- * •, , 


This is a copy of the title page used in a W. W. Holden broadside of Graham's 
speech, which follows. The original document is in the North Carolina State Archives. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 313 

that committee assembled, and the honorable Chairman, Mr. 
Biggs, produced and read from an old act of 1777, as contained in 
Iredell's Revisal, the two first sections of the ordinance reported 
by him, without much reflection I gave that part of the ordinance 
my concurrence, and consented that it might be reported to the 
Convention. But, in committee, as in this House, everywhere and 
under all circumstances, I have been unalterably opposed to a 
test oath, and especially to that most objectionable form of such 
an oath contained in the report of the committee, and proposed 
to be enacted into a law of the State. And upon a little more consid- 
eration, I am satisfied that no enactment by this Convention is 
required in regard to sedition; I therefore, now submit the 
motion, that in the outset I deemed appropriate, that the further 
consideration of the subject be indefinitely postponed. I esteem 
it proper in this connection further to state, that the eloquent, 
argumentative report of the Chairman of the committee, so full 
of fiery zeal and patriotism, was never heard of by me, until it was 
read by the Chairman at your desk. If it was ever read to the 
committee, it was on some occasion other than the two meetings 
I was summoned to attend, and I received no intimation that such 
a paper might be expected. This I mention, not in the way of 
complaint, but to acquit myself of any neglect of duty in failing to 
present a counter-report against a document, which, with all 
respect I must say, inculcates doctrines most intolerant and 

Mr. President, the original proposition was liable to objections 
enough. I endeavored to point out these in the former discussion. 
It allowed a single magistrate upon complaint made, to bring 
before himself any citizen accused of disloyalty, and then to 
determine, in the first place, what constituted disloyalty — 
second, whether the person charged was guilty — and thirdly, 
to impose on him a sentence to take an oath of allegiance to the 
State, or be expelled from the country. Revolting to our concep- 
tions of justice and freedom as was this concentration of power in 
the hands of a magistrate, it yet retained something of the manly 
spirit of the common law, and of the elementary principles of 
liberty embodied in our bill of rights. There was to be a respon- 
sible prosecutor — persons arraigned and accused were to be 
allowed the customary privilege of defence, with the right of 
course, to confront the accusers and witnesses, and above all, 
to be protected against being compelled to give evidence against 
themselves. But the substitute of the committee proposes what? 
Why, to institute a proceeding in the nature of a criminal 

314 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

prosecution against every free citizen; yea, sir, against every male 
inhabitant of the State, from the beardless youth of sixteen years, 
five years in advance of his admission to the rights of a citizen, 
to the aged patriarch of one hundred and sixteen, tottering on his 
staff, with one foot in the grave, by which they are each and all 
to be attainted of treason, and banished from their homes and 
country; or, if graciously permitted to remain, to be deprived of 
their rights as freemen, and reduced to a degraded caste — unless 
and until they shall purge themselves of this foul crime, by taking 
the oath of allegiance, military fealty, and abjuration, compounded 
and prescribed in the ordinance before us. This is the obvious 
effect of the provisions relating to a test oath, when analyzed and 
brought to a plain interpretation. Your magistrates are to be sent 
out into all the land, from the shores of the ocean to the summits 
of the Smoky Mountains, and they are to beset every man and boy 
above the prescribed age, with a test oath in the left hand, and a 
sentence of banishment or degradation in the right. In this 
dilemma, there is to be no means of escape, nor any more freedom 
of action than when the highwayman with his pistol at your breast, 
offers the alternatives, "your money or your life." Observe, 
sir, there is to be no inquiry as to guilt, as upon accusation and 
arraignment, but the party is to be placed by law in a state of 
condemnation — his guilt is to be assumed, until he shall exonerate 
himself by taking the oath; and upon his refusal so to do, his 
guilt being put beyond question, the penalty annexed is — what? 
Not a disqualification for holding office — not a forfeiture of a 
part or the whole of his goods and lands, but a forfeiture of his 
birthright as a citizen of North-Carolina. 

Mr. President, if this Convention, like a French national 
Assembly, were to declare itself in permanent session, and abrogate 
all the powers of government, it would give no greater shock to 
public sentiment, and make no more dangerous stride towards 
despotism, than would be effected by the passage of this ordinance. 
It is true, there have been confided to us extensive powers, but 
they are delegated powers, and must be exercised not whimsically 
or tyrannically, but in conformity with those elementary principles 
of freedom and justice, on which are founded our American system 
of Constitutional government. If these are violated, it is usurpation 
on our part, an abuse of power equal to usurpation, and for want 
of other remedy, it may expect to provoke that old and primary 
one of resistance on the part of the people. When elected to these 
seats in the month of May last, we were not understood to be 
placed above, or out of the reach of the well known responsibilities 

The Papers of William A. Graham 315 

of the representative to the constituent body. Our countrymen 
supposed that they retained the right to judge of and canvass 
our whole proceedings as freely as they were accustomed to do as 
to those of other representatives; and that if dissatisfied with 
what we had done, a sufficient majority, by some process or 
other, might set it aside, and afford redress. They further supposed, 
that, although we had power to disfranchise men, and change the 
qualifications for the right of suffrage, yet that no new test of 
citizenship would be applied to those born upon the soil, of 
parents who had achieved the independence of the country, and 
established the free institutions, whose essential features no one 
desires to change. What, then, will be their surprise, not to say 
indignation, if this ordinance shall pass, and they are told that 
no man can ever vote again — nay, that no man will be allowed to 
remain in the State, but every one will be exiled who does not take 
an oath that the Convention has ordained? Sir, every North Caro- 
linian rejoices in the idea, that, like St. Paul, he was free-born. And, 
although this freedom was purchased at a great price, no less than 
the blood of his fathers shed in every battle-field of American 
independence, from the shores of the Hudson to the everglades 
of Florida, it came to him as an inheritance, the more valued, 
because of its association with his ancestral pride and glory. 
His right to dwell in and breathe the pure air of the land of his 
birth; his right to participate in the election of rulers, and, if it 
suit his inclination and the will of a majority, to be himself invested 
with a portion of the powers of the republic, he will suffer neither 
to be taken away nor trifled with. He did not acquire them by an 
oath, and he will spurn any oath offered to him as a condition 
of their continued enjoyment. 1 1 is one of those blunders character- 
ized by Talleyrand as worse than a crime, for statesmen by their 
measures to encroach upon and offend so sacred a feeling as the 
pride of nativity — the self-respect and manhood of a high-spirited, 
free-born American. Sir, the people when presented with this 
oath, will turn upon this Convention, and inquire "upon what 
food have these our Caesars," at Raleigh, "fed, that they have 
grown so great?" We thought they were our servants; how have 
they become our masters? We had a free election according to the 

usages and Constitution of our fathers when we chose them as 
our representatives; by what legerdemain, by what audacity, do 
they declare that we shall never vote again, no nor inhabit our 
present homes, but shall be driven out as fugitives and vagabonds, 
unless we take an oath that they have dictated? It will be no 
answer to tell them, as they are told in substance in the report 

316 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

of the committee, and the speech of the Chairman, Mr. Biggs, in 
support of the ordinance, that the oath is but an evidence of 
patriotism, and no one but a traitor need have any hesitation in 
taking it. The prompt response would be, We care but little for 
the thing proposed to be sworn to; the objection is to being 
compelled to swear at all, as a condition to the enjoyment of 
our inborn rights of property and citizenship. We render to the 
government our loyalty and duty, as we cherish and support our 
wives and children, and perform other obligations as members 
of society; but we will take no oaths upon compulsion, to bind 
us to those duties, and least of all, an oath that is accompanied 
with the polite alternatives of exile or degradation. Nor will they 
be any better satisfied with that other idea contained in the report, 
and which seems to be the favorite explanation of the ordinance, 
that it is a mere measure of detective police, not intended to do 
any harm to patriotic men, but to discover and expel disloyal 
ones. This assumes that it is legitimate and proper to hunt through 
the consciences of all good men by an oath of discovery, in order 
to ferret out the bad. By parity of reasoning, if a treasonable 
correspondence were suspected in any county or neighborhood, 
every man should be required to open his desk, and submit his 
private correspondence and papers to the inspection of a magis- 
trate. This certainly would be no more harsh than to ask a discovery 
of his conscience. Or to illustrate it more strikingly, it is in 
principle, the same as in case a theft had been committed, in order 
to be sure of visiting punishment on the real offender, you should 
require every inhabitant of the vicinage to receive forty stripes 
save one. Your people will say to you, point out the guilty or 
suspected persons, take the warrant of the law in your hands, 
summon us of the posse comitatus if necessary, and we are ready 
to render our duty anywhere; but our homes and consciences 
are not to be made hunting grounds for traitors and felons, 
and if we could submit to make them such, we should not feel 
ourselves much elevated above either. 

But, Sir, the jealous and sagacious spirit of liberty which 
pervades our people, will discover in this process of a test oath 
something more than an usurpation or abuse of power on our 
part, and an instrument of tyranny, oppression and degradation 
upon the citizen. They will perceive at a glance, that no more 
effectual contrivance could be devised to enable a faction in 
the possession of temporary power, to convert the government 
into an oligarchy, expel their opponents from the State, and riot 
upon the substance they had left. Such a faction need only to 

The Papers of William A. Graham 317 

enact a test oath, for patriotic objects of course, but to take care 
to infuse into it such ingredients as they knew would be 
offensive and inadmissable by its opponents, and declare that 
every man who refused it, should be banished from the State, or 
lose his rights as a citizen with forfeiture of all his possessions. 
Carry it out with the high hand offeree, and it makes no difference 
whether a majority or minority, whether one in fifty will take the 
oath; the few who do will have the whole government in their 
hands, and the spoils of the exiles besides. Our theory has been, 
that a majority within the limitations of our written Constitu- 
tions, can mould the government at will — can make revolutions 
and unmake them; but this is an invention by which that theory 
is subverted, and those who have power may keep it till the end of 
time. Whenever they are about to lose favor with the constituent 
body, they have but to prescribe a new oath, and that no man shall 
vote who refused it, and they will never fail in an election. 
Since the commencement of the present revolution and the 
adoption of the new Constitution of the Confederate States, there 
has been much speculation as to the facility with which it may 
be abrogated by any State, who may become dissatisfied with 
its operation or administration. If there be that virtue in test 
oaths which this ordinance supposes, it may be perpetuated in- 
definitely. If there be a majority favorable to it in the Legisla- 
ture, as there will be of course in the outset, whenever they suspect 
opposition or lukewarmness, they may enact an oath to suit the 
case, and banish those who refuse it before the next election. 
I speak as if there were no constitutional impediments to such a 
course, as this ordinance considers that there are none, or proposes 
to override them, if they exist. 

Mr. President, the very mention of a test oath carries us back to 

the ''bigot monarchs and the butcher priests" of the days of the 
Tudors and Stuarts, and beyond these, to the Inquisition itself. 
It is a device of power in Church and in State, to perpetuate itself 
by force, against free discussion and inquiry, and in defiance of 
what in more liberal times we call public sentiment. In direct 
contravention of that most essential principle of criminal justice, 
that no man shall be compelled to give evidence against himself, 
it requires of its victim the confession of a creed, and his failure 
or refusal it takes as conclusive evidence of his guilt, and inflicts 
upon him torturous penalties or forfeitures, such as, if they will 
not cure him of his heresy, may deter others in like cases offending. 
Whether the creed be religious or political, or the remedy be 
the thumbscrew, the iron boot, the break-wheel or the rack, 

318 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

or whether it be banishment, deprivation or privilege, degrada- 
tion, or forfeiture of estate, there is no difference in the odiousness 
of the principle. Forsaking every vestige of Christian charity and 
toleration, it assumes to control by force that conscience, which the 
God who gave it designed to be free, and avows its purpose to 
drive men to perjury of self-accusation. I have somewhere seen or 
read of a picture of a trembling prisoner of the Inquisition, who 
when called to take the religious test of that inexorable tribunal, 
replies: "I cannot; I'll be damned, if I do." To which the stern 
Inquisition replies: "You'll be damned, if you don't." It will re- 
quire no stretch of imagination to picture your justice, under this 
ordinance, with his prisoner before him, refusing the oath, with 
"I'll be perjured, forsworn, if I take it;" and the equally stern 
reply, "You'll be banished, if you don't take it." 

The history of our mother country affords us some instruction 
on the subject of tests, and the persecutions that attended them, 
religious and political. In the Catholic ascendency, Protestants 
were the victims; in the Protestant reigns, Catholics suffered 
in turn; and it is a reproach to that enlightened and Christian 
nation, even that down within our own memories, no man could 
hold even a military office until he took a test oath against Cathol- 
icism, and received the sacraments according to the rites of the 
Church of England. This last vestige of intolerance and bigotry 
in that country was swept away under the enlightened counsels 
of Earl Gray, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel, not 
more than thirty years ago. 

But in the worst and most intolerant times, neither in England 
nor in any civilized nation of which I have recollection, was 
there ever such an experiment made as is proposed to be made 
here, of prescribing a test, religious or political, and running a 
muck with it against the whole people, to see if perchance, 
some victim may not be found for banishment or degradation. 

In this country we have known but little of test oaths, except as 
we have read of them under more arbitrary governments. The 
Legislature of Virginia, more than fifty years ago, in a laudable 
desire to supress the practice of duelling, directed an oath to be 
taken by certain public functionaries, and among others the 
advocates in her courts of justice, that they would not engage 
in any duel. Mr. Benjamin Watkins Leigh, since known to the 
country as one of her most distinguished lawyers and statesmen, 
was then at the bar, and the court of appeals having decided that 
the oath must be taken, Mr. Leigh requested time to consider the 
question of the power of the Legislature to impose such an oath. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 319 

And at a subsequent day he submitted an argument which satisfied 
the court that the power did not exist, and they unhesitatingly 
reversed the former decision, which Chief Justice Roane pro- 
nounced to be an "off hand and erroneous" one; an example of 
candor and fairness of mind which I beg to commend to all 
who may have inclined in favor of this ordinance. In his argument, 
Mr. Leigh so vividly depicts the mischievous nature of test oaths 
as the "barbed and poisoned weapons" of despotic power, that I 
will detain the Convention by reading a few sentences from it: 

"If the words of the Constitution," [sic] said he, "were doubt- 
ful, its spirit could not be mistaken. If the Legislature might add 
one new disqualification, they might add many; multiply dis- 
abilities without end; disqualify whole districts or classes of men 
by personal or local description; make an academical degree, or 
even a previous service in one of its own bodies, a necessary quali- 
fication; and thus convert the government into an oligarchy. If 
this tremendous power existed at all, it was boundless and uncon- 
trollable as the winds; and dissipated at once all our fond notions 
of a written constitution, late the glory of American politics. These 
test laws, particularly, were the first weapons young oppression 
would learn to handle; weapons the more odious, since, though 
barbed and poisoned, neither strength nor courage was requisite 
to wield them. Should we rely on public virtue to keep us from 
the use and extension of this system of tests? In no age, nor clime, 
nor nation, had ever virtue wholly swayed human bosoms and 
actions; man was universally liable to be transported with passion, 
blinded with folly, corrupted with vice; and yet more with power, 
maddened with faction, and fired with the lust of domination; let 
us not flatter ourselves that we were exempt from the common lot; 
and although the wise exposition of the bill of rights, by the act 
to establish religious freedom, might for a time secure us from 
a religious test, a political one was certainly a possible, perhaps a 
probable, and not very remote event. Sir, I am possessed with a 
strange delusion if the very law in question does not appoint a 
political test. I fear other instances might be recounted. Such are 
the BEGINNINGS. The END of all these things is death." 

Sir, this ordinance goes beyond the apprehensions of Mr. Leigh, 
and does apply a religious test to a considerable portion of our 
population, as a condition of their being allowed to remain citizens. 
It would be a very great mistake to suppose, that the oath which 
it prescribes, was an oath "to support the Constitution of the 
Confederate States," the only oath to that government required 
by its Constitution; or that it was the common oath of allegiance 

320 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

to the State of North-Carolina, or both of these together. Let us 
read it: 

"I, A.B., do solemnly swear, (or affirm, as the case may be,) that 
I will bear faithful and true allegiance to the State of North Caro- 
lina, and will to the utmost of my power, support, maintain and 
defend the independent government of the Confederate States of 
America, against the government of the United States, or of any 
other power, that by open force or otherwise, shall attempt to 
subvert the same. I do hereby renounce my allegiance to the 
government of the United States, and will support and defend the 
Constitution of the Confederate States of America, and the Con- 
stitution of this State, not inconsistent with the Constitution of 
the Confederate States — so help me God." 

Now, Sir, the requirement of this affirmation to be taken by 
the denomination called Quakers, is as effectual an act of banish- 
ment of that sect, as if it had been plainly denounced in the ordi- 
nance. And the same may be said, I presume, in relation to 
Menonists and Dunkers, though I have less knowledge of them. 
There were some of the last named class in the county of Lincoln 
during my boyhood; whether they remain, and keep up their 
peculiar tenets, I am not informed. But the Quakers are a well 
known sect, numbering not less than ten thousand [sic] persons in 
the State — and it is equally well known that they will not engage 
in war, and are conscientiously scrupulous against bearing arms. 
Our laws, from the Revolution downward to this day, have respect- 
ed their scruples, and extended to them the charity and toleration 
due to the sincerity and humility of their profession. This 
ordinance wholly disregards their peculiar belief, and converts 
every man of them into a warrior or an exile. True, they are 
allowed to affirm, but the affirmation is equivalent to the oath of 
the feudal vassal to his lord, to "defend him with life and limb 
and terrene honor." It is, that they "will to the utmost of their 
power, support, maintain and defend the independent govern- 
ment of the Confederate States of America, against the United 
States, or any other power, that by open force or otherwise may 
attempt to subvert the same," &c. If this does not include military 
defence, it is difficult to find language that would. It is so well 
known that the ordinary oath to the State implies defence with 
arms, that the Quakers have ever refused to affirm in its terms, but 
have had a special affirmation provided for them, as may be seen 
in the present Revised Code, and in all former editions of our 
laws. This ordinance, therefore, is nothing less than a decree of 
banishment to them. Sir, this humble denomination, who in the 

The Papers of William A. Graham 321 

meekness and charity which so distinguished their Divine 
Master, yield precedence to none, were the first white men who 
made permanent settlements within our borders. Scourged and 
buffeted by Puritanism in New England, and Prelacy in Virginia, 
they found no rest or religious freedom, until they had put the 
great Dismal Swamp between themselves and the nearest of their 
persecutors. In the dark forests of its Southern border, they 
obtained a toleration from the savage red man which had been 
denied them by their Anglo-American brethren. There they 
opened the wilderness, reared their modest dwellings, and filled 
the land with the monuments of civilization. There, and upon the 
upper waters of the Cape Fear, which they subsequently colonized, 
their posterity has remained to this day — a quiet, moral, indus- 
trious, thrifty people, differing from us in opinion on the subject 
of slavery, but attempting no subversion of the institution — 
producing abundantly by their labor, paying punctually and cer- 
tainly their dues to the government, and supporting their own 
poor. Sir, upon the expulsion from among us of such a people, the 
civilized world would cry, shame! 

But, it may be said that this was not intended. If so, it but 
demonstrates that it is dangerous for freemen to take hold of the 
weapons of despotism and brandish them about, lest they do 
mischief more than was designed. But there is certainly no ex- 
ception of Quakers in the ordinance, though they are excepted and 
specially provided for in the act of Assembly, 1777, from which 
its main features are copied — none in those amendments which 
the Chairman signified his intention to move; and the report of 
the committee declares "there can be no neutrals in the struggle" 
in which we are engaged. 

It may not be a religious test to others, but, Sir, it is a disturbance 
of, and interference with the religious sentiments and domestic 
repose of the country, not to be justified, unless called for by some 
most urgent necessity. The veteran of the Court-house, who sees 
every breach of the peace and misdemeanor, and calculates on 
proving his attendance as a part of his income, may regard oaths 
as unmeaning ceremonies; but your quiet and retired citizen, who, 
except when called to the public duty of a juror, or to prove 
his neighbor's will, has seldom been sworn at all, looks upon them 
in the language of your public statute, as "being most solemn 
appeals to Almighty God, as the omniscient witness of truth and 
the just and omnipotent avenger of falsehood," and takes them not 
without a feeling of awe. Beyond his daily prayer — 

322 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

"That He who stills the raven's clamorous nest, 

And decks the lilly fair, in flowery pride, 

Would in the way His wisdom sees the best, 

For him, and for his little ones provide;" 

Beyond this, his morning and evening imploration, repeated 
perhaps with unwonted fervor and emphasis, in these times of 
difficulty and scarcity, he takes not his Maker's name. He is 
accustomed to vex His ear with no blasphemous, unnecessary, 
unhallowed appeals. When you invade the retirement of such 
a man by domiciliary visitation, and demand from him his oath, 
with a threat of banishment branished [sic] over his head, he will 
feel as would the pagan whose household Gods had been rudely 
jostled from their seats. He, as well as you, Mr. President, has 
read those thrilling words in which Chatham has engraven on 
our memories the domestic rights of our fathers beyond the seas, 
that "every Englishman's house is his castle, though so rude and 
humble that the rains and the winds of heaven may beat upon, 
and may enter it, yet the king cannot enter it." He will reflect 
that until now his house has been equally sacred from the intrusion 
of government, and his conscience unruffled by impertinent 
interrogation; and he will instinctively inquire, if these are the 
first fruits of the new order of things, what may not be expected 
in the sequel? And in spite of all the apologies and disclaimers 
that your magistrates may be instructed to make, he can sensibly 
arrive at no other conclusion, than that he was suspected of dis- 
loyalty, and that the visit was designed to drive him to perjury, 
or exile; or else that it was a senseless proceeding, which ought 
to bring the government that made it into contempt. 

But, Mr. President, the enormity of the proposition remains yet 
to be told. It violates every safeguard of personal freedom embodied 
in our bill of rights, most of which have been consecrated in the 
history of English liberty from the time of Magna Charta itself. 
The Northern government became a despotism by usurpation. 
Pass this ordinance upon the old plea of tyrants, the necessity of the 
times, and the Southern one, within the borders of North-Carolina, 
will have become a despotism by legislation. Whereas, our people 
are resolved to be independent and free, not only in the END but 
in the MEANS. They are resolved, not only to be freemen at the 
termination of the contest, but will not surrender their liberties 
during its progress. Nor will they be satisfied with the flimsy 
pretexts and excuses for the sacrifice of a sacred principle, that it 
can do no harm except to traitors. They intend that even traitors 

The Papers of William A. Graham 323 

shall not be condemned except in accordance with those great 
principles of right and justice, which are of universal application. 
For they know full well that it is upon the persons of friendless 
or odious men that despotism, whether of a single tyrant or of a 
mob, first lays its hands; and that vigilance is more necessary to 
the preservation of liberty in times of public peril and revolution, 
than in peace. Now, Sir, you can hardly mention a guarantee of 
individual right contained in that immortal declaration prefixed 
to the constitution, which is not outraged by the proposed pro- 
ceeding in relation to a test oath. Let me particularize a few of the 
more prominent among them: 

1. Contrary to the very words of that declaration, it "disseizes 
every freeman" and every boy too above the age of sixteen, of his 
privileges as a citizen, and converts him into an alien, and exiles 
him until he shall re-establish his right to citizenship by taking 
the oath of allegiance, defense, and of abjuration of the govern- 
ment of the United States, already recited; a high-handed outrage 
in subversion of "the law of the land," the only process by which 
so dreadful a sentence could be inflicted — and it is well known 
that "by law of the land" here, is meant a regular trial before 
Judge and jury, according to the course and usage of the common 

2. It convicts a freeman of a crime, the high crime of disloyalty 
to the government, by an act of attainder passed by this Conven- 
tion, and subjects him to the punishment of being banished, 
unless he shall acquit himself by an oath — the declaration 
guaranteeing that no such conviction shall be had "but by the 
unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men in open 
court, as heretofore used." 

3. Without any evidence of an offense having been committed, 
and without any offense being described in a warrant and supported 
by evidence, it considers a free citizen as condemned, and exiles 
him from his sacred home, unless he will disclose the secrets of his 
heart, and they are found to be patriotic, by a Justice of the Peace. 

4. In a highly criminal proceeding, it compels a man to give 
evidence against himself. This hideous feature is a little disguised, 
but it is unquestionably there. If he will swear the oath he goes 
free, but if he will not, his refusal is plenary evidence of his guilt, 
and he suffers the dread penalty. This refusal he is forced to give 
if his conscience will not allow him to take the oath. Wherein 
does this differ from that old device of bigotry and cruelty of 
putting him on the wheel and cracking his bones until he shall 

324 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

declare that he is not guilty of heresy or treason? In nothing 
that I can perceive, except that in the one case he suffers in the 
flesh, and in the other it is expulsion from wife and children, and 
friends, and country. 

Mr. President, when my friend, Charles S. Morehead, of 
Kentucky, as noble and gallant a gentleman as any that I have 
ever known, was seized on his native soil and hurried off to a 
prison in a far distant State, upon an alleged order from the 
Secretary of State at Washington, I thought, not that "ten 
thousand swords would have leaped from their scabbards," but 
that the Mississippi valley would have risen as one man, and 
cried "to the rescue." American constitutional freedom had been 
struck down in the person of one of the noblest of her sons; and 
I supposed that without regard to past differences of opinion 
as to whether the Union should be maintained, all men would 
have been satisfied by that act of tyranny, that the free Constitution 
of our fathers was extinct; that arbitrary power reigned in its 
stead; and that safety was only to be found in the overthrow of that 
power. But that proceeding, violent and revolting as it was, may 
be favorably distinguished from this. Morehead was not required 
to give evidence against himself. The government which arrested 
him, professed to have had sufficient proof of his guilt, and did not 
call upon him under penalty of exile, forfeiture of torture, to 
furnish any evidence either positive or negative to effect the case. 
Sir, I think it now appears that the oath in question requires 
some emendation. The citizen ought to be excused from swearing 
to support the Constitution of North Carolina, as heretofore 
existing, since the whole proceeding violates so many of its funda- 
mental principles, as in fact, to abrogate it. He might with more 
propriety be called on to take an oath of abjuration, declaring that 
he had no faith in the bill of rights, as a means of securing 
freedom, and renouncing his adherence to it, at least, in all cases 
where disloyalty was imputed. That would be far more appro- 
priate than that other oath of abjuration, "renouncing 'hereby' 
all allegiance to the United States;" implying in the clearest 
manner that until the oath is taken, allegiance is still due to the 
United States — a folly that will excite a laugh wherever it is not 
taken as an insult. The citizen will say, I protest that I thought 
all this was settled in May last, by the Convention. I have not 
considered myself as owing any allegiance to the United States, 
since that time, and I have none that 1 can "hereby" renounce. 
With nearly as much reason might he be required to renounce all 
allegiance to Victoria Regina, successor of the Georges second 

The Papers of William A. Graham 325 

and third, of whom our fathers were born subjects, and to abjure 
the heresy of transubstantiation, the invocation of saints, and 
Popery in general, as the Englishmen who took office were 
required to do prior to Catholic emancipation. And the power 
being established, as it is assumed by this ordinance, it would 
be the easiest thing in the world to superadd a mild adjuration, 
to abide by the creed as established by the Convention, Synod, 
Conference or Association, as one or another denomination 
might happen to predominate with the ruling powers. 

And here let me correct a very important error of fact which 
appears in the committee's report. It is there stated that our 
volunteers who have entered the military service have taken 
an oath, and it is argued, that therefore all other citizens 
should enter into the like solemn obligation. The conclusion 
would not follow, if the oath were the same. Soldiers received into 
the service and pay of the State or nation, like public servants in 
civil office, have always been required to take an oath of allegiance, 
but citizens in general never were. In fact, however, no volunteer 
has taken the absurd oath here proposed to be thrust upon the 
citizen. They have not been required to abjure allegiance "to the 
government of the United States." They are bound to take an oath 
of allegiance to the State. And under an act of Assembly in May 
last, the Governor prescribed an oath, by which they undertook 
"to obey his orders, and the orders of the officers set over them." 
But by ordinance of this Convention they were relieved from an 
oath of this nature, which no man could be expected to keep 
without some infringement, and which had been disused in the 
army of the United States, prior to the Mexican war, and since; 
and they were simply made liable to the penalties of the articles 
of war, for disobedience of orders, from the time of signing the 
agreement of enlistment. No volunteer of North-Carolina, 
therefore, can be lawfully required to take any oath, but the 
oath of allegiance to the State, anterior to his being mustered 
into the service of the Confederate States. That, let us remember, 
is a government with Legislative, Executive, and Judicial 
functionaries, in full operation, and can prescribe and administer 
such oaths, as to it may seem meet, to soldiers; and if it wishes to 
try so hazardous an experiment, to citizens also. Our interference, 
then, to bind the consciences of our citizens to that government, 
after having granted it power of life and death over their conduct, 
is quite a work of supererogation, if not of servility. In its 
Constitution, Art. 6, sec. 4, it has plainly enumerated the persons 
in the State and Confederacy, whom it requires to take the oath 

326 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

to support it. If it desires to enlarge the catalogue, by polling 
every citizen, to search his heart, and see if it cannot find somebody 
to punish as a traitor, let it try the virtue of an act of Congress, 
and the machinery of its own officers. That would give the regula- 
tion generality, and relieve it of one of its features of hatefulness, 
that of being leveled at the people of a particular State, and this by 
the officiousness of the State authority in a matter committed by 
the people to other hands. For, I suppose, no one imagines that 
there is any danger of rebellion against the State government as 
such. The whole solicitude which prompts this most extraordinary 
measure, springs from an apprehension of infidelity on the part of 
the people to other hands. For, I suppose, no one imagines that 
— and it implies that that government is too weak or its 
functionaries too timid to provide and apply the needful remedies. 
We, therefore, must rush in to the help of the nation. If Congress 
were consulted, I doubt not they would render thanks for the good 
and patriotic intention, but if they spoke candidly, would declare 
that they considered the remedy ten times as bad as the disease. 
No, Sir — the Congress would as soon think of repealing the 
Constitution, and dissolving into a state of chaos, as to undertake 
this process of the polling and purgation of the whole people. Nor 
has any other State proposed or conceived it. They know, that if 
serious disaffection does not exist, (as every one knows it does not 
in North Carolina,) this is a way in which the government may 
readily be brought into contempt and collision with the people; 
and that if it did, this is not the mode in which to deal with it. 
Lord Macauley relates of James II, that he never learned how 
to treat an insurrection, which common sense teaches should be, 
by taking hold of the ring-leaders and making examples of them, 
— but on the happening of such an occurrence, he seized, tried 
and executed the unhappy insurgents, of all ages and sexes; and 
while his servile and tyrannical chief justice, Jeffries, went the 
circuits perverting the law for the condemnation of all accused, 
the moody monarch diverted himself among his parasites and 
courtiers by speaking of them as Jeffries' campaigns. Sir, the 
progress of your justices under this ordinance, abjuring men 
and boys, without regard to the aged, the decrepid, the halt, 
maimed or blind, under terror of exile or degradation from the 
proud privileges of citizenship, will be looked upon by those 
who have the instincts, not to say knowledge of freemen, as no 
less of campaigns; and with no view to favor the public enemy, 
but to assert their self-respect and dignity, they will strive to hurl 
from power the authority under which they are made. What, Sir, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 327 

is such a proceeding but the establishment of martial law through- 
out the length and breadth of the State, by which the peaceful 
citizen is invaded in his home and his conscience, and placed upon 
the footing of the inhabitant of a besieged city or fortress, or of 
a conquered rebellious province? A Roman pro-consul, a British 
colonial Governor, or a successful General in the armies of Abraham 
Lincoln, with an overwhelming force and but feeble resistance, 
may adopt measures of such dictatorial severity and rigor. We 
are informed that Governor Tryon, after overpowering the 
Regulators at Alamance, marched a military force into many of 
the upper counties of the then province, and exacted from the 
inhabitants an oath of allegiance to the King at the point of the 
bayonet. Gen. Dix, also, upon his recent conquest of the two 
counties on the eastern shore of Virginia, condescended to 
advertise their helpless citizens, that if they would take the oath 
of allegiance to the United States, they should receive every 
protection, and their property should not be confiscated. This 
was a sufficient hint what consequences would follow if they did 
not. But, who before ever heard of a government professing to be 
free, undertaking to drive from its borders or disfranshise its 
whole population, if they would not, man by man, submit to the 
ordeal of a compulsory test oath? Nay, what arbitrary despotism 
in its domestic rule, ever embarked in any such enterprize of 
Quixotic absurdity? Was it attempted in France under the first 
Napoleon, or under the third? Even in the wildest excesses of 
her revolutionary phrenzy, there seems to have been sufficient 
common sense left to the ruling authorities to enable them to 
recollect, that "human law is a rule of civil conduct ," not of faith, 
and that only bigotry and fanaticism will attempt to regulate 
conscience and opinion in government or in religion. Charles V., 
Emperor of Germany and Spain, after waging for years the most 
bloody and relentless wars, to put down Luther and the Reforma- 
tion, becoming sated with carnage, and disgusted with the 
pageantry of monarchy, yielded up the reins to his son, and retired 
to a monastery. There, he amused his leisure in scientific studies, 
and in experiments upon instruments for measuring time. But 
by no diligence or skill was he ever able to make two clocks 
run alike. This, says his biographer, Dr. Robertson, saddened 
his soul with remorseful reflections upon his previous life, in 
which he had caused rivers of blood to flow, in vain and wicked 
efforts to compel men to think alike. This simple anecdote, which 
is but an illustration of all human experience, proves the 
futility and impossibility of controlling thought and opinion; and 

328 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

that those governments only are wise that leave the mind and 
conscience free, and are content with conformity to their behests, 
in action. Of the one hundred and twenty thousand voters in the 
State, how many in the eighty-five years of its independence have 
taken an oath to the State, or to the United States, during our 
connection with that government? Those who have filled office, 
and exercised a portion of the sovereign power as magistrates or 
constables, or in the higher stations, have been obliged, and 
properly too, to swear fidelity to the State and general goverement 
[sic] ; but as to the great mass of the people, if they have not 
literally kept the Scriptural injunction to "swear not at all," it 
has not been by reason of any oath of fealty imposed by public 
authority. And the inquiry will naturally be made, where is the 
necessity for this novel and most extraordinary proceeding? 
The Legislature has been twice convened in extra session since 
the breaking out of the present war, and has considered and adopted 
such measures as they deemed necessary to the public safety or 
defence. But no member of either House, in anxious contem- 
plation of the crisis, seems to have thought of a test oath, forced 
upon all the people, under terror of exile or loss of privilege, as 
among these measures. Caesar Augustus sent out a decree that 
all the world should be taxed. The North Carolina Convention 
is asked to send out a decree that all the world shall be sworn. 
There is virtue in taxation. Money is the sinews of war — but 
what nation was ever defended by oaths, — oaths imposed on its 
own people without distinction, especially when the alternative 
was banishment or degradation? 

Mr. President, to say of this measure that it is absurd and cal- 
culated to bring ridicule on our legislation, and that it is unneces- 
sary, and will be wholly ineffectual, if necessary, inasmuch as a 
forced oath is well understood to be no oath in the sight of man 
or his Maker, is but to characterize its more obvious features. I 
am fully pursuaded that abroad, if not at home, it will be regarded 
as the offspring of fear. It will be argued, and the hypothesis 
cannot be resisted, that a proceeding so universal, so unusual, so 
searching, so destructive of personal freedom and dangerous to 
public liberty, would not be resorted to except in a State where 
public sentiment was suppressed by the high hand of force, and 
a sense of danger had driven the government to desperation. In 
that aspect no measure could give greater encouragement to the 
enemy, and no libel could more deeply wound the sensibilities of 
the people of the State, or do them more gross injustice. They 
have looked upon the pending contest as a foreign war, of nation 

The Papers of William A. Graham 329 

against nation, waged upon the frontiers by national armies. But 
you propose by this ordinance, to declare it a civil and social war, 
in which no man is to be trusted — in which the secrets of the right 
hand may be concealed from the left, until you have cleansed out 
the conscience and made assurance doubly sure by a forced oath. 
It is not enough that 35,000 men, portions of them from every 
county in the State, are in the field, exposing their lives to the arms 
of the enemy, and to the pestilence of camp and garrison, and 
that almost every family has its representative there; that they 
have submitted cheerfully to the burdens of taxation, and the 
privation incident to a destruction of commerce, and have over 
and above this, voluntarily and cheerfully contributed of their 
labor, their substance and the very comforts of their homes, to give 
aid to your soldiers and vigor to their efforts; that there is not a 
cloud of disloyalty to be seen in all the horizon as big as a man's 
hand; but that the whole people, it may be with trifling exceptions, 
are pressing forward with a noble unanimity to the establishment 
of our national independence. All this will not suffice. Every man 
must be purged as by fire. And all for what? The report of the com- 
mittee informs us. It is "is [to] rid the country of traitors at heart," 
who are supposed to be few in number, and will be discovered 
when tested by this oath. Such doctrine, Mr. President, is the 
very bigotry of despotism. Who constituted us the searchers of 
hearts? What government ever undertook to deal with any thing 
as crimes, except the overt acts of its people, but the most unmiti- 
gated tyrannies? There are doubtless republicans in principle 
residing under every monarchy in Europe, and there may be 
monarchists in the States of America, but so long as they demean 
themselves as peaceable citizens, do not levy war against the State 
or the Confederate States, nor adhere to our enemies giving them 
aid and comfort, they pass without molestation, and are under the 
protection of the Constitution and laws. If there be, as the 
committee presumes, traitors among us, they are not of my 
acquaintance, nor, so far as I am aware, of my section. But wherever 
they are, treason is an offense well known to, and defined by law, 
and like other crimes, is to be dealt with according to law. And it 
is quite remarkable, that while the committee inveigh with 
vehemence against the despotism now practiced by the Lincoln 
government in Maryland, they should bring forward a measure 
equally abhorrent to freedom in North-Carolina. Sir, if such a 
measure prevails and is acquiesced in, it is of little moment what 
may be the issue of the present great conflict in the battle-field. We 
shall in the end be in any event slaves, and present the sad 

330 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

spectacle of a State throwing away its liberties in a struggle to 
preserve them, in angry imitation of the contagious example of 
an enemy who threw away theirs, to give vigor to their efforts 
for our subjugation. I protest against it, as a gross abuse, amount- 
ing in effect to a usurpation of power — as a dangeroujs device by 
which a faction may at any time pervert the government and trans- 
mute it into an oligarchy. I protest against it in the name religious 
freedom and domestic quiet — in the name of that civil liberty 
which is our birthright, and has been the inheritance of our ances- 
tors for eight hundred years. I protest against it as a weak and futile 
weapon of defence, calculated only to encourage the enemy, 
weaken ourselves, and to bring our legislation into ridicule and 
disrespect at home and abroad, and degrade our citizens in their 
own esteem — as an officious intermeddling with the province of 
the Congress of the Confederate States — as a libel upon the people 
we represent, whose noble alacrity, patience, perseverence, self- 
denial and bravery in this contest deserve all praise. Whereas, the 
statute book, in the present times, and much more in the future, 
in all historical interpretation must be construed to imply an 
imputation of wide-spread disaffection. I protest against it, 
finally, as an imitation of Northern despotism, outstripping its 
model — no other State of the South having conceived such an 
idea, though in several of them disaffection not only is rife, but 
treason stalks abroad in arms. 

But the committee plants itself on a precedent in an act of the 
General Assembly of 1777, and says all the material parts of this 
ordinance are copied from that act. Precedents in the pleadings 
of the law are said to be dangerous things, if one does not 
know how to fill up the blanks; and statutory precedents are 
equally fallible and deceptive as guides to political action, if we 
shut our eyes to the circumstances and surroundings of historical 
facts which distinguish former times from our own. Let me 
inquire of the committee, whose chairman holds a high judicial 
station, whether this ordinance does not contravene the Bill of 
Rights and Constitution in the particulars I have enumerated, and 
if it does, whether a similar act, passed in 1777, by the General 
Assembly, did not equally contravene it — and when an act of the 
General Assembly does come in conflict with the Constitution, 
which is to give way? He is obliged to answer, the act of Assembly, 
of course. But it was not so understood in 1777. The opinion seems 
to have prevailed then, and for years afterwards, that the General 
Assembly was as omnipotent as the British Parliament, and when, 
in 1786, the courts of justice decided an act of the Legislature 

The Papers of William A. Graham 331 

to be unconstitutional, it produced a great shock in the minds of 
highly intelligent men. This act of 1777, which undertook to 
banish freemen who were inhabitants of the State at the adoption 
of the Constitution, or to deprive them of the right of suffrage if 
they refused to take an oath of allegiance, was clearly unconstitu- 
tional, not only in the points already specified, but in assuming 
to take away the right of suffrage in the face of the provision of the 
Constitution declaring that all freemen 21 years of age, who have 
been inhabitants a certain time, and paid public taxes, shall 
exercise it. But, waiving the constitutional question, the situation 
of our ancestors in 1776-'7, differed essentially from ours at this 
time, in many particulars to their disadvantage; and in the 
poverty of their resources, and newness of their experiment, it 
should not surprise us that they laid hold of a test oath as a weapon 
with which bigotry and arbitrary power had sought to fortify 
themselves in Europe, hoping they could render it useful in the 
defence of freedom here. They may possibly have thought that 
as allegiance under a monarch is due to the person of the sovereign, 
it might still linger in the breasts of some, and that this violent 
remedy should be resorted to for its expulsion.* But before 
we are called on to follow this as a precedent, it should be shown 
from subsequent history that it was of some avail in the contest. 
It was provided in the act that the name of every person taking 
it should be subscribed in a book, to be deposited in the office of 
the Clerk of the County Court. Who has ever seen such a book? 
The honorable gentleman from Mecklenburg, Mr. Osborne, who 
has just taken his seat, has made considerable researches in the 
public papers of his county, which is one of historical renown; 
has he ever found such a book? Have you, Sir, or any other gentle- 
man here? One of two conclusions is certain. Either that there 

*NOTE. — On looking into 4th Blackstone's Com. p. 124, it will 
be seen, that the whole of this statute of 1777, in relation to a 
test oath and banishment, or disfranchisement as a citizen, is 
literally copied from the statute of George 1st against Popish 
recusants. So that the ordinance of the committee is but a copy 
of an act of 1715, applying a religious test to Papists — except 
that in the former case two Justices of the Peace were invested 
with power "to tender the oath to any person whom they shall 
suspect to be disaffected," and in our case every person is treated 
as if suspected, and tendered the oath accordingly. Blackstone 
says the penalties are nothing short of a praemunire. 

332 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

was no general attempt to exact such an oath, which is the more 
probable; or. that if exacted, it had not the least effect. For when 
the British invaded the State in 1780-'81, the Tories rose in those 
sections where they were known to be in the outset of the war, 
and in no other. The act was, therefore, as characterized by the 
gentleman from Richmond, Mr. Leake, brutumfulmen, producing 
no efficacious result. With the men of 1776'7, there was a total 
change of government, and of the administration of government. 
With them "old things had passed away, and all things had be- 
come new." There was no general government on which to rely 
for general defence and welfare. The States were united only by 
certain articles of association. And in North-Carolina a State 
government just formed, with no laws or officers to administer 
them, except what they enacted and appointed in the pressure of 
the emergency, was their sole reliance in general and domestic 
concerns. They had to provide for treason, sedition, and every 
crime in the calendar, and it is in a statute concerning treason 
that the committee has found the model of this ordinance. Now, 
Sir, if so much weight is due to a precedent, why not re-enact the 
whole statute, that part which relates to treason as well as 
misprision of treason and test oaths? That is the only part of the 
statute that we have heard of being put into execution. The Tory 
Colonel, Bryan, was tried for treason, and convicted, I presume, 
under this statute. But he had a trial by due course of law. He was 
not called on to furnish evidence against himself by a test oath, 
and he was defended by Davie, who had slaughtered a large part 
of his regiment in battle, but who, after the example of John 
Adams in defending the British soldiers who fired on the multitude 
in the streets of Boston, was equally firm in asserting all his 
rights of defence, as a criminal. But who ever heard of a trial for 
misprision of treason or sedition, or the general enforcement of a 
test oath upon any but suspected persons? The Revolution of the 
20th of May last, was under wholly different circumstances. What 
our fathers did in weakness we have done in strength. In the State 
government, with the same Constitution, the same laws, the same 
officers in all its departments and ramifications, there has been 
no change that would cause a ripple on the surface of the waters. 
The ship of State has sailed on in her great career of justice, with- 
out reefing a sail or changing a spar. In national affairs the differ- 
ence is still more remarkable. Instead of no general government, 
and a dependence on the discordant legislation of thirteen States, 
we find a Constitution of national government copied almost 
literally from the Constitution of the United States, in full and 

The Papers of William A. Graham 333 

vigorous operation, with a President, Congress and Judiciary — 
defending our cause with an army, in effectiveness, if not in num- 
bers, such as the populous North never poured on the Rhine or 
the Danube, or the sunny plains of Italy — with treason defined 
in the Constitution for the security of the citizen as well as 
safety to the government — with the possible power to pass 
sedition and test laws for its defence, like as the State govern- 
ments, but like those governments abstaining from the use of them, 
as the cast-off paraphernalia of despotism. To think of bringing a 
State test oath into play as a means of defence in such a posture of 
affairs, upon a precedent of an unconstitutional act of Assembly in 
1777, is to my mind, as if one should propose, in the midst of rifled 
cannon and all the advancement and improvements in modern 
warfare, to return to the bow and poisoned arrow of the savage, 
because the Aborigines had used them in the earliest wars of this 
continent. Let them both be consigned where they belong, to the 
curious investigations of the antiquarian; but let us hear no more 
of them in the enlightened legislation of a free people. 

Mr. President, there is one diversity in the two revolutions, 
which, when brought to notice, must convince all that there is the 
least analogy imaginable in the two cases; and that is in the persons 
called to fill office upon the change of government. Our ancestors 
would as soon have thought of electing Lord North to the office 
of Governor as of recalling Governor Martin or Governor Tryon, 
and of bringing over Lord Mansfield with his high tory principles 
to their chief justiceship, as to have appointed one of the late Kings' 
Judges. Whereas, our State officers, as we have seen, have been 
unchanged in a single particular; and in appointments to office 
under the Confederacy, it has been no objection that the appointee 
held a similar appointment with a regular commission and oath 
of office, and received its emoluments from the Federal Treasury 
to the last pay day, before the Proclamation of the 18th of April. 
Now Sir, in the Revolution of 1776, this would not have been 
permitted. The first persons on whom the act of 1 777, to which the 
committee refers in terms of such high approbation, laid its hands 
and required to be sworn, were all the late officers of the King of 
Great Britain. They were put before the "traders who had been 
making voyages to England within ten years then last past." 
There are many copies of Iredell's Revisal, stowed away in the 
houses of the people of the country; and when they are informed 
that the precedent for this ordinance is to be found there, they 
will brush the dust from the old book and read it for themselves. 
And since the law is to be executed so rigorously on them, they 

334 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

will demand to know whether you began at the beginning and 
cleared out all who held office under the late government; and 
when they are told no; such persons have been considered eligible 
to place under the new government, and no questions asked, they 
will scout the precedent of 1777, and say if we are to be purged 
with this great oath or leave the country, those who held the offices, 
and received their compensations under the old government, 
should take a dose that would unbreach a cannon, at least before 
they are trusted with official power. I apprehend, Sir, when the 
subject is viewed in this light, that many, though they have not 
slept for the last year like Rip Van Winkle, may come to the 
conclusion that there has been no very violent revolution after 
alU and that if there has, such terrible swearing is not Christian- 
like or decent. 

Mr. President, the first and second sections of this ordinance 
are scarcely less objectionable than what I have been considering. 
The report of the committee informs us, that the offences therein 
enumerated, and which the committee calls sedition, were in the 
act of 1777, called misprision of treason. It is, therefore, reviving 
an obsolete high crime under a new and milder name. The Amer- 
ican world, at least, has made some progress as to these crimes 
of Loese Majesty, treason, misprision of treason, etc., since 1777. 
It was a great point gained for human life and liberty, that in the 
Federal Constitution of 1787, treason was defined to consist only 
in levying war against the United States, or in adhering to their 
enemies, giving them aid and comfort; a provision that has 
been literally copied in the Constitution of the Confederate States 
— and by an ordinance of this body, into that of this State also. 
It is enough to make the blood run cold, now to review the history 
of what were at different times de-nominated and adjudged 
treason in England, and to remember what hetacombs of 
human victims the fluctuating state of the law, and its pliant and 
corrupt apministration [sic], to favor the views of the reigning 
sovereign or of his minions, carried to the scaffold and the gibbet. 
An extraordinary instance of treason by words, was mentioned 
in our discussion of this subject at the last session, where a man of 
note was put to death for declaring in a moment of irritation, on 
hearing of the shooting by the King, of his favorite stag, that "he 
wished the horns of the stag were in the King's belly." As Plutarch 
relates of Dionysius, the tyrant, that he capitally executed a 
subject for relating that he had dreamed he killed the King, saying 
it was proof that he thought of it while awake. Sir, the fate of 
Sidney and Russell, and a hundred other martyrs of that very 

The Papers of William A. Graham 335 

freedom, which loomed out in the English revolution of 1688, and 
assumed its full proportions in our American Constitutions a 
century later, will rush upon our memories at the suggestion of 
this theme, and illustrate the wisdom of the constitutional provi- 
sion. While it sufficiently secures the government from treacherous 
and parricidal hands, it protects the citizen from that vortex of 
constructive and exploded treasons, which has engulphed in 
bloody and premature graves so many innocent men. "To prevent 
the possibility of those calamities which result from the exten- 
sion of treason to offences of minor importance, (says Chief 
Justice Marshall,) that great fundamental law which defines and 
limits the various departments of our government, has given a 
rule on the subject both to the Legislature and the Courts of 
America, which neither can be permitted to transcend." 
With this limitation upon charges of treason, and the experience 
of that rational freedom established by the Constitution of the 
State, came more liberal views in relation to the inferior crimes 
of its class. Misprision of treason has entirely disappeared from 
the statute book of the State. It is found in that of the United 
States, covering only a single offence, according to its literal 
meaning, that of concealing and not disclosing and making known 
to the public authorities, the commission of any treason that 
may come to the knowledge of the person charged. Sedition is 
found in our Revised Code, as the heading of a particular offence, 
that of exciting slaves to insurrection. In this connection, it is a 
salutary part of our law according with public sentiment, and can 
be executed with effect wherever an offender may be found. This 
was abundantly proved in the case of Daniel Worth, and of others. 
This law applies to attempts to excite rebellion in a degraded 
caste in our society, wholly devoid of all political power. 

But among freemen, every one of whom is equal, in consulta- 
tion and at the ballot-box, if restraints upon the fredom [sic] 
of speech and of the press may be imposed, beyond those provided 
by the common law, it has never been found necessary to call them 
into operation heretofore. There seems to have been a general 
acquiescence in the doctrines of Jefferson in his inaugural address. 
"If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union 
[Confederacy] or to change its republican form, let them stand 
undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of 
opinion may be tolerated, where reason is left free to combat it." 
I have myself been accustomed to associate statutes of sedition 
with those indictments for seditious libel, where there were 
attempts to screen corruption, imbecility, favoritism, and the 

336 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

insolence of office, by criminal prosecutions against persons who 
exposed them, and when the gallantry of Erskine, Curran, 
and other advocates at the English and Irish bar won immortal 
names in wrestling with a domineering and subservient bench, 
that never forgot the hand that elevated it above the people, 
nor its favorites, and prevailing in the contest. I have been accus- 
tomed to look upon them as bringing into active employment, if 
not producing, a vile race of parasites and sycophants, Titus 
Oateses, Bedloes, etc., thronging the gates of office and patronage, 
in the character of spies and informers, ready to discover Meal- 
tub plots and Rye-house plots of the most direful import, and 
to accuse any man, whom it might be desirable to hunt down and 
destroy. You propose by the first section of this ordinance, to 
create nine indictable offences, every one of which is described 
in a manner so loose and undefined, as to hold out the greatest 
temptations to malignant accusers, and to produce neighbor- 
hood strifes without end. I shall not detain the Convention by a 
recital of them. Their counterpart may be found in the misprisions 
against the King's person and government, which Blackstone says 
may be "by speaking or writing against them, cursing or wishing 
him ill, giving out scandalous stories concerning him, or doing 
anything that may tend to lessen him in the esteem of his subjects; 
may weaken his government, or may raise jealousies between him 
and his people." Under this it has been at different times held 
indictable, to say of the King that he had a cold, at a time when his 
services were important in the field — also, to say of him falsely, 
that he labored under mental derangement — or to drink to the 
pious memory of a traitor, or for a clergyman to absolve persons 
at the gallows who there persist in the treasons for which they 
die, &c. 4. Black. Com. 123. Sir, the whole doctrine is unsuited 
to our free institutions. It is founded on the supposition, that 
force, compulsion, is the only means of upholding government, 
even to excite love for it — and that public opinion is nothing, and 
must be subordinated by it. We have sufficient law now to afford 
all the security needed, if, as no one doubts, public sentiment is 
with us, and will enable us to enforce it — and if it is not, no new 
statutory enactment will be enforced. The common law of riot, 
rout, unlawful assembly, and conspiracy enable you to take hold 
of any parties whose guilt may be dangerous; and the doctrine 
of seditious libel is the same now that it was in 1802 when Harry 
Crosswell was convicted of a libel on President Jefferson — 
except that the truth of the matter published is a defence. Over 
and above this, every section of the State is accessible on brief 

The Papers of William A. Graham 337 

notice by Railroad, and the miliary [sic] power may be exerted 
with effect on the first appearance of insurrection. 

But, Sir, the whole scope of this ordinance is to give proper 
defence and protection to the Confederate States. There are a few 
expletives thrown in, in which the State is mentioned, but they 
seem only designed to fill out a seutence [sic] , and give roundness 
to a period. Now what business is it of ours to pass a law to punish 
sedition against the Confederate States any more than to punish 
the robbery of its treasury or post-office, or piracy against its ships 
on the sea? If there is to be such a crime as sedition against that 
government, ought it not to be a general crime, punishable in 
Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky and other States? And has not that 
government a Congress now in session for the third or fourth 
time? Is it supposed that we are wiser than they, and are to usurp 
their functions? If that Congress has the same propensity to copy 
that prevails here, they need only turn to the administration of the 
older Adams, and re-enact the sedition law of that day, referred to 
by the gentleman from Richmond, (Mr. Leak.) It is a very well 
drawn statute, much better than this ordinance. I say this without 
disrespect to the committee, for they only profess to copy from the 
act of 1777. The gentleman from Richmond made a slight error 
in supposing this was the same with the sedition law of 1798. It 
is infinitely worse. Judge Chase had decided and correctly too, 
that there was no law of the United States except what was enacted 
by statute, and therefore that there was no law of libel to protect its 
officers from the President downward against any defamation 
whatever. The act was consequently passed to punish by indict- 
ment libellous publications against them, which would be indict- 
able if made against other persons by the common law — allowing, 
however, the truth to be given in evidence as a defence. Yet, so 
distasteful was it to the public mind, and so odious did it render 
its authors, that after a lapse of half a century, when all other party 
issues of that time are forgotten, it still remains in public recollec- 
tion. But as a restriction on liberty, the liberty of the press and of 
speech, it was as nothing compared with this act, which has been 
exhumed from the oblivion in which it has lain for eighty-odd 
years, and which it is proposed to revivify, just as it was on the day 
of its first enactment. At that time the doctrine prevailed here 
as well as in the mother country, of "the greater the truth the 
greater the libel." So that if any man "shall publish and deliberate- 
ly speak or write against our public defence," (this is one of the 
offences it creates) no matter how true may be the words written 
or spoken, such as that a commanding General fled ingloriously 

338 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

from a field of battle, when victory was within his grasp, or that 
from his incompetency he sacrificed half his command without 
any conceivable object, although it may be every word true, 
the party who wrote or spoke thus, must be convicted. 

If the Congress of the Confederate States desires to try over 
again the experiment of a Sedition Law of 1798, or to go back 
beyond it, and re-copy old penal statutes made to put down Papacy, 
or uphold the prerogatives of royalty, the way is perfectly open 
to them. But let us not render ourselves a subject of merriment, 
by taking better care of that government than it takes of itself. 
Let us not stigmatize our people by singling them out as peculiar 
subjects for the operation of laws of this kind. Let us not give 
just cause of offence to them, by showing a distrust of that 
elevated patriotism and unanimity with which they are sustaining 
their country in this her hour of trial. Let us abandon this measure 
as impolitic, as it is insulting, oppressive and unjust. I ask the 
yeas and nays on the question of its indefinite postponement. 

The following is the ordinance, presented by Mr. Biggs, of Martin, chairman of 
the committee: 

An Ordinance 

To define and punish Sedition, and to prevent the dangers which may arise from 
persons disaffected to the State. 

Be it ordained, That if any person within this State shall attempt to convey 
intelligence to the enemies of the Confederate States, or shall publish and deliber- 
ately speak or write against our public defence; or shall maliciously and advisedly 
endeavor to excite the people to resist the Government of this State or of the 
Confederate States; or persuade them to return to a dependence on the Government 
of the United States; or shall knowingly spread false and dispiriting news; or 
maliciously or advisedly terrify and discourage the people from enlisting into the 
service of this State or of the Confederate States; or shall stir up or excite tumults, 
disorders, or insurrections in this State; or dispose the people to favor the 
enemy; or oppose or endeavor to prevent the measures carrying on in support 
of the freedom and independence of the said Confederate States; every such person 
being thereof legally convicted by the evidence of two or more credible witnesses, 
or other sufficient testimony, shall be adjudged guilty of a high misdemeanor, 
and shall be fined and imprisoned at the discretion of the court, and shall enter 
into recognisance with a good surety, in such sum as the court may deem 
proper, to be of the peace and good behavior toward all people in the State 
for three years thereafter. 

2d. Any Judge or Justice of the Peace on complaint to him made on the oath 
or affirmation of one or more credible person or persons, shall cause to be brought 

The Papers of William A. Graham 339 

before him any offender against the provisions of this ordinance, who shall enter 
into recognisance with sufficient surety to be and appear at the next county 
court of the county wherein the offence was committed, and abide the judgment of 
said court; and in the meantime, to be of the peace and good behavior to all 
people within the State; and for the want of such surety, the said Judge or Justice 
shall commit such offender to the jail of the county. 

3d. It shall be the duty of every free male person in this State above sixteen 
years of age, (volunteers mustered into the service of the State or of the Confederate 
States, persons non compos mentis and prisoners of war only excepted,) before some 
court or officer authorized to administer oaths, to take the following oath or 

"I, A B, do solemnly swear (or affirm as the case may be) that I will bear 
faithful and true allegiance to the State of North-Carolina, and will to the utmost 
of my power, support, maintain and defend the independent government of the 
Confederate States of America against the government of the United States, or any 
other power, that by open force or otherwise shall attempt to subvert the same. I do 
hereby renounce all allegiance to the government of the United States, and I will 
support and defend the Constitution of the Confederate States of America and the 
Constitution of this State not inconsistent with the Constitution of the Confederate 
States, so help me God." 

And it shall be the duty of every officer administrating such oath to certify under 
his hand and seal to the next county court which may be held in the county 
where the jurors or affirmants reside, the names of all persons, who have taken 
the oath before him, which certificate shall be recorded by the clerk of the county 
court in a book to be kept for that purpose. 

4th. Every male person as aforesaid who shall fail or neglect to take the said 
oath or affirmation on or before the first day of January next, may, by any Justice 
of the Peace of his county, be cited to appear before the county court to take 
the same; and if any person thus cited shall fail to attend, or attending at the time 
and place, as he shall have been thus warned, shall refuse to take the oath or 
affirmation, (except excused by sickness, unavoidavle necessity, or other sufficient 
reasons to be adjudged of by the next county court,) shall be ordered by the said 
county court to take the said oath or quit the State, and depart out of the Confederate 
States within thirty days thereafter. Provided however, That the county court may, 
in their discretion, permit a person failing as aforesaid, to remain in the State. 

5th. If such person shall be permitted to remain in the State, he shall be adjudged 
incapable and disabled in law to have, occupy, or enjoy any office, appointment, 
license, or election of trust or profit, civil or military, within this State, and shall 
not be capable of being elected to, or aiding by his vote to be a member of Assembly, 
Governor, or any other officer; and if any person shall be directed to depart out of 
the Confederate States, and shall not quit the State within thirty days, then 
such person may be apprehended by the warrant of any Judge or Justice of the 
Peace in this State (whose duty it shall be to issue such warrant) and shall be 
brought before the county court, where the order was made, and the said court 
shall, in such cases, send the person so offending, as speedily as may be, out of the 
Confederate States, at the costs and charges of such offender (if he has the means to 
pay the same,) and to this end shall, and may direct the Clerk of the court to issue 
an order to any Sheriff in the State to seize and sell so much of the goods and 
chattels, lands and tenements of such person in his county as may be judged 
necessary by said court to defray the costs and charges, together with the costs 
and charges of apprehending and confining such person until he shall be sent 
out of the Confederate States; and such sheriff shall execute proper conveyances for 

340 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

any property so sold, and return the money arising by any sale made by virtue 
of such order, after deducting his fees and commissions as in other cases, to the 
next county court of the county whence such order issued, under the penalty of 
five hundred dollars, to be recovered, upon motion against the Sheriff and his 
sureties, by the county Solicitor for the use of the county, after ten days notice; and 
if any surplus shall remain after paying all costs and charges as aforesaid, the county 
court shall cause such surplus to be paid to the owner. 

6th. If any person so departing or sent off from this State shall return to the same, 
then such person shall be adjudged guilty of treason against the State, and shall, 
and may be, proceeded against in like manner as directed in case of treason. 

7th. This Ordinance may be modified or repealed by the General Assembly — shall 
take effect at the date of its ratification, and be published by the Secretary of State 
as soon as practicable thereafter, in one (if there be one) newspaper in each Con- 
gressional District, and at each Court House in the several counties of the State. 

From David L. Swain UNC-Swain 

Chapel Hill, 

December 4th., 1861. 

Our fathers learned many things in the school of experience 
during the revolution of '76, by which they profited/or a time, and 
from which we ought to profit now. There is nothing new under 
the sun, however. No error was committed then, that we have not 
committed within the last nine months, or do not promise to com- 
mit very soon. History is philosophy teaching by example, but her 
teachings, like those of experience, if they cost less, are rarely 
heeded in time. 

Anterior to the revolution, almost the only tax levied for the 
support of the provisional government, was a poll tax. The quit 
rents paid to the Lords proprietors, precluded a tax upon land. 

The first Assembly which met under the State Constitution, 
(in April, 1777) entered upon this delecate [sic] subject with unin- 
structed powers. No federal government had been called into 
existence, and with the lessons of the past before them, they had 
it in their power to select the classes of persons and property, on 
whom, and which taxes should be imposed. All the laws upon the 
subject ought to be collected. My references to them must be very 

The Act of April, 1777, Ch. II, Sec. 2, imposes a tax of half a 
penny "on each pound value of all the lands, lots, houses, slaves, 
money, money at interest, stock in trade, horses and cattle in the 

The Papers of William A. Graham 341 

Sec. 7 provides that every freeman, (other than soldiers in the 
service of the continent) not worth £100, shall pay a poll tax of 
4 S., "in lieu of assessment upon property." 

An amendatory act passed in November, 1777, (Ch. XIII) 
enacts S. II, "That all lands and lots with their improvements, 
slaves, money, money at interest, and stock in trade, wherever the 
same may be, all bonds, notes, or other obligations for value on 
interest, all horses and neat cattle" shall be taxable property. 

VI Every freeman, (21 & upwards) soldiers excepted, worth 
less than £100, to pay a poll tax equal to the property tax on £100. 

A year afterwards, (January 1779) Ch. Ill, Sec. II, adopts the 
following basis, "all lots and lands with their improvements, slaves 
under the age of sixty years, horses, all cattle from one year old and 
upwards, money, money at interest, and stock in trade of every 
kind, wherever the same may be, all bonds, notes, or other obliga- 
tions which bear or include interest." 

In September, 1780, Ch. I, Sec. 1 1, provides that for the present 
year a tax double the preceding year shall be levied "on all the 
taxable property of this State, the particular articles of money 
and money at interest, only excepted." 

In April, 1782, Ch. VII, S. I, the following scheme was adopted, 
viz, "That all lots and lands, with their improvements, slaves under 
the age of sixty years, horses, mules and cattle, from one year old 
and upwards, and stock in trade, shall be held and deemed taxable 

Unmarried men, not in service, and worth less than £100, paid 
a poll tax. All others, with the exception of Quakers, Moravians, 
Menonists, & Dunkards, who paid treble, were exempt. 

There was a specific tax payable in corn, wheat, rye, etc., etc., 
in 1781 and '82, the details of which are amusing and instructive, 
but not necessary to my purpose. 

It will be perceived that no long experience was necessary to 
satisfy the General Assembly that, of every species of capital, 
money, and money at interest should be taxed, if taxed at all, with 
the greatest circumspection. It is much easier to drive it abroad, 
than to subject it to oppressive regulations at home. The revenue 
laws of the State and Confederate Governments, offer small 
inducements to retain and employ it in N.C. It has left, and is 
leaving us, in no small proportion to the aggregate amount already, 
and it may not be very easy to induce its return, or retain what 
we have. 

To you I know it is not necessary to present cases for illustration. 
You are no stranger to the principle, or to facts of every day 

342 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

occurrence, which demonstrate its truth. To enable me, however, 
to exhibit my views more clearly than I can do otherwise, I must 
refer to some cases which are within the range of my own observa- 
tion. I have a friend who has money owing to him in New Orleans, 
and in N.C, the former investment yielding 10, the latter six 
percent. The Confederate tax is equal to a 20th. of the foreign, 
and a 12th. of the domestic income. He owns State bonds, pur- 
chased from the Public Treasurer at a premium, the Confederate 
Government taxes them the half of one percent, and pays 8 percent, 
upon her own bonds, which may be obtained at a discount, and 
are not subject to taxation. — In other words, $100. in State bonds 
yields 5^2 per cent, nett, when purchased at par the Confederate 
8 percent, (and more if obtained at a discount) 

Another friend not long since, purchased an estate in lands and 
slaves for $30,000., payable in ten annual instalments, with interest 
from date. Such is the depreciation in value since the purchase, 
that if pressed at present, he might fall within the $500., which, 
under both Confederate and State Governments, exempts from 
taxation, and yet the legislation which is intended for the special 
benefit of the poor, taxes the land and slaves, in his hands, and 
the bond in the hands of his vendor. I know that it is easy to 
suggest difficulties, and comparatively difficult to find remedys. 
I will venture to attempt the latter, nevertheless. Why not, in 
relation to both Governments, if it shall be held, as I hope it 
will not, that the Confederate Government has power to tax State 
bonds, take a 12th. or a 20th. of the interest actually received. If 
individual bonds are taxed, as well as the property for which they 
are given, let the tax be levied on the money received, and not 
that which might have been received, in despite of a seven years 
stay law. 

For one, I care very little about any other than the existing 
provisions of the common law, in relation to extortion, if you will 
so amend the constitution as to put an end to the partial anarchy 
existing at present, and render the legislative, executive and 
supreme judicial powers of government forever separate and 
distinct; — any act of the General Assembly to the contrary 

Those who entertain the opinion that the great object contem- 
plated by the Confederate Constitution, was not to strip Congress 
of the power to impose a protective tariff, or its twin correlative, 
to construct works of internal improvement, or that no constitu- 
tional restraint is to be regarded which conflicts with "military 
necessity," will of course vote for the Danville connection. Milton, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 343 

when free principles were breathed in whispers, characterized 
necessity as "the tyrant's plea," and Gen'l Jackson, who was a 
plain spoken old gentleman, expressed an opinion of the majority 
in the Tennessee legislature who sought by the charter of a bank 
on the faith and favor of the State, to evade the prohibition to 
emit bills of credit, in terms much more clearly understood, by 
those for whom his remarks were intended than the classical 
language of Milton. 

Give us a fair construction of the Confederate constitution, an 
independent judiciary to preserve inviolate the provision that no 
State shall pass a law to impair the obligation of contracts, main- 
tain the freedom of the press, and the right to speak and publish 
the truth with good motives and for justifiable ends, and I will 
submit as cheerfully as I can to unavoidable evils. 

I received the paper on which I write from a young lady 
yesterday, together with a very pretty note, informing me that it 
was manufactured in Lincoln, and requesting me to use it for that 
reason. I was familiar with the fact that there was a paper mill in 
your native county, many years ago, but did not know until 
recently that there was one at present in operation, and had no 
idea that it was turning out an article of this quality. I have 
promised not only to use the quire sent me, from patriotic motives, 
as well as respect for the donor, but in future to use no other, so 
long as I may be able to obtain the requisite supply of equal 
quality, on the same terms. You are probably aware that the first 
paper mill erected in the State was in the neighborhood of 

I am putting up pork to day, which costs me 10c per lb. When 
did Bacon first become a merchantable commodity in N.C.? Fresh 
beef, fresh pork, salted pork, and dry salt, are among the many 
specific articles enumerated in the tax laws of 1781 and 1782, but 
bacon is no where mentioned. 

From John W. Norwood UNC 


December 7th., 1861. 

Within the last fortnight, I have been several times asked if it 
was true, that in a conversation with me recently, on the street in 

344 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Hillsborough, you had defended the course of Mr. Crittenden. 

I replied each time that you had done no such thing, and men- 
tioned the particulars of the incident from which I presume the 
report arises. 

You may remember, that in July last, shortly after the meeting 
of Lincoln's Congress, you were sitting with Dr. Long 152 8c myself 
in front of James Webb's Store, & Mr. William Crawford, who 
was with us, asked us what we thought of Mr. Crittenden's course. 

I answered that he was the greatest tory and traitor in all the 
Slave States, not excepting Bates, of Missouri, that he had betrayed 
Kentucky, and, as he was the most popular man in the State, I 
feared he would carry the State for Lincoln. 

You remarked that he did not seem to be the most popular man 
in Kentucky, for Mr. Breckenridge had beaten him for U.S. Sena- 
tor. I replied that, that election was a good while ago, and had 
turned upon party politics. 

So far as I remember, you made no other remark on the subject. 

I think it probable that this story has gained some notoriety, as 
one of the persons who spoke to me about it lives in Caswell, and 
another in Alamance. And therefore I have thought it, perhaps, 
proper, that I should mention it to you. 

I have no knowledge how the story got out. I am very sure I 
never mentioned the circumstance which really took place, to 
any one. 

From John A. McMannen 153 UNC 

South Lowell, N.C., 154 
December 8th., 1861 

There is much anxiety in this Country in regard to what action 
the Convention will take in reference to the Whiskey question. 155 

152 Dr. Osmond F. Long, of Orange County, died in 1864 at the age of fifty-five. 
Mayor of Hillsborough, 1849-1852, he was an attentive doctor and good Christian 
who was for twenty-nine years elder of the Hillsborough Presbyterian church. Lefler 
and Wager, Orange County, 368; Hillsborough Recorder, July 13, 1864. 

153 John A. McMannen, of Durham County, was a minister who manufactured 
corn shellers and smut machines in South Lowell. Hillsborough Recorder, February 7, 

154 South Lowell was a community in northwest Durham County, between Buffalo 
and Horse creeks, on the north side of the North Fork Little River. Powell, North 
Carolina Gazetteer, 466. 

155 On February 21, 1862, the convention passed an ordinance prohibiting indefi- 
nitely the manufacture of spiritous liquors from grains. After April 15, 1862, the 

The Papers of William A. Graham 345 

Many rumours are afloat, In regard to Taxing the Stills, etc., but 
nothing satisfactory, as the Consumer will, in the end, have the 
Tax to pay. Up to this time, the distillers have laughed at every 
proposition bro't Up on the question, as they have seen nothing 
to affect their Interest. Will you believe me If I tell you there are 
eleven Still Houses within eleven Miles of this place, already 
Nearly Every Bushel of Corn is Bought Up that Can be Speared 
by the Corn Sellers, they have run it up to Near $4. per Bushel, 
and will go higher as the demand increases. 

Numbers of our working men have gone to the Army, they have 
many of them left Corn enough to do their families the Coming 
Year, they will return home Twelve months from this time, and 
no provisions whatever made for the Next year, if there should be 
a Short Crop next year, the Consequences will be that the poor 
people must suffer. The only plan to put the "breaks on" the 
whole Business, is to put the price of Whiskey down to 30 cents 
per Gallon, this will do the Worke, and the people will stand by 
you. In fact We have Just Herd that there was a move in that 
direction, and It is fully Endorsed by Every Man I have seen who 
spoke of it, and such is the interest felt on the Subject, that all 
speak of it. I believe Every Man, Woman & Child would sign a 
petition to that effect, except the distillers. The Stay Law 156 is 
another subject the people are deeply interested in, and I can 
assure you the Great Mass of the people will endorse any action 
on the part of the Convention to fix that Act of the Legislature on 
a basis that cannot be overturned by the Supreme Court. The 
number of Warrants and Writs issued and served from the time 
the Supreme Court set aside the Stay Law, Until the Last action 
on the subject by the last Assembly, shows the direction things will 
turn if that Law is authorized by that Body again. "The Hand 
Writing is on the Wall," and I do really fear the Consequences, as 
I do not believe the people Under the Circumstances, would 
submit to see their property sacrificed. I do believe it would cause 
another Revolution at home. Newspaper scribblers and interested 
Men may say what they please, but I tell you, Sir, in that direction 

effective date, the penalty for every violation was a fine of not less than $100 and 
imprisonment of not less than thirty days. Ordinances and Resolutions Passed by the 
State Convention of North Carolina, Third Session in January and February, 1862 
(Raleigh: John W. Syme, 1862), 119-120. 

156 The special session of the legislature, assembled to call a secession convention, 
had enacted a stay law on May 11, 1861. This act was ruled unconstitutional by the 
state supreme court within two months. The Convention of 1861 did not act on 
this issue. Public Laws of North Carolina, 1860-1861, First Extra Session, 1861, 
c. 16; Hillsborough Recorder, July 10, 1861. 

346 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

it will be dangerous to travel, Every Eye is looking to the Conven- 
tion for Relief, and the Man who stands back, and does not Stand 
up to their great Interests at this time, will have committed a 
political offence for which he never will be forgiven. 

From James A. Graham to Susan Washington Graham UNC 

Fort Macon, N.C, 

December 17th., 1861. 

I have been very well ever since I got over the mumps, and now 
weigh more than I have at any time since I have been down here. 

We get on a great deal better since the weather has become 
colder, than we did in the summer, for we are free from the 
musquitoes and sand flies, but the cold is pretty bad some nights, 
when we are on guard, and have to walk around the parapets about 
two or three o'clock at night. 

Johnny was down here last week with Gen. Gatlin. He is very 

I heard a day or two ago that Willie's company, together with 
the rest of that Regiment, were going to take up their winter 
quarters at, or near, Newberne pretty soon; but do not know 
whether it is so or not. 

Mr. Pratt, 157 from Hillsboro', preached for us twice last Sunday. 

I will not be able to be at home Christmas, as I expected, but 
hope to be up there about the middle of January, or the first of 

There was another death here last Saturday night. One of Capt. 
Poole's 158 men, from Beaufort, died of Pneumonia, after an illness 

157 Henry Barrington Pratt (1832-1912) was pastor of the Presbyterian church in 
Hillsborough, 1861-1863 and 1867-1868. He served as chaplain of the Sixty-third 
North Carolina Regiment for almost a year. Later, he was a missionary to Columbia, 
Brazil, Mexico, and Cuba. One Hundred and Fifty Years of Service, 18161966 (Hills- 
borough: Hillsborough Presbyterian Church, 1966), 5; Clark, Histories of the North 
Carolina Regiments, IV, 619. 

158 Stephen D. Pool, of Carteret County, editor of the Union Banner, was now a 
captain in the Second North Carolina Regiment and was an excellent officer. After 
the war he edited Our Living and Our Dead, z. short-lived but interesting magazine, 
at New Bern. He was John Pool's cousin and one of the few members of the family 
who remained Democratic. He was superintendent of public instruction, 1875-1876, 
but was forced out of office by his party's leaders for misuse of money received from 
the Peabody Fund. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, I, 500-501, 525; 

The Papers of William A. Graham 347 

of only about a week. We have been a great deal healthier here 
than any other Camp I know of; for this is only the sixth or seventh 
death since we have been here, about eight months, while other 
single companies have lost that many in the same length of time. 
Our Company is very well, with the exception of four or five 
cases of mumps. 

From Augustus S. Merrimon 159 A&H 

Asheville, N.C., 

December 20th, 1861. 

I confess that I feel a warm interest in the formation of a proper 
Governmental policy of the Confederate States. I am not willing 
to hand over to the enemies of free-republican institutions at home 
and abroad the new-government, to the end, that they may frame 
it and mould its policy to their own likeing. I think republican 
government worth another effort to save it. Those men among us, 
for the most part, who finally succeeded in destroying the old- 
government are wholy unfit to establish a permanent new one or 
to mould its policy. They have neither the capacity to construct, 
nor the intelligence and foresight to admister. They possess only 
the despicable talent of destructability. 

I feel warranted in supposing that you are not an idle or 
uninterested spectator of passing political events, and I know 
your capacity as a statesman to dictate a true Governmental 
Policy, and to determine the certain results of such policy when 
inaugurated and carried into practical effect. I feel fully assured, 
too, of your unwavering devotion to the system of Government 

Hamilton, Reconstruction in North Carolina, 599, 603; R. D. W. Connor, North 
Carolina: Rebuilding an Ancient Commonwealth, 1584-1925 (Chicago: American 
Historical Society, Inc., 4 volumes, 1929), II, 391. 

159 Augustus Summerfield Merrimon (1830-1892), of Buncombe County, was a 
successful lawyer, an excellent trial judge, and a highly regarded appellate judge. 
He was a Union Whig commoner in 1860, briefly a Confederate soldier in 1861, 
solicitor, 1861-1865, and superior court judge, 1865-1867. In 1867 he moved to Raleigh 
where he became one of the chief opponents of congressional Reconstruction, serving 
on the panel which presented the case against Holden in impeachment proceedings. 
He declined the nomination for governor in 1868 but accepted in 1872 and was 
defeated. He was a Democratic United States senator, 1873-1879, associate justice of 
the state supreme court, 1883-1889, and chief justice, 1889-1892. J. G. de Roulhac 
Hamilton, "Augustus Summerfield Merrimon," Dictionary of American Biography, 
XII, 569-570. 

348 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

under which you have lived and been educated, though now much 
shattered and deranged by turbulent and bad men, and I flatter 
myself that you will not hesitate to aid any of your fellow citizens 
in the establishment of such measures of public policy as will most 
certainly lead to the full development of free-institutions as 
presented to the world by Washington, Hamilton and their 
illustrious compeers. 

It is therefore, that I venture to approach you with confidence 
upon the subject of A Governmental Policy for the Confederate 
States, and what are the best and surest means of carrying the same 
into practical effect at the earliest possible day. 

I am not insensible of the fact, that our Independence is not 
yet secured, but I take it for granted that it will be, sooner or later, 
and the sooner we begin to impress upon the minds of the people 
proper notions of public policy, the better for our success and the 

I do not wish to enter upon a discussion of the suggestions to 
which I beg leave to call your attention. Such is not my desire, and 
if it were, the compass of this letter would not permit me to do so. 
Indeed, discussion is unnecessary, for your great familiarity with 
all subjects of political economy, and especially with the theory of 
our political institutions, will enable you to look through the 
whole at a glance. 

I do not wish you to suppose that I profess to suggest any thing 
altogether new, but only the propriety of connecting the proposed 
policy with the new-government. 

I hope you will pardon the very great liberty I have taken in 
laying before you the enclosed Memoranda of A Policy for the 
Confederate States! 

Is such a system, as a whole, desirable? If so, ought we not at an 
early day, to form the nucleus of a great National Party founded 
upon it? Could this be done best at Richmond, pending the sitting 
of Congress? Will we want an able and powerful paper-organ at 
the Capitol of the Confederate States, one at each State Capitol, 
and at such other places as may be? Would it be well to suggest the 
propriety of such a movement to our confidential friends in the 
Convention when it reassembles? 

Allow me to hear from you at your earliest convenience in reply 
to these interrogatories, and your views upon the Memoranda 
I have taken the liberty to lay before you, if you can do so 
consistently with your own notions of propriety. 

Pardon the very great liberty I have taken, and attribute it to 
my zeal for the success yet, of free-institutions and popular liberty, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 349 

and my great confidence in, and admiration for your excellent 
judgment, tried patriotism and eminent statesmanship. 



A desirable System of Governmental Policy 

for the Confederate States. 


There should be a Confederate States Bank, with a sufficient 
capital to meet the wants of the Country, so adjusted in its 
details as to identify it with the Government and the industrial 
persuits of the Country; to wit: Agriculture, Manufactures, Com- 
merce and all legitimate persuits incident to them. The Bank 
should succor industry. The shares of stock should be small, so 
that all classes of the people could own stock, to the end that the 
whole people might feel and have an interest direct and pecuniary 
in the stability of the Government. Let the Gov. hold such amount 
of stock as might be necessary. Is this not necessary to the successful 
administration of the Government? I need not suggest the rottoness 
of the Treasury — note system of raising means, 8cc. 8cc. 

A cotton Financial Basis won't do, because of the inconvenience 
of convertability and because of the changeableness of value and 
the uncertainty of crops and seasons. The Basis of all successful 
Banking operations, must be convertible, with reasonable 

The currency of such a Bank would be current anywhere in the 
Confederate States, and the people would have confidence in the 
permanence, stability and solvency of the same, just as they would 
confide in the Government. There would, therefore, be little or 
no danger from our own people, of a "rim" upon the Bank for 
specie. There would not be danger of this from Foreign countries, 
for the ballance of trade would always be in our favor, growing 
out of the export of Cotton, Rice, Tobacco, 8c much of manu- 
factured product. 


We will need a Tarriff Policy, with a view to the support of the 
Government and the encouragement of Manufactures. A Tarriff 

350 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

will not be the eventual policy of the Gov. — but it will be for a 
long time to come. A Tarriff as indicated is absolutely necessary, 
if we become a Manufacturing people. No country can become 
powerful and rich without combineing Agriculture, Manufactures 
and Commerce. Our Tarriff Policy would come on along with the 
steady growth of the Manufacturing interest. 

(This would involve a change of the Constitution, but changes 
must be made.) 

Internal Improvements, &c. 

We will want an Internal Improvement Policy, with a view to 
quick and successful public defence, and incidentally to the devel- 
opment of the resources of the Country. Can a great Government 
dispense with a policy of this character? Could a Gov. depend upon 
private enterprise for its national roads and water thoroughfares} 
Besides, would we not want an immense Naval power? A powerful 
Navy is indispensable! What could Napoleon have done in his 
day, if France had had a Navy equaling that of England? Could we 
not identify the Navy with the Foreign Commerce of the Country, 
so as to make it profitable in times of peace, and powerful in times 
of War? Could we not, thus identify incidentally, commerce with 
the permanence of the Gov.? 

Foreign Policy. 

Our Foreign Policy ought to be that of perfect freedom from 
foreign alliances and entanglements, a strict observance of the just, 
established 8c venerable rights of other Governments, & the com- 
pulsion, when necessary, of a due observance of our own, by 
others. We ought to cultivate a legitimate commerce with all 
nations, haveing a due regard for domestic industry. 


Foreigners should not hold office, nor be allowed to vote until 
they have resided in the Gov. at least twenty one years. 


It is our truest policy, it ought to be our highest aim in 
Government, to nationalize public sentiment, to identify every 
citizen, high and low, with the stability & permanency of our 
political institutions. To this end, we must have National Univer- 
sities Sec. 8cc. &c. and encourage to the fullest extent, learning in all 
its departments. 

The Confederate States must be recognized and treated as a 
Government, possessed of power, possessed of sovereignty within 
its sphere as defined by the Constitution. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 351 

The several States, as governments, possessed of power, possessed 
of sovereignty, within their respective spheres, as limited and 
defined by the Constitution. Our Governments, National & State, 
are of a mixed character, — each, sovereign within its sphere, — 
each haveing rights and powers defined by the Constitution. 

A rigid adherence to the Constitution, — departing from it in 
no emergency, — giveing it such free and liberal construction as 
will enable both the State & Confederate Gov'ts to exercise their 
rights 8c powers respectively, with ease and efficiency. The 
Supreme Court must be recognized as the power to adjudicate 8c 
determine what the law is, whether constitutional, or legislative. 

If the foregoing system of Policy is desirable, in view of the 
state of public sentiment, we will need to organize the friends of 
the same into a great National Party. Can this be done? When 
ought it to be done? 


352 N.C. Department of Archives and History 


From William W. H olden A&H 


Jan. 1st, 1861 [1862]. 

I trust you will prepare your remarks on the "Test Oath" 
Ordinance for the press. They will not only fully vindicate the 
course of the conservatives of the State on the question, but they 
will do good among the reflecting masses of the people. With 
your permission, I propose to print an edition of some five 
thousand copies in pamphlet form, and I make no doubt our 
friends in Convention and others will subscribe for enough copies 
to save the printer at cost. I am anxious that the speech should be 
widely circulated. 

I see by the last Observer, that Mr. Winslow 1 has resigned and 
that Mr. McKay will probably succeed him. The latter I know 
to be true and sound. He is a Union Democrat, and will set his 
face against the faction which now misgoverns the State. I have 
strong hopes, also, that we shall make a gain in Forsyth. 

Should you conclude to write out your remarks, and favor me 
with them, I promise to read the proof very carefully, so as to 
ensure correctness in the publication; or I will send the proof to 
you, if you desire it. 

Very truly yours 

[P.S.] Just as I had finished the foregoing Mr. Battle called with 
the manuscript of your speech, for which I am much obliged. It 
will appear in the weekly and semi-weekly issue of Wednesday 
next. I will also publish it in pamphlet form. 

1 Warren Winslow (1810-1862), of Cumberland County, graduated from the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina in 1827 and was a lawyer by profession. Speaker of the 
state senate in 1854, he was soon elected by the Democrats to the United States 
House of Representatives where he served from 1855 to 1861. He favored secession. 
When Winslow resigned, he was succeeded, not by McKay, but by Malcolm James 
McDuffie. McDuffie, a Democrat and a secessionist, was a graduate of the state 
university, a lawyer, and a commoner in 1854. He moved to Texas after the war. 
Biographical Directory of Congress, 1837; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 56, 90. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 353 

From Nicholas L. Williams 2 a&h 

Panther Creek, [North Carolina] 
Jan. 18th, 1862. 

You must permit me to congratulate you upon the speech 
made in the Convention on Big's 3 test oath ordinance 

It is one of the best speeches I have read in many years — If 
you had been a little more severe on Bigs for being such a fool I 
think your friends would have been a little more pleased if 
possible. I see that the Standard intends publishing the speech 
in pamphlet form. I hope he will impress a large number of 
Copies, it will be very much read throughout the State 

From Thomas M. Crossan DUKE 


January 20, 1862 

I have recently been appointed to the command of the Batteries 
erected on the Neuse river for the protection of this town and 
section. The efficiency of these batteries and the consequent 
immunity of our soil from the foot of the invader depends to a 
large extent upon the skill of the gunners. I do not regard the 
batteries as being now properly officered. It is at any rate almost 
indespensably requisite that we should have an additional Captain 
of Artillery, and I am gratified to have it in my power to suggest 
the name of a gentleman resideing in this place whom I regard as 
the man for the occasion. He is well known to me and I feel 
authorized in saying that he will fully and faithfully discharge 

2 Nicholas Williams was probably a son of former Whig congressman Lewis Wil- 
liams (1782-1842), of Panther Creek, who served North Carolina in the House of 
Representatives from 1815 to 1842. Biographical Directory of Congress, 1823. 

3 Asa Biggs (1811-1878), of Martin County, was educated in the common schools, 
read law, and was admitted to the bar in 1831. In addition to his Williamston legal 
practice, Biggs was an active Democratic politician and a jurist. He was a delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1835; a member of the state legislature in 1840, 
1842, 1844, and 1846; congressman, 1845-1847; United States senator, 1855-1858; 
United States district judge, 1858-1861; a secessionist delegate to the Secession Con- 
vention of 1861; and a Confederate States judge, 1861-1865. Biographical Directory of 
Congress, 553; McCormick, Convention Personnel, 19-20. 

354 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

the duties of the post. I refer to William W. Roberts 4 late a 
Lieutenant in the Federal Navy. He is in the habit of commanding 
men, is a good gunner, and was universally regarded in the old 
service as an able officer. He resigned his office shortly before the 
beginning of our difficulties and has since been residing with 
his family in this his native place. 

... I do not know any one whose services can now be had, who 
would be more acceptable to me, or render greater service to 
his country in the position designated. 

From David L. Swain UNC 

Chapel Hill, 

January 20th, 1862. 

Your letter of the 16th. finds me, as it left you, just rising from 
a bed of sickness. I have been quite ill — since the evening of the 1st. 

I have heard my class in my bed chamber this morning, never- 
theless, and am to hear them again this evening. 

I read your speech immediately upon its receipt, and would have 
written to you that day, if I had been able. Whether it may impress 
me as favorably on a second perusal, which I intend to give 
it so soon as I can command the requisite strength and leisure to 
do it justice, I cannot say. At present I regard it as second to no 
constitutional exposition, which our annals, legislative or judicial, 
present within the range of my reading, — the argument of Hay- 
wood, in the Univ. v . Foy *k Bishop, which is understood to have 
been so highly commended by Mr. Webster, 5 not excepted. 

Your reference to the 'merrie monarch' — Charles the second, 
instead of the moody James the second, as occupying the throne 
during the perpetration of the judicial butcheries of Jeffries, 6 

4 William W. Roberts entered naval service in March, 1839, as a midshipman and 
resigned as a lieutenant in May, 1860. Callahan, List of Officers of the Navy and 
Marine Corps, 466. 

5 This reference is to Daniel Webster (1782-1852), of Massachusetts, who had the 
reputation of being one of the nation's foremost constitutional lawyers. Concise 
Dictionary of American Biography, 1161-1163. 

6 George Jeffreys (1648-1689), the first Baron Jeffreys of Wern, loyally and ruthless- 
ly served Charles II as Lord Chief Justice and James II as Lord Chancellor of Eng- 
land. Noted for his vindictiveness, brutality, and cruel jocularity in prosecuting the 
so-called popish plots, he achieved infamy as the most scandalous judge who ever 
disgraced an English bench. C. P. Hill, England, 1603-1714, Volume III of Who's 
Who in History, by C. R. N. Routh and others (eds.), (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 3 
volumes, 1960-1965), 313-315. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 355 

is erroneous. I hope you will have opportunity to correct it, in the 
pamphlet edition of your speech. 

One point which you, with the opinions you have always 
entertained, were not bound to make, I should like to see our 
friend Rainer, 7 and other original nullifiers meet. In 1832-3 the 
question whether allegiance was primarily due to the State or the 
General Government, was much discussed in S.C. You may 
recollect Grimke's 8 remark that before he would take the test 
oath, then proposed, "he would have his right hand stricken off 
and wear it for a cockade." We have abolished the Union, and 
adopted a confederation form of government, from which Florida 
reserves the right to secede at pleasure, and yet we will propose 
"to support the Constitution of the State so far as it is not 
inconsistent with the Constitution of the Confederate. 
States." Before I take the oath of allegiance again, I wish the 
principle to be settled, whether primary allegiance is due to the 
State or the Confederacy. "Under which King Bezonian? speak 
or die." 

I know where all the documents in relation to our boundary 
may be found, having hunted them up some time since, and copies 
made of the southern boundary charts for Mr. Pettigrew and will, 
when I acquire sufficient strength, come to your aid, if you find 
any difficulty in obtaining access to them. Mr. Page, 9 I presume, 
can turn to them readily. It will be very difficult to define our 
boundaries in concise and perspicacious terms. Take for illustra- 
tion the south boundary. "Beginning on the sea side at a cedar 
stake . . . and running from thence a North west course . . .to 
thirty five degrees North latitude, and from thence a West course, 
so far as is mentioned in the Charter of King Charles the II" 
Such is our constitutional boundary, when in fact, not an inch of 
our actual boundary is conterminous with the 35 parallel, until 
about the point of intersection with the Georgia boundary. 
Similar mistakes on the part of astronomers and surveyors 
present similar but not equal difficulties, on our Northern border. 
Florida defines her boundaries in the XII article of her constitu- 

7 Kenneth Rayner. 

8 Thomas Smith Grimke (1786-1834), of South Carolina, a graduate of Yale, was 
an eminently successful lawyer, a partner of Robert Y. Hayne, and a champion of 
unpopular causes. Brilliant, courageous, and an ardent Unionist, he bitterly de- 
nounced nullification. He was essentially a reformer and was the brother of the 
well-known Grimke sisters, Sarah Moore and Angelina Emily. He was a pioneer 
reformer in the causes of temperance, world peace, and educational reform. Merle E. 
Curti, "Thomas Smith Grimke," Dictionary of American Biography, VII, 635-636. 

9 Rufus Page was North Carolina secretary of state, 1859-1862. Connor, Manual, 

356 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

tion, as follows. "Boundaries." 1 the jurisdiction of the State of 
Florida shall extend over the territories of East and West Florida, 
which, by a treaty of amity, settlement and limits between the 
United States and his Catholic Majesty, on the 22nd. day of Febru- 
ary, A.D. 1819, were ceded to the United States," p. 19. 

The 7th. sec. of the 6th. Art. of the Constitution of Florida 
provides that "Members of the General Assembly, and all officers, 
civil or military, before they enter upon the execution of their 
respective offices, shall take the following oath, or affirmation: 
I do swear, (or affirm) that I am duly qualified, according to the 
Constitution of this State, to exercise the office to which I have 
been elected, (or appointed) and will, to the best of my abilities, 
discharge the duties thereof, and preserve, and protect, and 
defend the Constitution of this State, and of the Confederate 
States of America." p. 16. 

It has occurred to me, since reading the foregoing, that I may 
render an acceptable service by sending the Journal of the 
Convention of Florida, for which I am indebted to our friend, 
Major Beard, 10 who was a prominent member. Please preserve and 
return it by Mr. Phillips. 

With earnest prayers for your speedy restoration to health, and 
a long career of usefullness and happiness, and of happiness which 
earth cannot afford. 

From Charles Wilson and L.W. Hall UNC 

to William A. Graham and John Berry 

Caldwell, [Orange County] n 
January 31st., 1862. 


After consulting our friends in general, we have concluded to 
drop you a few lines and give you the general opinion with regard 
to the present Stay Law, they believe it to be unconstitutional out 
and out, and do hope that the Convention will sink it into an 

10 John Beard (1797-1876), a native of Rowan County and a graduate of Yale, 
moved to Florida in 1838, but not before he distinguished himself in law, politics, 
and journalism. He was subsequently clerk of the federal district court for eastern 
Florida, United States marshal, state legislator, and superintendent of schools. He 
was a secessionist delegate to the Florida secession convention and an avid Con- 
federate. Harry Gardner Cutler, History of Florida, Past and Present, Historical and 
Biographical (New York: Lewis Publishing Company, 3 volumes, 1923), III, 52. 

11 Caldwell was a community in northeast Orange County. Powell, Gazetteer, 80. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 357 

Oblivion. We do not want it dispenced with for the purpose of 
pressing any one, but we want a Law to make a man pay his just 
debts at the propper time, and not let him or any one have the 
chance to tell a man when called upon for his money that he will 
pay him when the Stay Laws is done away with, and not before. 
All that a man can do at present is to stand buy and see a man 
dispose of his property, put the money in his Pocket and then 
get it if you can. The Class of men that this Law was intended to 
benefit are now reaping the bitter fruits of it. We are anctious for 
something to be done with regard to the Whiskey Distilleries and 
prevent the Corn and Wheat from being destroyed in such a way. 
The contend that the Soldiers must have it, and in order to meet 
their wants at this present time, (they) the owners of Distilleries 
will not hesitate to take the bread from the hands of the Pore 
Women and Children that the Soldiers have left at home, make it 
into Whiskey, and then have the audacity to sell it at four times 
its worth, or what they ought to have for it, agreeable to what they 
Paid for the Grain. 

We could give you a long list of names and they of the most 
responsible men in favor of the sentiments of this letter, but deem 
it unnecessary at present. 

let us hear from you both soon, and give us your views upon the 
Two Subjects, and Oblidge us. 

From Edwin G. Reade UNC 


February 4th., 1862. 

I hope it would not be thought impertinent in any one to suggest 
even a crude thought looking to the peace of the country. I am 
extremely loth that our Convention should adjourn, without some 
action indicating a desire to adjust, as at some time sooner or later 
must be adjusted, the difficulties which distract the whole 
Country. With sincerity I say, that I do not know any one who can 
approach the Convention upon this delicate subject with more 
propriety than yourself. You have a better standpoint, however, 
for determining the propriety of such a move, than I have, and I 
am sure you will believe that I have too high an appreciation of 
your usefulness in the State, to desire you to do anything that 
would lessen your influence. What follows has occurred to me in 

358 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

the longing which I have for peace. I have not consulted or 
advised with any one. You know how much I am secluded. 

A Plan to Restore Peace 

The Government of the United States consisted of thirty-two 
States. Eleven of these, by the voice of their people, approximating 
unanimity, dissolved their connection with the United States 
Government, and formed a Government of their own. The Govern- 
ment of the United States, supported by the voice approximating 
unanimity of eighteen States, determined to maintain the Union 
of the States entire. And the people of the remaining three States, 
viz: Maryland, Kentucky, 8c Missouri, were really 8c substantially 
divided. Hostilities commenced between the Government of the 
United States, and the Government of the said eleven States, Sc 
actual war has existed for nearly a year, with great sacrifice on both 
sides, and with immense preparation now in the field for continued 
hostilities. These facts, involving no controversy, and framed 
expresly to avoid controversy as to their truth, induce the Con- 
vention of the people of North Carolina, to adopt the following 

I. That it be, and hereby is, recommended to the Government 
of the Confederate States, to appoint six Commissioners, one of 
whom shall be a citizen of Maryland, one of Kentucky, Sc one of 
Missouri: ^c that it be, and hereby is, suggested to the Government 
of the United States to appoint a like number, and in like manner, 
to meet in the City of Norfolk, on the first Monday in March, 1 862, 
to agree upon, and propose terms for a treaty of peace. 

II. That, during the sitting of the Commission, and until the 
result of their deliberations is known and acted on by the appoint- 
ing powers, hostilities ought to be suspended. 

III. That, in the opinion of this Convention, this course can 
be pursued without compromising the honor or integrity of 
either or any of the parties. 

IV. That be, and he is appointed a Commissioner, to 

bear these resolutions to the Government of the Confederate 

States, and that be, and he is appointed a Commissioner 

to bear the same to the Government of the United States. 

V. That, for the rectitude of our intentions, and the success 
of our mission, we appeal to the Supreme Judge of the World. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 359 

From Richard C. Puryear 12 A&H 

Richmond, Va. 

February 5th., 1862. 

I have not been able until this day to obtain from the War 
Department the statement which I herewith enclose. 

The adjutant Genr'l informs me that if any troops or Reg'ts 
Commissaries or Quartermasters are supported in the State of 
N.C. it is because they have not transfered to the Confederate 
Government and if there be cause for blame in the matter it is 
attributable to the authorities in N.C. The Adjutant Genr'l does 
not know that such is the case in any other State. 13 

I have enquired of members from most of the States as to this 
matter and find that no such thing exists in any of them. I at one 
time had some reason to suppose that S.C. was supporting a 
portion of her troops retained in the State for her own defence. 
But in a conversation with the Hon. Mr. Boyce 14 I find that I 
mistaken. And surely if S.C. is exempt from all such burdens N.C. 
ought not to bear them. Mr. Boyce did me the favor to hand me a 
note on the subject which I herewith enclose to you. Members 
here appeared surprised to learn that N.C. had so long patiently 
submitted to such unjust expenditures. I am truly glad that you 
intend to look into the matter and have it corrected. 

We are doing nothing of importance here. There is a dis- 
position to turn over important matters to the next Congress 
which will be composed of the immediate Representatives of the 

12 Richard Clanselle Puryear (1801-1867) was born in Mecklenburg County, Vir- 
ginia, but moved to Surry County. After receiving a classical education, he became 
a planter near Huntsville. Active in public affairs, he was a colonel of militia, a 
magistrate, a member of the state House of Commons in 1838, 1844, 1846, and 1852, 
a state senator in 1840, a Whig congressman, 1853-1857, and a delegate to the Con- 
federate provisional congress. Biographical Directory of Congress, 1488; Connor, 
Manual, 1913,816. 

13 By special arrangements with the Confederate government North Carolina was 
the only Southern state to clothe its own soldiers. Lefler and Newsome, North 
Carolina, 434. 

14 William Waters Boyce (1818-1890), of South Carolina, became a lawyer and 
planter after attending South Carolina College and the University of Virginia. He 
was a state legislator, a States Rights Democratic congressman, 1853-1860, and a 
member of the Confederate congress, 1861-1865. In 1866 he moved to Washington, 
D. C, where he practiced law until his death. Biographical Directory of Congress, 
582; Wilfred Buck Yearns, The Confederate Congress (Athens: University of Georgia 
Press, 1960), 237. 

360 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

people. In my opinion except where immediate legislation 
is required this is the proper plan. I think there will be no 
interregnum. This Congress will sit until the other comes in. 

There is no news here of the least importance. The Burnside 
excitement has abated. It does seem that the Storm King is on our 
side and perhaps accomplished for us more than we could have 
done for ourselves. The delay is indeed favorable giving us 
time to strengthen our positions and to make a formidable and 
I trust successful resistance when ever he may feel sufficiently 
recovered to try us again. 

If I can be useful to you in any thing it will afford me pleasure 
and I hope you will not hesitate to call on me. 

From T. M. Boyce to Richard C. Puryear 


Feb. 4th. 1862. 

In the State of South Carolina all the troops are in the service 
and pay of the Confederate Government. A few troops, consisting 
of a body of troops living in the city of Charleston were not 
turned over until recently, but the Convention which was lately 
in session ordered all the troops to be turned over to the Confed- 
erate authorities, so that now the State is supporting no troops 

Very Respectfully 


There have been received from the State of North Carolina, 
(37) Thirty Seven Regiments, one of which has been mustered out 
of Service, leaving (36) Thirty Six Regiments now in Service and 
2 Battalions. Of these (11) Eleven are for the War, the balance 
for twelve months; enlisted at various times since the connection 
of North Carolina with the Confederate States. 

The muster rolls of these regiments have been received, except 
the 6th, 9th, 15th, 16th, 29th, 32d, 33d, 34th, 35th, 36th, Regts. 
and 2nd. Battn. 

Adjt. & Inspt. Genl's Office 
Richmond Feby. 5/62 

S[amuel] Cooper 

The Papers of William A. Graham 361 

From Richard C. Gatlin A&H 

Go Ids bo ro, 

Feby. 10th, 1862. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your telegram of 
this date 

A large force of well armed men, with the necessary munitions 
of War, are requisite for the present emergency; the future will 
probably require a larger force still. If the Convention can do 
any thing to forward the raising and arming of more troops, it is 
to be hoped that they will not fail to do so at once. As far as I can 
see, the State must look to its own defences, for as yet, no re-enforce- 
ments have been offered by the Confederate Government. 

To Susan Washington Graham A&H 


Monday, Feb. 10th, [1862] 
4 o'clock. 

Roanoke Island has fallen, and nearly all the garrison taken 
prisoners. 15 This disaster has not been unlooked for, by those at 
all conversant with Military operations. That Post, has been most 
strangely neglected by the Confederate authorities. We have 
no particulars, but the telegraph has come in two or three ways, 
& is not doubted. 

Only a part of the enemy's fleet went to Roanoke, the balance is 
at Hatteras. 

15 On February 8, 1862, Roanoke Island fell to a superior land and naval force 
under the command of General Ambrose E. Burnside. The Confederates, commanded 
by General Henry Wise, were disorganized and poorly equipped. About 2,500 
prisoners were taken. This battle was a shock to Southern morale and was the prelude 
to Burnside's successful campaign in eastern North Carolina. Boatner, Civil War 
Dictionary, 701; John G. Barrett, The Civil War in North Carolina (Chapel Hill: 
University of North Carolina Press, 1963), 74-84, 89-91, hereinafter cited as Barrett, 
Civil War in North Carolina. 

362 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Richard H. Riddick 1 * A&H 

Head Quarters Dept. of N.C, 


Feb. 15th, 1862. 

I have taken the liberty to enclose to you the accompanying 
Copies of the Laws of the C.S. and State of Va. in regard to the 
enlistment of Troops, for the War. I have given my views, which 
I have come to after the most careful thought. They are the 
result of experience, observation, and my reading of history. 
Please take the trouble to read them, and if they commend 
themselves to your judgment, use your influence to get the bills 
before the Convention amended accordingly. 


By retaining the old Regiments, we preserve all their appliances 
for the care and comfort of the men. The Recruit, instead of 
finding himself in camp, where inexperience is more severely 
felt than under any other situation, surrounded by ignorance 
as great as his own, he has an instructor at hand, for everything 
that pertains to his new situation or calling. 

Those men who wish to re-enlist, and form new organizations 
as provided by the C.S. Laws, can do so, and form other companies 
and regiments. 

I am fully convinced that not a third of the 12 months Volunteers 
will re-enlist, before returning home. I think any officer of those 
regiments will tell the same. 

The number and designations of Companies, Squadrons, Bat- 
talions and Regiments now in the Service, with such of their Field, 
Company, and Non Com'd Officers as may elect to remain, shall 
continue as at present organized. The companies to be filled up 
to 100 rank and file, as provided for by the Va. Law to the 7th. 
Paragraph. The Companies for the War to be filled in like 

16 Richard H. Riddick, of Gates County, was colonel of the Thirty-fourth North 
Carolina Regiment. Severely wounded at Gaines' Mill, he was killed at Ox Hill in 
September, 1862. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, II, 583, 585. En- 
closed in Riddick's letter but not included in this volume were several newspaper 
clippings urging the preservation of the existing regimental organizations and oppos- 
ing the election of officers by the troops; also, a copy of General Orders No. 1, Jan- 
uary 1, 1862, providing for granting bounty and furlough to privates and non- 
commissioned officers in the Provisional Army. The portion of the letter following 
the introductory first paragraph is Riddick's summation of the laws. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 363 

manner. — th. Par. to be left out. The organization of Camps 
belongs to the C.S. Gov't alone. 

7th. 8th. 9th. 8c 10th. to be left out. 

All vacancies that may occur by resignation, dismissal, transfer, 
death from ordinary cause, and by officers declining to continue 
in Service, shall be filled by promotion according to Seniority, 
except in case of disability, or other incompetency, from the 
Company battalion, or regiment in which such vacancies may 
occur. Vacancies in the grade of Major shall be filled by election 
by the Company officers from the Captains. Vacancies in the 
lowest grade of Company officers, by election by the Company 
from the Non-Commissioned officers of the Company. (This last, 
though bad, is put in to correspond with the C. S. Law.) 

Vacancies caused by wounds received in battle shall be 
filled by selection from the next lowest grade, of the most meri- 
torious, the manner of selection to be fixed by regulations estab- 
lished by the Commander of the Department or Army in the field, 
where the vacancy occurs. 

The officers that continue in the service to retain their present 
Commissions, and those promoted, selected or elected, to be 
commissioned by the Governor as already provided by law. 

This law shall apply to all Troops furnished, or to be furnished, 
by the State. 

From Thomas M. Crossan UNC 

Newbern, N.C., 

February 16th., 1862. 


I regret to say that I do not approve of the construction of our 
Forts on the River, for the simple reason that our men are 
not protected, and the Enemy provided with guns of greatly 
superior range, I fear may shell us out, for it is manifestly useless 
for us to reply ineffectually. If, on the contrary, our Guns were 
placed in bomb proof case mates, we could, with comparative 
safety, wait their approach, until they came within range, and 
thus do some execution. I still further regret to inform you that 
I have tried unsuccessfully three of Capt. Maury's Submarine 
Batteries 17 under the most favorable circumstances. The difficulty 

17 Matthew Fontaine Maury, late of the United States navy, conducted numerous 
experiments early in the war with submarines and land mines. 

364 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

is a mechanical one, and cannot be obviated without remodelling 
the lock. These are my honest convictions. Mr. Roberts has 
faithfully and efficiently assisted me, and I do beg your aid in 
procuring him a commission as Capt. Artillery. 

[P.S.] In all my experiments with the Sub Marine Batteries, the 
locks went off, but with insufficient force to ignite the fuze. I 
succeeded in exploding one in the atmosphere, but the increased 
ressistance of the water impairs the power of the spiral spring of 
the lock as to render it ineffectual. 

I enclose Capt. Maury's letter. After you read it, please forward 
to J.T. Williams, Warrenton, with the request to not exhibit 
it to anyone. 

From Alexander H. Graham UNC 

Dallas Co. 

February 20th., 1862. 

Thinking you would like to hear what is going on in this 
portion of our Confederacy, and the part I am taking in the War, 
I have concluded to drop you a few lines. Two months ago I 
received the appointment of Surgeon in Col. N. H. Darnell's 18 
Regiment of Mounted Riflemen, then being raised for the Con- 
federate Army. Three weeks since, I left my home in Williamson 
County to join the Regiment at this place. The Companies, (10) 
are now all here, and the Regiment will be organized tomorrow. 
We will have about 1,000 men in the Regiment. It is for twelve 
months, the men furnish their arms, horses, etc. Our Col. 
Darnell is a native of Tenn., and an old Texan. He has served in 
the Tenn. Legislature, and for a number of years has been a 
member of the Texas Legislature. He was Speaker of the House 
in the last Legislature, & has been Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives during the Republic of Texas. He is about 60 years of 
age, but tall, and straight, and athletic for his age. I formed the 
acquaintance of Col. D. during the Campaign against the Indians 

18 Nicholas Henry Darnell (1807-1885), who also served in the Texas Constitutional 
Convention of 1875. Marcus J. Wright and Harold B. Simpson (comp. and ed.), 
Texas in the War (Hillsboro, Texas: Hill Junior College Press, 1965), 28, hereinafter 
cited as Wright and Simpson, Texas in the War. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 


A map of the operations near New Berne 
serves to show the difficulties encountered by 
the Confederates in defending this area 
against Federal assault. Photograph from 
Benson J. Lossing, A Pictorial History of the 
Civil War (Philadelphia: David McKay, 3 
volumes, 1866), II, 307. 

two years ago. He was Capt. of a Company of Rangers, and I Sur- 
geon of the first Company of Rangers, under Capt. Dalrymple. 

It is not known for certain where our Regiment will be ordered 
to, but we suppose to Kentucky. We are now expecting orders 
daily, to march. 

Col. M.T. Johnson 19 is raising a Brigade at this place. He has, 
at this time, 15 Companies mustered into service. His men are 
also mounted, and for twelve months. Two other Regiments are 
also being raised here by Cols. Hawpe 20 & Scott — (mounted men) 
&c one of infantry by Judge Buford, 21 all for 3 years, or the war. 

19 Middleton Tate Johnson (1810-1866), a native of South Carolina, migrated south 
to Georgia then Alabama and finally Texas, arriving in 1840. He settled in Shelby 
County and was soon elected to the Lone Star legislature. After serving in the 
Mexican War, he built his home in Tarrant County at what came to be known as 
Johnson's Station. He was a Texas ranger, 1846-1850, a member of the secession con- 
vention, and colonel of the Fourteenth Texas Cavalry. Johnson was a member of 
the legislature in 1866 when he died unexpectedly. Wright and Simpson, Texas in 
the War, 116. 

20 Trezevant C. Hawpe, colonel of the Thirty-first Texas Cavalry. Wright and 
Simpson, Texas in the War, 28. 

21 Nathaniel Macon Burford, a native of Smith County, Tennessee, was born in 
1824. He graduated from Irvin College and Lebanon Law School before settling in 
Texas in 1846. Two years later he formed a Dallas law partnership with the eminent 
old Texan John H. Reagan. During his long career, Burford was district attorney 
of Dallas, 1850-1852, district judge, colonel of the Nineteenth Texas Cavalry, speaker 
of the Texas house in 1866, and United States commissioner. Wright and Simpson, 
Texas in the War, 118. 

366 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Texas has at this time 26 Regiments in the field, 8c in a few 
weeks will have 5 more, making about 30 thousand men. 15 of 
the Regiments are cavalry. The men of our regiment are finely 
mounted, and pretty well armed with Rifles, Shotguns, 8c 
six-shooters, and Large Knives, only a part of them are uniformed. 
They drill both as infantry and cavalry. Our Tents are mostly of 
the Sibley 22 pattern (conical). Our last news from the States, 
received last night via Little Rock, 12th. inst.) was that our troops 
have suffered a defeat at Roanoke Island, 8c Elizabeth City, 
N.C, 8c I am anxious to hear the particulars, as I suppose Col. 
John Sloan, 23 Cousins Joseph, John &: William, were in the fights. 
This is so far from Telegraphs, Rail Road, etc., that we get very 
few papers, and those do not give particulars. 

I have not heard from our Relatives in N.C. since last Summer. 
I hear occasionally from Brothers Jos. and Charles. 24 

The Winter here, until the last of January, was remarkable, 
mild and dry. Since the commencement of this month, we have 
had continued cold weather, either with rain, sleet &: snow, and 
an almost continual Norther. The crops last year were the best 
ever made in Texas, and provisions are abundant Sc cheap. 

During the latter part of October, $4500. in C.S. Bonds sent 
me by Wm. Johnson, 25 in care of Bishop Gregg, 26 of Austin, was 

22 The tents referred to were named for Henry Hopkins Sibley (1816-1886), a native 
of Louisiana and a graduate of West Point in 1838. Sibley, a veteran of the Seminole 
and Mexican wars, resigned as major in 1861, and became a Confederate brigadier 
general. After his abortive attempt to gain New Mexico territory for the Confederacy, 
his service was limited and inconsequential, perhaps because of an alleged predilec- 
tion for the battle. He was general of artillery in the Egyptian army, 1869-1873. The 
Sibley tents were widely used early in the war but were soon abandoned. Warner, 
Generals in Gray, 27 6-211. 

23 Presumably Colonel John Sloan who married the writer's sister, Elizabeth 
Poythress Graham. Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

24 William A. Graham's nephews Joseph Montrose Graham (1823-1871), of Cam- 
den, Arkansas, and Charles Connor Graham (1819-1886), of Memphis, Tennessee. 
Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

25 William Johnston (1817-1896), of Charlotte, a native of Lincoln (now Gaston) 
County, was of Scotch-Irish parentage. He graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1840 and read law with Richmond M. Pearson. Johnston practiced law 
in Charlotte and was associated with the building and administration of plank roads 
and railroads. He represented Mecklenburg County in the Convention of 1861, and 
the Democrats vainly supported him against Vance in the gubernatorial election of 
1862. After the war he was instrumental in securing a railroad linking Charlotte- 
Columbia-Augusta. F. D. McDowell, "William Johnston," Ashe, Biographical History, 

26 Alexander Gregg (1819-1893), was a native of South Carolina, a graduate of the 
South Carolina College, and a lawyer who entered the Episcopal ministry in 1846. 
He was rector at St. David's in Cheraw, 1846-1859. In 1859 he was named bishop of 

The Papers of William A. Graham 367 

lost in South Carolina. Mr. Johnson has written me that he had 
hopes of their Recovery. The loss and Delay prevented me from 
going in Gen'l Sibley's Brigade as Surgeon, to [illegible]. I have 
not heard from the Bonds since leaving home, & suppose I will not 
until the war is over, as we will be almost continually on the 
march. If you see Wm. Johnson soon, please enquire 8c let me 
know if they have been recovered. I left 4500. in N. %c S.C. Bills 
with Mr. J. to buy Bonds before leaving N.C. 

The measels have made their appearance in our Camps, & I 
am kept busy attending the sick. 

From William Johnston UNC 



February 24th., 1862. 

I enclose to you a private letter received recently from our 
friend, General Hill. 27 It discloses one or two important facts in 
regard to Roanoke Island, its defences, etc. 

It is due to Gen'l Hill that his course in regard to the defence 
of the Island be understood, since the ignoble defeat of our 
arms at that place. 

The State Journal, I see, denies Governor Clark's agency in 
his removal. The denial does not appear ingenuous. 

As you will see, Gen'l H. has gloomy forebodings. His temper- 
ament is, however, melancholic, yet recent disasters tend to ful- 
fill his belief as to the future. 

At your convenience, please return the letter to me. 

Texas. He made significant contributions to church literature by numerous sermons 
and addresses. John Howard Brown (ed.), Lamb's Biographical Dictionary of the 
United States (Boston: James H. Lamb Company and Federal Book Company, 7 
volumes, 1900-1903), III, 407. 

27 General Daniel Harvey Hill's letter was not found. 

368 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From John W. Graham to Susan Washington Graham UNC 

Head Quarters Dept., N.C. 

February 26th., 1862. 

I received your letter on last Monday, and was very much 
surprised at the report that I had been on Roanoke Island. I went 
up to Weldon on last Saturday, and returned the next day. This 
is the only chance I have had of leaving this place for the last 
two months. I have been trying to get the General to go round on a 
tour of inspection, but have not succeeded. I am so very tired of 
staying here, that I would have [been] very glad of a chance of 
going to Roanoke Island. 

We are now fortifying Hamilton, 28 on the Roanoke River, and 
hope to be able to go there for a few days, but do not know. One 
Reg't, a Battery of two pieces, and a Company of Cavalry are 
stationed there, and one Regiment at Weldon. 

I don't think there will be any fighting in this Department for 
a good long while. I suppose the Roanoke River is the dividing 
line between Gen'l Gatlin and Gen'l Huger. 29 The Chowan was 
until lately. We have no official information of this fact, but Gen'l 
Randolph, 30 another Virginian, is sent to take command of the 
country between Suffolk and the Roanoke River. He is a man 

28 Hamilton was a town in north Martin County. Probably named for Alexander 
Hamilton (1757-1804), it was known as Milton prior to 1804. Powell, North Carolina 
Gazetteer, 211. 

29 Benjamin Huger (1805-1877), a native of Charleston, South Carolina, was a grad- 
uate of West Point. His professional career was almost entirely in ordnance, includ- 
ing service as Scott's chief of ordnance in Mexico. Major and brevet colonel when he 
resigned in 1861, he became a Confederate major general. In command of the 
Department of Norfolk, Huger gave up Fortress Monroe without a fight, set fire to 
the navy yard, and evacuated Norfolk itself. He led a division in Seven Pines, Gaines's 
Mill, and Malvern Hill, displaying his incapacity for high command. Subsequently, 
a congressional committee held Huger responsible for the defeat at Roanoke Island. 
He was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi for the remainder of the war. Afterwards 
he was a farmer in Virginia and North Carolina. John G. Van Deusen, "Benjamin 
Huger," Dictionary of American Biography, IX, 343; Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 

30 George Wythe Randolph (1818-1867), a grandson of Thomas Jefferson, attended 
the University of Virginia, served in the navy, and became a lawyer. He was a Vir- 
ginia state legislator and a delegate to the secession convention. Commissioned a 
Confederate brigadier general, he showed little capacity, as he did also in his brief 
tenure as secretary of war in 1862. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 678-679; Robert 
Douthat Meade, "George Wythe Randolph," Dictionary of American Biography, XV, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 369 

of very little ability, so I hear. I am afraid Suffolk will have 
[to] go the way of Roanoke Island, and Norfolk too. I think we 
will be able to keep the enemy from coming up the Roanoke River, 
but am not so sure that Gen'l Randolph will prevent them from 
coming across from the Chowan to the Weldon Bridge. But we 
will hope for the best, though I regret very much that the last 
chance of our forces having anything to do, and of General Gatlin's 
taking the field, is gone. Burnside's 31 Forces have gone back from 
Winton, and I suppose reorganizing for the march upon Suffolk. 
I wish he would conclude to come to Newbern. I don't know 
that we could whip all his Force on land, but we are willing to give 
him a trial, and would like some excitement after waiting so 
long. The Orange Guards will come up to Newbern this week, 
and join their regiment. I had some idea of going home and trying 
to raise a company. I am so very tired of staying here, and doing a 
little writing. I do not like this way of Fighting. It is not my idea 
of a soldier, by any means. I suppose, however, that recruiting 
is over in Orange, and there is no hope of my getting a Company. 
I cannot stay with Gen'l Gatlin much longer, (although I like 
him very well) unless he will move away from Goldsboro', or go 
about more than he does, or will let me go, one. You may consider 
me as safe here as if at home. In fact it is very little else, and I am 
getting very much ashamed of it. I do not feel as if I was in the 
Service at all, and have no chance of promotion. 

31 Ambrose Everett Burnside (1824-1881), a native of Indiana, graduated from West 
Point in 1847. He resigned from the army in 1853 and settled in Rhode Island. He 
raised a regiment in 1861. Soon afterwards he was appointed brigadier general. He 
commanded the Federal army at Hatteras, Roanoke Island, and New Bern, gaining 
some reputation for independent command. After his promotion to major general, 
he twice refused command of the Army of the Potomac, finally accepting command 
despite his ineffectiveness at Antietam. Burnside's command at Fredericksburg 
proved to be a disaster. He was relieved and sent to Ohio. For the second time he 
sought vainly to resign, showed some aptitude at Knoxville, and failed at the Crater. 
After his failure before Petersburg, Burnside was relieved of command and his 
resignation accepted. He became a successful railroad engineer and executive, was 
governor of Rhode Island, 1866-1869, and a United States senator, 1875-1881. Boatner, 
Civil War Dictionary, 107-108; Biographical Directory of Congress, 633. 

370 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From Richard Sterling 32 UNC 


Greensboro', N.C., 
March 1st., 1862. 

I am engaged in compiling a series of Readers for our Southern 
Schools. They are designed to meet the present exigency of 
education in the Confederate States, and to inculcate proper views 
of Southern institutions, and a sound, Bible morality. 

The highest Number will contain the best specimens of the 
Compositions of Southern Authors that I can obtain, either from 
their published works, or original essays prepared especially 
for this volume. Several gentlemen, of distinction as writers, have 
consented to aid me in this undertaking, and I hope to render it 
useful, and a proper exhibition of the talent and literary attain- 
ments of the South. 

Believing that you will feel sufficient interest in this work, and 
appreciate the necessity laid upon us to furnish our children 
with suitable School reading, I take the liberty of asking any 
contributions from your pen, you may be pleased to send me. 

I leave, of course, the choice of subjects to yourself, and have 
only to request that they be free from denominational or political 

From James A. Graham UNC 

Fort Lane, N.C, 
March 2nd., 1962. 

I received your very welcome letter yesterday morning, and 
wrote in my letter to Mother for you to see Mr. Turner and try to 
get that Borland horse for me, but, since I have thought upon it, 
I think I will not want a horse, as I intend to quit my position 
as Adjutant and go back to my Company in a few days, if you do 
not object to it. 

My reasons for doing it are that I wish to stay in the service after 
my twelve months is out, and as nearly all the men in our county 

32 Richard Sterling (1812-1883) came to Greensboro's Edgeworth Female Seminary 
as principal in 1850 and served in that capacity until the school closed in 1862. Prior 
to 1850 he was a professor at Hampden-Sydney College. Charles Lee Raper, The 
Church and Private Schools of North Carolina (Greensboro: Joseph J. Stone, 1898), 

The Papers of William A. Graham 371 

have volunteered, or been drafted, there will be no chance for me 
to raise a company, and I must either go in, in my same position, 
or else in the ranks. If I remain detached from my Company, they 
will not re-elect me, for some of them even now complain of my 
having left the Company. 

We intend to re-enlist as many of our Company for 3 years 
as we can, and I think that before our three years is out, I will have 
a plenty of chances to rise. 

I cannot raise a Company, and therefore, I think I had better 
make sure of my position as 2nd. Lieut., for I have no desire to go 
into the ranks again. 

There is nothing new. 

From Robert D. Graham to Mrs. Joseph Graham UNC 


March 14th., 1862. 

Dear Sister, 

New Bern has fallen. The enemy attacked our right, which 
was composed of the militia, who of course, ran. The panic ex- 
ceeded Bull Run. No man from Orange was hurt in any way. Col. 
Campbell 33 was not killed, and is well spoken of, by all accounts. 
Col. Vance, with a good many of his men, were captured. 34 The 
most of the horses of Brem's Battery were killed at the first fire, 
and a few of his men. General Gatlin is sick abed, and could not 
go. Say to Mrs. Manly 35 for Alex. Kirkland 36 that the Judge is 
safe at Kinston, and the ladies are in the Hotel here. Our troops 
have fallen back to Kinston, to make a stand there, perhaps the 
fight will be in a day or two, maybe a month. Brother Joe, Johnnie, 
Whitehead and Alex Kirkland and myself are all in the room 

33 Colonel Reuben P. Campbell, of the Seventh North Carolina Regiment, (1818- 
1862) was killed on June 27, 1862, at Gaines's Mill. George W. Cullum, Biographi- 
cal Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West 
Point, N.Y., From Its Establishment, in 1802, to 1890, With the Early History of the 
United States Military Academy (New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Third 
Edition Revised and Extended, 3 volumes, 1891), II, 50, hereinafter cited as Cullum, 
Biographical Register of the Military Academy. 

34 This was an error; Vance was not captured. 

35 Mrs. Matthias Manly. 

36 Alexander M. Kirkland, of Orange County, was an artillery officer. He resigned 
in April, 1864. Manarin, North Carolina Troops, I, 585; Clark, Histories of the 
North Carolina Regiments, IV, 353. 


N.C. Department of Archives and History 

Robert D. Graham's letter to his father, March 14, 1862, reports the fall of New 
Bern. An original sketch was done by Edwin Forbes and appeared in Harper's 
Weekly, April 11, 1863. Shown here is a copy of the Forbes sketch. 

together. They, except Johnnie, leave for Kinston in the morning. 
I don't know when we'll be up. 

From John W. Graham 



March 17th., 1862. 

I have intended before this to try and give you some reliable 
particulars about our late disastrous defeat. 37 Our forces were 
arranged, commencing on the left of our line, near our lowest 
Fort, Sloan's 38 Regiment, (Major Gilmer's 39 command) Lee, 40 

37 New Bern had just fallen to Federal troops. 

38 John Sloan, of Guilford County, was colonel of the Twenty-seventh North 
Carolina Regiment. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, II, 425-427. 

39 John Adams Gilmer, Jr., (1838-1892), of Greensboro, graduated from the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina in 1858. He volunteered and was eventually promoted to 
lieutenant colonel of the Twenty-seventh North Carolina. A severe wound sustained 
in October, 1863, ended his military career. Gilmer was a successful lawyer, a state 
senator, 1870-1872, and a superior court judge, 1881-1889. Spencer Alumni Project; 
Connor, Manual, 1913, 450, 635. 

40 Charles C. Lee, a graduate of West Point in 1856, resigned his commission as 
second lieutenant and, in 1859, became a professor at Charlotte's North Carolina 

The Papers of William A. Graham 373 

Campbell, Sinclair, 41 Militia, Avery 42 (part) and Vance. With 
the Batteries, Latham's 43 on Campbell's left. Brem 44 on his right. 
From a rough sketch, I hope you may form some idea of our 
position, which I draw from hearsay. I have never seen our breast- 
works, and know very little of the Country. 

I returned from Kinston last night. I saw Willie, who was on 
Vance's left. He had arrived from Trenton where Vance was 
compelled to retreat, the County bridge having been burned 
before he arrived. Our militia broke and fled after a few harmless 
fires, followed by Sinclair's Regiment, which exposed Brem's 
Battery to a flank fire. Campbell twice drove the enemy across 
the Breatsworks. He is said to have behaved very gallantly. We 
would have fought a great deal longer, but neither the militia, 
nor Sinclair's rallied after Campbell's charges. Avery's Regiment 
fought very well, and have suffered very severely. Avery himself 

Military Institute. He was a lieutenant colonel in the Bethel Regiment and later 
commanded the Thirty-seventh North Carolina Regiment. He was killed at Frayser's 
Farm later in the year. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, I, 77-78, II, 
472, 548; Cullum, Biographical Register of the Military Academy, II, 642. 

41 The Reverend James Sinclair, of Robeson County, was a Presbyterian minister 
who served first as chaplain of the Fifth North Carolina Regiment at First Manassas 
where he gained a disputed reputation for bravery and later as colonel of the Thirty- 
fifth North Carolina, a position he allegedly attained by trading votes. His actions 
at New Bern were certainly controversial despite the fact that a court of inquiry 
later dropped charges of "unsoldierly conduct" against him. He was not reelected 
when the Thirty-fifth was reorganized in April, 1862. After the war Sinclair was a 
Republican and represented Robeson County in the state house of representatives in 
1868. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, II, 592-595; Connor, Manual, 

42 Clark Moulton Avery (1819-1864), of Burke County, attended the University of 
North Carolina. He was a captain in the Bethel Regiment who became lieutenant- 
colonel and then colonel of the Thirty- third North Carolina Regiment. A gallant 
officer who always led and fought well, he was wounded and captured at New Bern. 
After several months' imprisonment at Johnson's Island, he returned to his command. 
He died of wounds received at the Wilderness. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina 
Regiments, I, 78, II, 570; Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 601. 

43 Alexander C. Latham, of Craven County, was captain in the Fortieth Regiment 
(Third Artillery) at the Battle of New Bern. In September, 1863, he resigned to re- 
sume the position of Craven County sheriff. Manarin, North Carolina Troops, I, 52, 

44 Thomas H. Brem. 

374 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

is certainly wounded and captured. Hoke 45 and Gaston Lewis 46 
also distinguished themselves. Not much of Vance's Regiment 
was engaged, but behaved well. Major Carmichael 47 is certainly 
killed. No other Field Officers are killed or captured. Brem's 
two pieces, with the militia, are saved. All other artillery lost. 
Latham lost 60 horses, and all his men are missing except 18. 
Brem lost nine killed, and wounded, and 24 horses. Lee's command, 
and Sloan's, were not much engaged, Tjut ordered to retreat after 
our centre was lost. The retreat was not very creditable on the part 
of portions of nearly all the Regiments. I suppose we have lost 
60 or 70 killed, and wounded seriously. Probably 150 captured. 
We lost nearly everything in the way of Camp equipage. I shall 
ever regret that I was compelled to stay here. I do not know how 
to account for General Gatlin's conduct. He was not drunk, or even 
drinking, but was quite sick the day of the fight. I always thought 
that he would be in any fight that took place in our State, or I 
would not have remained on his Staff. As it is, I hardly know what 
course to pursue. I do not think I ought to leave him at present, 
but certainly intend to be in the next fight. He is a man of very 
good judgment, but too indolent entirely for such times as 
these. Gen'l French, 48 of Mississippi, goes down to Kinston today. 

45 Robert Frederick Hoke (1837-1912), of Lincoln County, after attending the 
Kentucky Military Academy, went into the family manufacturing business. Entering 
the Confederate army as a lieutenant in the Bethel Regiment, he became major and 
lieutenant colonel of the Thirty-third Regiment and colonel of the Twenty-first. He 
distinguished himself at New Bern, the Seven Days, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, 
and Fredericksburg. Promoted to brigadier general, he again distinguished himself 
at Chancellorsville and in eastern North Carolina. When his forces captured Ply- 
mouth, he was promoted to major general on the field. He served well at Drewry's 
Bluff, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, and Bentonville. The end of the war marked the 
end of his military service; he rarely mentioned military matters thereafter, preferring 
to devote himself to constructive work in mining and refusing to take any public 
part in politics. C. C. Pearson, "Robert Frederick Hoke," Dictionary of American 
Biography, IX, 126-127; Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 404-405. 

46 William Gaston Lewis (1835-1891), of Wayne County, a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, was promoted from lieutenant to brigadier general in Confed- 
erate service. In April, 1865, he was severely wounded and captured at Farmville, Vir- 
ginia. After the war he was a successful railroad and civil engineer. Boatner, Civil 
War Dictionary, 481-482; Spencer Alumni Project. 

47 Abner B. Carmichael, of Wilkes County, major of the Twenty-sixth North 
Carolina Regiment, was killed at New Bern on March 14, 1862. Moore, Roster of 
Troops, II, 362. 

48 Samuel Gibbs French (1818-1910), of Mississippi, a native of New Jersey, was an 
1843 graduate of West Point. As a young officer of engineers, he served at Fort Macon 

and other Southern posts. After suffering a severe wound in Mexico, French was as- 
signed to quartermaster duty in Washington. He resigned in 1856 and became a 
Mississippi planter. He entered Confederate service as a brigadier general and was 
subsequently promoted to major general He commanded the Department of Southern 
Virginia and North Carolina for a time in 1862. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 315- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 375 

He is said to be a man of bravery, and an old officer. He will have 
a separate Brigade, and outrank Branch. 49 Clingman's and Rad- 
cliffe's 50 are expected to-day. We have three Batteries at Kinston, 
besides two of Brem's pieces, and Lane's 51 Regiment, which did 
not get to the fight in time. 

We have got to fight again, but I do not know what reinforce- 
ments we are to expect. 

From John W. Graham UNC 


March 20th., 1862. 

My Dear Father, 

I arrived at home last night. General Gatlin has been relieved 
from Command of the Department of N.C., on account of ill 
health, so the order says. He has called for an investigation of all 
matters connected with the fall of Newbern, if that is the real 
cause of his removal. He sent General Anderson 52 to Richmond on 
last Saturday, to see the President personally, and urge a large 
increase of the Force in this State, to prevent Burnside from reach- 
ing the Wilmington & Weldon R.R. 

49 Lawrence O'Bryan Branch (1820-1862), of Raleigh, a native of Halifax County, 
attended the university briefly and was graduated from Princeton in 1838. He was an 
editor in Nashville and a lawyer in Tallahassee, fought in the Seminole wars of 1841 
and 1844, and moved to Raleigh where he was a lawyer and president of the Raleigh- 
Gaston Railroad Company, 1852-1855. He was a Democratic congressman, 1855-1861. 
He was successively a Confederate private, state quartermaster-general, colonel of the 
Thirty-third North Carolina Regiment, and Confederate brigadier general. He 
fought at New Bern, through the Seven Days, at Cedar Run, Second Manassas, Har- 
per's Ferry, and was killed at Antietam while commanding the Fourth North 
Carolina Brigade. He had been complimented by Lee prior to his premature death. 
William Whatley Pierson, Jr., "Lawrence O'Bryan Branch," Dictionary of American 
Biography, II, 597-598. 

50 James Dillard Radcliffe (1839-1878), of New Hanover County, had been superin- 
tendent of a Wilmington military academy before the war. He entered Confederate 
service as a major of engineers and became colonel of the Eighteenth North Carolina 
and, after his resignation in 1864, of the Sixty-first Regiment, composed of reserves. 
Clark, Histories of the Regiments, II, 17; III, 503. 

51 James Henry Lane (1833-1907), of Charlotte, a native of Virginia and a graduate 
and professor of the Virginia Military Institute, was a teacher in the North Carolina 
Military Institute when the war began. He was major in the Bethel Regiment, colo- 
nel of the Twenty-eighth North Carolina Regiment, and a brigadier general. Most of 
his service was with the Army of Northern Virginia. Nicknamed "the Little General," 
he taught after the war at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Missouri School of Mines, 
and Auburn Polytechnic Institute. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, 471. 

52 Brigadier General Joseph Reid Anderson. 

376 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

On Monday an order is received relieving him from Command, 
and assigning General Anderson to the Dept. N.C, and General 
French to District of Cape Fear. So I suppose it must be on 
account dissatisfaction with his conduct that he is removed. He 
expressly told General Anderson to say that he would have no 
objection to a General of higher rank being sent, and that he 
would take a Brigade, provided the Force was increased. General 
Anderson arrived in Richmond on Saturday night. On Monday 
evening the order was received, dated Saturday. General Anderson 
is an energetic man, but I think of very little ability, and has seen 
no service, having resigned a short time after leaving West Point. 

General Gatlin is certainly a man of very good sense, but slow, 
and somewhat wanting in energy. I always thought that he com- 
mitted a great mistake in remaining so much of his time at 
Goldsboro', and trying to carry on everything entirely by writing. 
If General Hill had remained, this might have answered. I still 
think he, (Gen'l H.) would have saved Roanoke Island, and 
probably Newbern, though not much could have been accomplish- 
ed while there was so little ability at Richmond. 

The removal of troops from Washington to Suffolk sufficiently 
shows this. It entirely prevented reinforcements being sent to 
Newbern in time. General Gatlin made a written report some time 
before the removal of the troops from Washington, in which 
he stated that, although he believed the Batteries were sufficiently 
strong, yet neither at Newbern or Washington, could a force as 
large as that which captured Roanoke Island be resisted. 

The next thing we hear is peremptory order from the Secr'ty 
of War for the troops at Washington to go to Suffolk. The Gen- 
eral, I do not think, is much of an Engineer. I told him last fall 
that Beverhort Thompson 53 knew very little about Engineering, 
but he said he could not relieve him until he could get another 
officer from Richmond, which he was trying to do, and that he 
had been promised that several officers should be sent. The Con- 
federate Government have repeatedly postponed the payment 
of debts contracted in this State, expecially in Pamlico District, 

53 William Beverhout Thompson (1805-1867), a native of New York, graduated 
from West Point in 1824 and served on topographical duty until he resigned in 1830. 
He was an engineer on various railroad and river improvement projects in Virginia 
and North Carolina, including work on the Cape Fear, Neuse, and Tar rivers. He 
should have been ideally suited to the task he held, that of Confederate major 
charged with the responsibility of preparing North Carolina's coastal defenses. His 
failures made Burnside's successes easier. Cullum, Biographical Register of the 
Military Academy, I, 337; Barrett, Civil War in North Carolina, 34, 96. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 377 

for engineering purposes. Not one cent has been paid from the 
Engineer fund. What has been paid out was from the Q.M.D'p't, 
without order. 

I am now at home, waiting orders, but I would much prefer 
having nothing more to do with the Staff. It looks like a bad pros- 
pect trying to raise a Company, but I am very much inclined to 
make an attempt. I still have a great regard for the General, and do 
not like to leave him, now that he is fallen in misfortune, but still 
I think I would be better satisfied in Command of a Company, 
than on the Staff. I suppose that my appointment would expire, 
if he resigns. I do not like the precarious tenure by which I have 
held my offices, and want to get something that is permanent. At 
least, until the War is over. 

I do not think that there will be an immediate attack upon 
Kinston, but I have great fears for the result, when there shall be. 
We have not near enough troops. 

Please let me hear from you as soon as convenient, and express 
your views fully as what is best to be done. 

From Jonathan Worth UNC 


March 20th., 1862. 

Your late letter, addressed to my brother, asking him to send 
you some salt, and inquiring into his progress, has been read by 
me. My brother 54 was just getting up from a spell of sickness 
when he was elected Salt Com'r. He has not yet regained his 
usual health, and I have been engaged much of the time, and am 
now here as his substitute. 

I will have a small quantity of salt sent to your County agent 
as soon as possible. We have some 300 or 400 bushels, and are 
making 25 bu. per day, and will, next week, be making 50 bu. per 
day. I presume you are calculating on its being sent by R.R. 

54 John Milton Worth (1811-1900), of Montgomery County, a native of Guilford, 
studied medicine at Transylvania College. While he practiced medicine, he also 
engaged in farming, mining, and merchandising. He was a Clay Whig and a Union 
man who served as state senator in 1842, 1844, 1848, 1870, and 1872; salt commissioner, 
1862-1865; and state treasurer, 1877-1885. During 1864-1865, he was a colonel in the 
senior reserves. A Quaker, wise and able, Worth enjoyed wide respect and influence. 
Samuel A. Ashe, "John Milton Worth," Ashe, Biographical History, III, 461-468. 

378 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

The Military have command of the Road, and we can get 
no salt sent by it. Shall we send it to Fayetteville, or wait for the 

If this town be not defended, the enemy must have it very 
soon. If it is defended, the Road can do little or nothing, save 
for the Military, for some time to come. Much of the very inade- 
quate force here, has been taken to Kinston or Goldsboro since 
the fall of Newbern, and at least 10,000 men ought to be placed 
here, with necessary arms and subsistence with all possible 
expedition, if any intelligent defence be intended. The defences 
of this State seem to be conducted by absolute fatuity. 

My brother's policy has been to locate three extensive establish- 
ments on the Coast. One on Currituck Sound, where he proposed 
to have much the most extensive work. Another at Morehead City, 
of large magnitude, and the third and least extensive, here. On 
Currituck, 45 to 60 gals, of water would make a bushel. The water 
was obtained on the banks. He had employed an agent, bought 
brick, lumber, etc., and contracted for boilers in Norfolk, when the 
loss of Roanoke Island defeated his design, with a loss of what had 
been expended. He then made preparations greatly to enlarge the 
work at Morehead City. He had got boilers there, up, and the 
masonry ready to put on the boilers sufficient to make 200 bu. per 
day, with facilities for rapid enlargement, when all was lost, by the 
fall of Newbern. I was at Morehead City at the time of the battle. 
The only point left from which the salt can be got into the interior, 
is this place. I came across the Country here, and am using every 
effort possible to increase the work here to an enormous extent, 
and with all possible despatch. It requires about 300 gals, of the 
water used here to make a bushel of salt. It will cost five times as 
much to make a bu. of salt here, as at Currituck, besides, it has to 
be transported here, some miles over a bad road. It is 8 miles from 
here. The undertaking to produce the requisite amount here, in 
the face of the difficulties of getting the boilers here, the extreme 
difficulties of obtaining labor, the vast number of brick required, 
and the thousand other difficulties growing out of the dis- 
jointed condition of business is frightful. I am doing my best to 
overcome these difficulties, in the face of a strong probability 
that it will be futile, through the inefficient defence of the place. 

It is idle to expect the people to keep up a guerrilla, or any 
other sort of war without salt. They can't be supplied, if this 
place fall. I see no signs of any effort to defend it. If we cannot get 
salt, if the R.R. falls into the hands of the enemy, if the 
factories and Rail Roads cannot be run for the want of the pea- 
nut oil, nowhere made save here; and the arsenal at Fayetteville 

The Papers of William A. Graham 379 

be taken, which will necessarily follow the fall of Wilmington, it 
is not difficult to see the end. 

I think my brother will resign on account of ill health. 

We have not deemed it prudent to vindicate my brother from 
the unjust imputation of inactivity, because the effect would be to 
advise the enemy of our condition. 

[P.S.] T.C. & B.G. Worth 55 are making good salt here. They are 
selling at $4. per bu. Had you not better order salt from them, 
to be sent to Fayetteville? 

It will require 300 or 400 hands here to make the salt which 
ought to be made. Slaves can't be had. The owners will not hire 
them on the Coast, in sight of the blockading squadron. There 
is but one chance to get them. If the Gov'r will release enough 
of the drafted militia, on condition of their coming here and 
making salt, or hiring a substitute to do the labor, the hands 
can be had. Genuine Quakers ought not be required to bear arms. 
They regard it as a violation of the precepts of Christ. They regard 
the employment of a substitute to fight for them as equally crim- 
inal. I have written to the Gov'r to authorise the exemption from 
military service to any Quaker who will furnish an efficient hand 
at the salt works. This would be an act of beneficence to them — 
would supply this necessary labor & would not weaken the military 
arm. I have had no answer. 

You may use this letter in any way you please. I have made it 
as full as time would allow, thinking the statements might be 
useful to you as a member of the Convention. 

From Rufus Lenoir Patterson 56 UNC 


North Carolina, 

March 25th., 1862. 

The convention will meet again in April, and I presume will 
select a Governor to fill the unexpired term of Gov. Ellis. The 

55 Thomas Clarkson Worth (1818-1862), a native of Guilford, was a successful Wil- 
mington business man. He died in 1862- His business partner was Barzillai Gardner 
Worth (1822-1916). They engaged in a commission business and in shipping, being 
part-owners and agents for several ships. During the Civil War, B. G. Worth devel- 
oped a peanut oil product used to lubricate cotton mill machinery. He was a lead- 
ing citizen of Wilmington for fifty years. C.H. Robinson, "Barzillai Gardner Worth," 
Ashe, Biographical History, III, 466-472. 

56 Rufus Lenoir Patterson (1830-1879), of Salem, a native of Caldwell and the 
eldest son of Samuel F. Patterson, graduated from the University of North Carolina 

380 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

State of N.C. is environed with many dangers, and the future is 
dark, promising nothing. We need at the head of affairs, the 
ablest and wisest man the State can produce — one whom the 
people thoroughly know, and thoroughly confide in, and whose 
management of public affairs will bring order out of chaos, and 
restore unity and good feeling within our borders. 

The man to do this is yourself. No other man can fitly govern 
N.C. now. You alone, can inspire the people with hope, and give 
courage to a despondent nation. Do not suppose I attempt to 
flatter. I would not dare to do so, it is no time for compliments. 
I deeply feel all that I say, the Father has taught the son to rever- 
ence the name of Graham. 

We are anxious in this section, to give voice to our feeling in 
regard to your election, and my object in writing is to ask whether 
we may use your name in a public meeting in connection with the 
Gubernatorial Chair. I think many counties in this section will 
respond to any action we may take. It is only necessary to give the 
subject a start. So far as I know, all political parties here will be 
only too happy should the choice fall upon you. Certainly an end 
so desirable cannot be prevented if you will only permit the use of 
your name. 

From George Washington Michal 57 UNC 

Rutherford ton, N.C. 
March 30th., 1862. 

This will be handed you by Dr. J.W. Harriss 58 of this place, 
son of Washington Harriss of Chimney Rock, whom you may 

in 1851, read law, then turned instead to manufacturing. He was a member of the 
conventions of 1861 (where he hoped vainly to avoid war) and 1865. After the war, 
Patterson was an independent Republican. McCormick, Convention Personnel, 66; 
Spencer Alumni Project; Hamilton, Reconstruction in North Carolina, 584n. 

57 George Washington Michal (1825-1892), of Marion, graduated in 1846 from the 
University of Pennsylvania in medicine. In 1861 he became surgeon of the Sixteenth 
North Carolina Regiment but resigned to replace Jason H. Carson in the Convention 
of 1861, appearing first on January 21, 1862. He practiced in Newton following the 
war. A conservative in politics, Michal deplored secession even when it became a 
last resort. McCormick, Convention Personnel, 62-63. 

58 Dr. John Washington Harriss, a Rutherfordton physician, graduated from Da- 
vidson College in 1850. There is no record of his having attained the desired appoint- 
ment. Lingle, Davidson Alumni, 57. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 381 

Dr. Harriss wishes the position of Surgeon of a regiment, and 
in order to secure it, letters from influential men to the appoint- 
ing power. He is a very worthy man — being perfectly sober, prompt, 
industrious, and full of energy, and has the confidence of the 
people of the County as a physician, which is proved by the fact 
that he has, for three years or more, done the leading practice 
in the County. 

We have too many men in the Medical Department of our 
Army who had nothing to do at home, and sought appointments 
from no higher considerations than those of a pecuniary character; 
and I do not doubt but our troops would be much better provided 
for if they were in the hands of men who, like Dr. Harriss, have 
won and maintained the confidence of the communities in which 
they have lived. 

From Daniel G. Fowle 59 UNC 


April 9th., 1862. 

It is considered by many of our friends very necessary that 
some move should be made at once, having in view the nomina- 
tion of a candidate for Governor. Time is of great importance to us, 
and it has been suggested that a conference between yourself and 
Messrs. Badger, Holden, John Pool, (who will be here for a few 
days) Moore, Phillips, 60 & others, might conduce very materially 

59 Daniel Gould Fowle (1831-1891), of Raleigh, a native of Beaufort County, at- 
tended the Bingham School and graduated from Princeton in 1851. After studying 
law with Richmond M. Pearson, he became associated with Hamilton C. Jones in a 
Raleigh practice. Fowle was a Clay Whig in politics who supported the Bell-Everett 
ticket and opposed secession. Accepting the inevitable, he joined the "Raleigh Rifles" 
as a private but was soon appointed a major in the commissary department. In Au- 
gust, 1861, he resigned and was instrumental in raising the Thirty-first North Caro- 
lina Regiment which he served as lieutenant colonel. He was captured at Roanoke 
Island. After his parole Fowle was elected to the Commons but served briefly as 
major general and adjutant general of North Carolina troops, resigning this position 
over a question of authority. Because of his increasing concern about the encroach- 
ment of Confederate authority upon the state, Fowle joined Pearson and others in 
opposition to it. He was judge of superior court, 1865-1867, and governor, 1888-1891. 
He opposed congressional reconstruction and advocated white supremacy. Fowle 
has been characterized as an excellent orator and responsible public servant. Samuel 
A. Ashe, "Daniel G. Fowle," Van Noppen Papers. 

60 Samuel F. Phillips 

382 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

to our success. I have therefore, been requested to write and ask 
you to come to Raleigh at once, if you can make it convenient 
to do so. Mr. Moore requests me to say that he regards your coming 
as of great importance. 

We feel most deeply that our future position depends, in a 
great degree, upon our present action. 

From Joseph Graham to Susan Washington Graham UNC 


April 15th., 1862. 

Ten of Uncle John's 61 negro shoemakers ran away on Sunday 
morning. But one of them, so far as I can ascertain, has yet been 
arrested. He was taken up by one of our Pickets down the river, 
supposed to be making his way to New Bern. They are valued at 
($15,000.) Fifteen Thousand Dollars. I hope the others may be 
taken before they reach the Federal lines. There are said to be 
several thousand negroes in New Bern now. The Yankees have 
them at work on the fortifications around the Town. We suppose, 
from accounts, that they are putting up very strong breastworks 
against us. 

The picture of the War looks very dubious just now, a few 
reverses upon either side, it would seem, would turn the fortune. 
Our whole strength must be put forth for the next three months. 
I think the Summer Campaign must certainly direct the tide of 
our affairs. 

Willie and Jimmie are in the other Brigade, stationed about 
five miles below this place. I never see them, as it is very hard 
to get a pass to go that far. But I hear from them, and they were 
both well a few days since, in fact I saw Col. Sloan yesterday. 

Rumor yesterday said Col. Robinson 62 and Captain Turner 

61 John Cobb Washington (1801-1889), of Kinston, brother of Susan Washington 
Graham. Clark, "Graham Descendants." 

62 William G. Robinson, an 1858 graduate of West Point, was lieutenant colonel 
of the Nineteenth North Carolina Regiment. After being wounded and captured in 
an Onslow County action April, 1862, he never returned to the regiment. Robinson 
was briefly a government civil engineer following the war but, lamentably, was in 
the Eastern Kentucky Asylum in 1876. Cullum, Biographical Register of the Military 
Academy, II, 713; Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, II, 79, 82. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 383 

were killed by the enemy the night before, but I hear it is a mistake 
entirely, concerning Turner, but that Robinson was captured. 
Gen'l Gatlin is visiting among his friends about here. What do 
you think of Bettie's young soldier? I am very anxious indeed, to 
see him, but it will be many a week before I am able to get up to 
Hillsboro'. And babies are a great trouble to travel with in a 
crowded car. Captain Brem starts to Richmond tonight to try 
and complete our Battery. 

To Rufus Lenoir Patterson UNC-Patterson 


April 17th., 1862. 

I am greatly obliged to you for your letter of the 25th. ult., 
which arrived here during my absence at my plantation on the 
Catawba, which circumstance, with a few days of delay since my 
return, which I pray may be pardoned, has occasioned the lateness 
of this acknowledgement. I thank you very cordially for the 
sentiments of friendship and esteem you have been pleased to 
express, the more especially as they are accompanied with the 
declaration that they are, in some degree, derived from your 
honored father, than whom few men possess a greater share of my 

In reply to the kind request you make, I beg to say, that I 
cannot consent to become a candidate for the office of Governor 
of the State. All my sons who are of sufficient age are now in the 
military service, save one, and he is impatient to be there also, 
and my business is of such a nature, as well as the situation of my 
family, as not to admit of my acceptance, though the office 
should be tendered. I shall take an early occasion after the 
meeting of the convention to make this known to my friends in 
that body, and it but corresponds with what I have said 
already, to such of them as happened to mention the subject to 
me in conversation. 

I do not think the convention will, or should, itself elect a 
Governor, but provide that the person elected by the people in 
August shall go into office, say twenty days after the election. I 
have not time to enlarge, but remain, 

With true regard. 

384 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

To Susan Washington Graham A&H 


April 24th, 1862. 

There was quite an arrival of members of Congress, and other 
public characters, by the cars yesterday, from Richmond, including 
Gov. Foote 63 who is stopping here today. Some of our own mem- 
bers who came on the day before, and stayed yesterday have gloomy 
apprehensions as to the Military operations in Virginia. Foote 
seems more hopeful. 

Tell Robert to have Abram ready with the wagon, to start on 
Monday to Chatham for the salt. I believe it will be best to take 
the large wagon, three mules and Dudley. The wagon 8c gears 
should be examined and repaired before setting out. 

No further war news. 

[P.S.] Col. Sloan 64 was here on Monday; says he had orders 
last week not to discharge any of his Regiment till further orders, 
and soon after heard of the conscription law impressing them 
into service for two years more. 

63 Henry Stuart Foote (1804-1880), of Mississippi, was a native Virginian who grad- 
uated from Washington College (now Washington and Lee) in 1819. In 1823 he 
moved to Mississippi where he gained the reputation of being the best criminal law- 
yer in the state. He was elected to the United States Senate in 1847 where he ardently 
favored all the compromise measures passed in 1850. In 1851 Foote defeatedjefferson 
Davis in the Mississippi gubernatorial contest. His administration was characterized 
by a struggle between the state rights and union factions in the state, with Davis 
and himself as chief protagonists. At the expiration of his term as governor Foote 
went to California but settled in Tennessee where he opposed secession. As a member 
of the Confederate congress he consistently criticized the Davis administration. Foote 
resigned in disgust when Davis refused peace proposals. He entered Union territory 
but received a cool reception from the Lincoln government. He eventually went to 
Europe. The author of several books including The War of Rebellion (1866) which 
contested the idea that the war was irrepressible, Foote might be called the Vallan- 
digham of the South. Charles S. Sydnor, "Henry Stuart Foote," Dictionary of Amer- 
ican Biography, VI, 500-501. 

64 John Sloan, colonel of the Twenty-seventh North Carolina Regiment. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 385 

Speech in Convention^ 

April 30th., 1862. 

Mr. Graham said, he had not intended to say a word in this 
discussion, but assaults had been made upon this body which 
required notice from some one, lest it should suffer injustice in 
public estimation. The public bodies of this country had always 
been subject to very free criticism. Those who were without, 
very frequently charged that their proceedings were liable to very 
great objection, and desired it to be inferred that if the objectors 
had constituted the assembly under review, better things might 
have been expected. But it was rather unusual for the members 
of such an assemblage, themselves, to become its assailants. The 
gentleman from Hertford, (Mr. Rayner), accuses this Convention 
of incompetency for the duty of revising the Constitution. The 
gentleman from Rowan, (Mr. Jones), 66 asserts that it has fallen into 
disfavor with the people, and therefore they both concur in its 
adjournment or dissolution. I, said Mr. Graham, am quite 
indifferent as to the time of adjournment, though I think much 
business requires attention before we do adjourn, and that far 
more anxiety seems to prevail for adjournment, than as to the 
condition in which the Constitution and the public interests will 
be left by reason of an adjournment, without giving to them proper 
consideration. While these sweeping accusations are made against 
this assembly in general, and which without explanation must 
apply equally to us all, gentlemen are very careful to exempt 
themselves, and are prepared with an excuse to their constituents 
that they could not control the action of a majority. Now, Sir, I 
deny that this Convention is incompetent to revise and re-write 
the Constitution, or to transact any other business requiring its 
deliberations in the trying circumstances which surround us. 
The proof of this allegation seems to be found in the refusal of the 
Convention to adopt certain rules of order proposed by the gentle- 
man from Hertford. Sir, his proposition was adopted in part, and 
that part tends to accelerate business, but as to the remainder of 
it, a majority differed from the mover, and rejected it. Acknowl- 
edging the gentleman's intelligence and usefulness, it may be 
sufficient to dismiss this charge, with the remark of Dr. Johnson, 
that he who accuses all mankind convicts himself. The Convention 
contains as much of patriotism and capacity as will probably be 

65 From Hillsborough Recorder, May 14th., 1862. 

66 Hamilton C. Jones, Sr. 

386 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

found in any similar assemblage. If it cannot perform the task 
required, it will hardly be executed by any other. That there may 
have been at some times useless debate, or not a sufficient regard 
for economy of time, is no doubt true. This, however, is incident 
to all free assemblies. 

But the gentleman from Rowan makes a graver charge. He 
asserts that the Convention has lost the confidence of the people. 
How is this ascertained? The people have elected no man their 
prophet, to proclaim their voice. Each one of us can speak for his 
own constituency, and I presume for no other. I have derived 
no such information from mine. Sensible of the magnitude of their 
affairs in this time of trial, they bestowed a generous confidence, 
and expected the exercise of considerable discretionary powers. 
In that, I must presume, they do not differ from the generality 
of their fellow citizens; and I cannot believe that any portion of the 
people have so poor an opinion of their representatitives as to 
suppose they linger here to gratify their vanity for public debate, 
or for the sake of the compensation allowed to meet their expenses. 

Mr. President, that a persistent effort has been made to bring 
this Convention into disrepute with the people, is perfectly 
manifest, whether it has been a successful effort, is quite another 
question. From the moment that this body determined to equal- 
ize taxation upon slaves as upon other property, so as to expose all 
the resources of the State to levies, to meet our great and increasing 
expenditures, and signified its disposition to revise the Constitu- 
tion, this effort commenced. Presses and politicians had arrayed 
themselves against this great measure of reform, and their consis- 
tency, a matter of far greater importance than the public welfare, 
required their opposition to be persisted in. Hence, the outcry 
that the Convention was exceeding its powers, and ought to be 
dissolved; that it was elected simply to dissolve the Union and form 
a new one, a task so easy of performance that it could be finished 
in the brief space of one or two days, as if a great Revolution in- 
volving State existence, would carry itself on, and required no 
provisions of finance, and no inquiry into the measures of attack 
or defense in the war which was then raging. The Convention 
found a large army in the course of being levied on State account 
only — a measure proper and necessary before the accession of this 
State to the Southern Confederacy; but after the adoption of the 
Confederate Government, by which the war-making power was 
surrendered to that government, together with the power to raise 
means and pay all the expenses incurred in its prosecution, it 
became unnecessary to retain this army on our hands and provision 

The Papers of William A. Graham 387 

was made for its transfer to the Confederate authority, to be 
supported out of its Treasury. The Convention deemed it quite 
a work of supererogation, that the State, after paying her share of 
the Federal revenues to support the war establishment at Rich- 
mond for the defence of the whole country, should be burthened 
with a like establishment at Raleigh, for her own defence, and 
passed its ordinance accordingly. This was made another cause of 
complaint, and the General Assembly at its next session was 
induced to reverse this policy as far as practicable. The result has 
been, the contraction of a large debt, for the payment, equipment 
and supplies of troops by the State, which properly belongs to the 
General government. I have made some inquiry into this subject, 
and I have not heard of a single other State which has pursued a 
similar policy, or contracted an equal amount of debt on account 
of the war. In them, a disbursing officer of the General government 
has been at hand to defray expenses, and make payments as they 
have fallen due. Yet, one of the chief offences of this body was, that 
it required the general system to be adopted here. 

The Convention also required information of the Executive 
in relation to the public defences, and was met by the answer, 
no doubt sincerely made, as a matter of opinion, that all was 
safe. But, alas! how delusive and mortifying was this assurance, 
when put to the test. It ventured to propose and to urge measures 
of defence which did not meet Executive approbation. All 
of these, and other like causes have arrayed against it a political 
opposition which has endeavored to disparage it in the public 
esteem, I believe, without success — I am sure, without justice. 
No dereliction is imputed to it, in measures necessary for the 
prosecution of the war; but no credit is allowed to it for four or 
five millions of appropriations in aid of those provided by the 
Legislature — none for levies of men without stint whenever called 
for, for carrying it on; but a general prejudice is sought to be 
engendered by vague charges of exceeding its authority and 
prolonging its powers. 

Sir, let us do nothing to give countenance to this unreasoning 
prejudice. You can, in my belief, transact all the business before 
you, including constitutional revision, and adjourn in twelve or 
fifteen days. And, let me here observe, that some constitutional 
amendment is indispensable, notwithstanding the frequent propo- 
sitions that that shall be ignored — otherwise, no Senate can be 
elected in the coming August; none but a citizen of the United 
States being entitled to vote in that election, as the Constitution 
now stands. But, if you propose to adjourn within a less time than 

388 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

I have indicated, I shall acquiesce, but do not assign reasons for it 
that minister to prejudice and injustice. 

From Josiah Turner, Jr. UNC 


April, [1862.] 

I am not able to write, but I employ the pen of another to say 
you owe it to your country, yourself, and your four sons in the 
Army, that you will not suffer the choice of your countrymen to 
fall upon such little men as Clarke 67 and Johnston. 68 In the 
present important crisis, I give it as my opinion, you have only 
to consent to be a candidate for Governor, for you to be elected 
by a larger majority than was ever given to any candidate. 69 

I hope you will consider it well. It is time the matter was 
before the people. 

I have no doubt our men suffer in public esteem because of 
Robinson's 70 folly. No officer was consulted. I ventured to give 
my opinion, unasked for, upon the easy victory we would have 
if we went dismounted. I sugested [sic] also the difficulty of going 
mounted; But I am leaving the subject matter of my letter. 
Governors have nowadays, almost as much power as Presidents, 
and it is a curse to any country to have such as afflict us. 

Believing that you will consider and do what is best for the 
country, I remain. 

From William A. Graham, Jr. DUKE 

to Susan Washington Graham 

Camp near Kinston 
May 2, 1862 

As I have orders to go on picket in the morning, I will drop 
you a few lines to night [sic] . Branch's Brigade has been ordered 

67 Henry Toole Clark 

68 William Johnston 

69 At this time several newspapers including the Raleigh Standard, Henderson 
Times, and Hillsborough Recorder were advocating Graham's election as governor. 

70 Turner was blaming the Confederate losses in the recent skirmish at Gillett's 
farm (Onslow County) on Lieutenant Colonel William G. Robinson who was 
wounded and captured. Barrett, Civil War in North Carolina, 124-125. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 389 

to Virginia. I went into [sic] see Brother Joe today. He does not 
know when he will leave. The infantry left to day [sic]. Branch 
goes tomorrow. It is reported Ransom is to go to the Mississippi 
Valley to a command there. This is good news to us. I don't 
know who will succeed him unless probably Vance. 

All the new troops about Raleigh are to come down here. I 
expect in about 3 or 4 weeks one half of our drilled men being 
supplanted by new recruits. Mr. Burnside will have us travelling 
to Goldsboro'. Our pickets & scouts have almost daily skirmishes 
with the enemy and batches of three or four Yankee prisoners 
are no curiosity to us now. I shall not attack unless certain almost 
of success and shall not refuse battle unless the numbers be 2 to 1. 

Seventeen paroled prisoners from the New Berne fight passed 
our camp this evening on their way home. How is Dr. Bill 
Strudwick's 71 war fever now after the gallant defence of Ft. Macon? 
I see the State Journal mentions me among those who stood up 
at Gillits. What is Robert going to do. 

Proceedings of a Wake County Meeting 72 

May 4, 1862 

Governor Graham 

A public meeting was held in the county of Wake on the 
4th. inst., at which the following resolution was passed: 

"Resolved, That people of the State will be called upon to vote 
for Governor in August next, we hereby express our preference 
for William A. Graham, of Orange, for that office in the 
present crisis. That we regard Mr. Graham as eminently qualified 
in every respect for the office, and trust that he will consent to 
the use of his name. We think that party feeling should have no 
influence at a time like this, but the best man should be called 
to office, without regard to party." 

The above resolution expresses the almost unanimous wishes 
of the people in this part of the State, so far as we have been able 

71 Dr. William Strudwick, of Orange County, was commissioned a Confederate sur- 
geon at Fort Macon in June, 1861. Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, 
IV, 629. 

72 From the Hillsborough Recorder, May 14, 1862, quoting the Greensborough 

390 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

to gather public opinion. And although occasionally we can 
discover an exhibition of a little of the all party prejudices that 
have not been entirely buried, we rejoice to believe that there is 
a general disposition among men of old former parties, to lay aside 
past differences, and in the present crisis to select the best men to 
fill the important offices. 

A number of highly respectable gentlemen have been suggested 
through the papers, as suitable persons to fill the office of Gover- 
nor; but none, so far as we have been able to discover, appears 
to strike the public mind so favorably as W. A. Graham. His 
exalted talents, long experience, his high moral worth, stern 
integrity, and undoubted patriotism, all combine in designating 
him as the man for the present emergency. We do not believe 
that there is an intelligent man in the State who has not full 
confidence in the integrity and patriotism of Gov. Graham. And 
if he will consent to the use of his name for that purpose, 
the people in this section will feel that they are promoting the best 
interests of the State by electing him Governor of North Carolina. 

To Susan Washington Graham A&H 


May 9th, 1862. 

I am rejoiced to inform you, that by the arrival of a passenger 
yesterday evening, we received information, that William and his 
party had eluded the enemy, and were out of danger. Lieut. 
Moore, 73 who had been with him, had returned to Camp, and said 
they had all escaped, tho' Wm. and the main body of their force, 
were still out on picket duty. I regret that I could not send you 
this intelligence yesterday evening. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bryan 74 came to town yesterday evening — I took 
Tea with them at Miss White's, in company with Gov. Swain, & 
Mr. & Mrs. Oldham 75 (Senator from Texas, in Congress) who have 

73 E. P. Moore, second lieutenant, Company A, Nineteenth North Carolina Regi- 
ment who was from Macon County. Moore, Roster of Troops, II, 1 14. 

74 Possibly the John H. Bryans but more probably the James W. Bryans of New 

75 William Simpson Oldham (1813-1868) was born to a poor Tennessee farm family. 
Studying by firelight, he became a self-educated lawyer who moved to Arkansas. 
There he was a state legislator and judge of the supreme court. Defeated for both 
houses of Congress, Oldham moved to Texas in 1849 where he became a lawyer, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 391 

been here for two or three weeks. Mrs. Oldham was a Miss Harper 
of Greene Co. and a connextion of the Whites and Heritages, etc. 

I hope to be at home tomorrow evening. I do not wish Rob't 
to enlist untill I come. 

I am informed that Mrs. President Davis has telegraphed to 
Yarbo rough's for rooms, and is expected here tonight. 

The news from Va. you will see in the papers is bad. 

Letter Declining to be Considered for Governor™ 

May 9th., 1862. 

My name having been mentioned in several of the newspapers 
of the State, 77 in the number of those from whom a Governor 
shall be chosen at the ensuing election, and recommended by a 
public meeting recently held in the county of Wake, I esteem it 
proper publicly to announce, that I must decline to be considered 
a candidate for that office. The reasons for this conclusion, arising 
out of the situation of my family, and private affairs, have been 
freely assigned to all with whom I have communicated in conver- 
sation, or by correspondence, and need not be repeated. I offer 
my unfeigned thanks to those kind friends, and the conductors 
of public journals, who have been pleased to render me this 
assurance of their confidence, and my cordial co-operation in 
whatever may tend to the safety, independence, and good 
government of the country. 

Wm. A. Graham 

journalist, and leading Democratic politician. He was secessionist member of the 
Texas convention of 1861, a member of the Confederate provisional congress, and 
later, a senator. A dedicated state rights advocate, he opposed Davis's policies of con- 
scription, suspension of habeas corpus, and enlistment of slaves. After a brief sojourn 
in Mexico and Canada, Oldham returned to Texas where he died an unreconstructed 
state rights man. Alma Dexta King, "William Simpson Oldham,'' Dictionary of 
American Biography , XIV, 12-13. 

76 From the Hillsborough Recorder, May 21, 1862. It was also published in many 
other papers. 

77 The Standard, April 9, 1862, paid a glowing tribute to Graham as its candidate 
for governor. The Raleigh Register, May 21, 1862, now under different control from 
the days when it paid constant tribute to him, said when this letter was published 
that he had "manifested his usual prudence . . . inasmuch as at sunset of the first 
Thursday in August, he would have been the worst beaten man that ever ran in this 
State for the office of Governor. Besides other causes which would have insured his 
defeat, the endorsement of him by the Editor of the Standard would have crushed 
him with the weight of a millstone." It was clear that the writer, John W. Syme, 
had not come to know North Carolina. 

392 N.C. Department of Archives and History 

From William W. Holden UNC 


May 13th., 1862. 

I have still on hand a considerable number of your speeches, 
which I expect to distribute among the people. Please accept the 
bundle sent, and thus aid in giving circulation to a document 
which cannot fail to be productive of good. 

From Thomas P. Devereux 78 UNC 

Conaconara, 79 
May 21st., 1862. 

I have seen with much regret your recent announcement declin- 
ing to permit your name to be before the public, during the ensu- 
ing canvass. You must permit me, as an old, and I may add, a firm 
friend, to say, that while I admit it to be a great and even grievous 
sacrifice, I am almost sure that it is a duty, in our situation, & in 
your relation to the North Carolina public, to make it. I am very 
strongly impressed with the belief that your name will be so hailed 
as to break down all opposition — a nomination in opposition, will 
hardly be made. I pray you to think of the matter, and, if possible, 
remove your decision, 8c I pray also, you will attribute this letter to 
the right motive. 

Very Respectfully &c 
Very sincerely yours. 

From John A. Gilmer A&H 

Greensboro, N.C, 
June 5th, 1862. 

Permit me to suggest the propriety of having the Hillsboro' 

78 Thomas Pollock Devereux was a lawyer and large slaveholder who divided his 
time between Raleigh and his Halifax County plantation. He was interested in 
public affairs and was Graham's friend and supporter. Guion Griffis Johnson, 
Ante-Bellum North Carolina, A Social History (Chapel Hill: University of North 
Carolina Press, 1937), 85, hereinafter cited as Johnson, Ante-Bellum North Carolina. 

79 Conaconara was the Devereux home, a large plantation located in east-central 
Halifax County. Powell, North Carolina Gazetteer, 117. 

The Papers of William A. Gr